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VOLUME 36, NUMBER 1 


JANUARY 7, 1991 



VDT workers 
win measure 
of protection 


Emergency room woes symptom of bigger health care crisis 


By Colleen M. O’Neill 

F or many Americans, a minor illness 
means a trip to the doctor for an 
examination and possibly a prescrip- 
tion. 

But for those without adequate health 
care coverage, minor illnesses often 
mean an expensive trip to the emer- 
gency room, to a waiting room clogged 
with non-emergency patients. 

Their numbers increased dramatically 
in the 1980s, as more people fell 
through the safety net and were left 


without basic coverage, officials say. 

“In 1980, few believed that our 
patchwork quilt of health care programs 
for the poor, elderly and uninsured 
would fray so quickly, or that millions 
of additional patients would come to 
utilize emergency departments as their 
sole source of medical care,” said Dr. 
Arthur Keller mann, director of the 
emergency department at the Regional 
Medical Center at Memphis, Tenn. 

Kellermann, who testified before the 
House Select Committee on Narcotics 


Abuse and Control in late September, 
also pointed out that “better access to 
primary and preventive care services 
can prevent many illnesses from reach- 
ing the point where expensive emer- 
gency department care or hospitaliza- 
tion is necessary.” 

At the AFL-CIO health care hearing 
in Rhode Island in September, Service 
Employees member Louis Calderon il- 
lustrated Kellermann ’s point with 
powerful proof. 

“Since I have no health insurance for 


my children, I recently had to pay a 
$500 hospital bill,” he said. “I had to 
take Ishmael to the emergency room to 
treat an ear infection. I cannot afford 
to bring my children to the doctor, so 
they never receive their regular check- 
ups.” 

Calderon is a nurse’s aide; he told the 
panel he could not afford to pay for 
rent, groceries, utilities, child care and 
health care benefits on his salary. 

Also at the Rhode Island hearing, Bill 
Continued on Page 7 


Tom Matthews/TWU 

Volunteers from the Transport Workers and other unions day. The TWU donated the money to buy the competing 
shadow New York Daily News hawkers in the subways, papers to support members of the nine unions conti- 
passing out free copies of the Times, Post and News- nuing to strike the Daily News. 

Mediated Daily News talks go slowly 


By James B. Parks 

I ndividual striking unions began 
meeting with federal mediators and 
the New York Daily News manage- 
ment, but with little progress. 

The Machinists and the Newspaper 
Guild, in separate discussions with Dai- 
ly News management last week, focused 
mainly on the issue of replacement 
workers, said George McDonald, presi- 
dent of the Allied Printing Trades 
Council, which represents the nine 
striking unions. 

All the unions are expected to meet 
with the mediator and the News within 
the month of January. 


About 2,300 News employees from 
nine unions went out on strike Oct. 25 
after working six months without a 
contract. 

Both sides met separately last month 
in Washington with Bernard E. DeLury, 
director of the Federal Mediation and 
Conciliation Service. 

Union plan spurned 

The talks were stymied when News 
management rejected a long-standing 
proposal by the unions to negotiate with 
all the unions as a group. 

DeLury said he then proposed that the 
unions meet individually with the News 


under the auspices of the FMCS. Rep- 
resentatives of the AFL-CIO sat in on 
the negotiating sessions along with at- 
torney Theodore Kheel and presidents 
of the other striking unions, McDonald 
said. 

DeLury said he is “holding in 
reserve” the possibility of calling the 
parties back to Washington. But that 
decision will depend on the results of 
the current negotiations. 

Calling the meetings “encouraging,” 
DeLury said he will wait to see if there 
is any progress with any of the unions 
on the controversial “management 
Continued on Page 2 


San Francisco law 
sets tough standards 

By Arlee C. Green 

A two-year grass-roots campaign by 
the labor-led VDT Coalition helped 
win landmark legislation that sets mini- 
mum safety standards covering an esti- 
mated 60,000 computer workers in the 
city and county of San Francisco. 

The Video Display Terminal Worker 
Safety Ordinance, signed by Mayor Art 
Agnos Dec. 27, is designed to reduce 
the risks associated with prolonged 
computer use — including eye strain, 
muscle fatigue and carpal tunnel syn- 
drome, an injury that can incapacitate 
the hand and often requires surgery. 

The ordinance covers businesses with 
15 or more employees and requires 
user-adjustable workstations for em- 
ployees who work four or more hours 
per shift on computers. 

Stress injuries 

Service Employees Vice President 
Paul Varacalli, executive director of 
SEIU Local 790 and spokesman for the 
VDT Coalition, said, “This legislation 
is the result of the work of a coalition 
of unions that recognize that repetitive 
stress injuries are the latest in a long line 
of occupational hazards that demand 
solutions.” 

The legislation ‘ ‘gives us a base to ex- 
tend worksite safety to the millions of 
workers nationwide who face crippling 
injuries from repetitive motion at key- 
boards,” he said. “We are proud that 
San Francisco labor is again leading the 
way in fighting for workers’ rights.” 
The ordinance is similar to a VDT 
law adopted in 1989 in Suffolk Coun- 
ty, N.Y., which a state court later 
struck down. 

The landmark ordinance requires ad- 
justable chairs, detachable keyboards, 
adjustable terminal displays, elimina- 

ftontinued on Page 8 






Court backs ALPA on Eastern recall 


By Candice Johnson 

E astern Airlines has agreed to abide 
by a federal appeals court ruling that 
striking Air Line Pilots who offered to 
return to work should be hired in place 
of the trainees the carrier kept on the 
payroll. 

The airline will recall about 60 ALPA 
members, the first group to be re- 
instated since November 1989, when 
140 pilots were recalled. The court rul- 
ing means that as many as 800 union 
pilots could be reinstated, ALPA said, 
depending upon how many trainees 
were on the job when ALPA members 
offered to return to work. 

More than 1,000 union pilots are 
waiting for reinstatement, ALPA said. 
Although agreeing to the limited pilot 
recall, Eastern said it would appeal the 
case to the full appeals court. 

The ruling by three of the appeals 
court’s 1 1 active judges upheld a lower 
court finding that Eastern violated the 
Railway Labor Act, which governs col- 
lective bargaining and labor- 
management relations in the airline in- 
dustry, by giving job preference to 
trainees over experienced pilots. 

ALPA members and Transport Work- 
ers flight attendants joined the Machin- 
ists strike against Eastern in March 
1989, prompting then-owner Frank 
Lorenzo to file for federal bankruptcy 
protection and to attempt to rebuild the 
carrier by hiring and training new 
pilots. 


When Eastern pilots voted to end 
their strike and return to work later that 
year, they were told that the replace- 
ment pilots, though still in training, 
were permanent employees and that no 
ALPA members would be rehired, 
though their names would be added to 
a recall list. 

ALPA filed suit in federal district 
court, charging that the pilots-in- 
training, who had not completed Fed- 
eral Aviation Administration require- 

The court held East- 
ern’s action undermined 
“ the preservation of the 
employer-employee rela- 
tionship both during and 
after the strike. ” 


ments or other certification, could not 
be considered permanent employees. 

In August 1990, U.S. District Court 
Judge Edward Davis agreed, calling it 
“presumptuous and premature” for the 
carrier to extend full replacement status 
to trainees who are not performing the 
work of striking pilots and who are not 
yet fully covered under the Railway 
Labor Act. 

In a 2-1 decision, the U.S. Court of 
Appeals for the 1 1th Circuit upheld that 
ruling, adding that Eastern’s action 


undermined a central goal of the act: 
“the preservation of the employer- 
employee relationship both during and 
after the strike.” 

The court acknowledged that the 
replacement of strikers is permitted 
under certain circumstances, but found 
no justification for Eastern to replace 
with trainees those strikers who were 
seeking to return to work. 

Eastern argued that because striking 
pilots also must receive training before 
they are able to resume their duties, 
they could be considered trainees. But 
the court noted that pilots could be 
recertified in a few days, while trainees 
needed four months to qualify for those 
jobs. 

The case has been sent back to the 
district court to determine the specific 
number of trainees on the payroll as of 
August 1989, when Eastern announced 
it would not rehire any returning pilots 
but would put their names on a recall 
list. 

ALPA spokesman E.J. Breen pointed 
out that the recall won’t allow the 
reinstated pilots — some of the most 
senior of Eastern crews — to come 
back as captains, but at lower-paying 
co-captain and flight engineer positions. 

“What kind of message does it send 
when you take a 26-year pilot and bring 
him back as a second or third in com- 
mand, behind someone who took his job 
with less than a year experience?” 
Breen asked. 


AFGE contests 
restriction on 
outside pay 

By James B. Parks 

A fter failing to stop implementation 
of a new federal ban on pay for out- 
side activities, the Government 
Employees are trying to have the law 
declared unconstitutional. 

The U.S. Court of Appeals for the 
District of Columbia Circuit on Jan. 29 
is scheduled to hear the AFGE’s 
arguments challenging the law, which 
prohibits rank-and-file federal 
employees from taking pay for making 
speeches and publishing articles. 

The hearing comes after the appeals 
court refused to issue an emergency in- 
junction stopping implementation of the 
ethics law. 

The AFGE claims that a “fluke” in 
the law violates workers’ First and Fifth 
Amendment rights. 

The Ethics Reform Act of 1989, 
which went into effect Jan. 1, bars 
federal employees and members of 
Congress from taking pay for making 
speeches, writing articles or making 
public appearances, even if unrelated to 
their work. 

Constitutional question 

The suit asks the court to declare the 
section relating to all federal workers 
unconstitutional. 

“It is unconscionable to allow a mis- 
take in the law to deprive government 
employees of the right to earn extra 
money writing or publishing material or 
giving speeches to outside organizations 
when they are off duty,” said AFL-CIO 
Vice President John N. Sturdivant, 
president of the AFGE. 

Since the employees are not elected 
officials, the law “would place a severe 
burden on many good and honest peo- 
ple who should have the opportunity to 
earn extra money sharing their special 
interests and talents with others,” Stur- 
divant said. 

Meanwhile, union leaders praised 
President Bush’s decision to grant a 4. 1- 
percent pay raise for federal employees 
and to start the process of setting 
general schedule pay by localities. 

Bush issued an executive order giv- 
ing a geographic pay differential of 8 
percent to federal workers in New York 
City, San Francisco and Los Angeles. 

Under the order, the federal govern- 
ment will move toward a locality pay 
system in fiscal 1992 and will have it 
operating by 1994. 

Sturdivant said the order “sets in 
motion a carefully crafted plan that will 
reverse the growing pay gap between 
the private sector and the government 
and finally inject parity and fairness into 
the federal pay system.” 


Daily News unions push corporate campaign 


Continued from Page 1 

rights” clause sought by the News or 
on any other issues that might be ap- 
plicable to all parties before deciding 
whether to call the parties back to 
Washington. 

Meanwhile, the Printing Trades 
Council is proceeding with plans to con- 
duct a corporate campaign against the 
News’ parent, the Tribune Co. of 
Chicago. 

McDonald said a council committee 
will meet to map strategy. The commit- 
tee already has mailed a letter to the 
Tribune Co.’s major institutional 
stockholders explaining the strike. 

The council also has hired two New 
York City attorneys, Seymour 
Waldman and Irwin Rochman, to de- 
fend it and the Mail Deliverers against 
several lawsuits filed by the Daily News 
as part of its strategy continually to 
charge “union violence.” 

In a related development, the strikers 
have established boycott field offices in 
the Bronx, Brooklyn, Garden City on 
Long Island and in New Jersey. 

The offices will be staffed by strikers 
who will work there in lieu of picket 
duty. 


Individual groups also stepped up 
their efforts to thwart management’s in- 
sistence to continue publishing during 
the strike. 

Volunteers from the Transport 
Workers Local 100 and the striking 
unions have targeted the News’s 
homeless hawkers in the subways. 

Using TWU funds, the volunteers 


“The News has been 
holding us, our families 
and our jobs hostage for 
more than two months. ” 


buy copies of the New York Times, 
Newsday and New York Post 
newspapers in bulk, said Jim Gannon, 
a TWU spokesman. 

The union volunteers then stand near 
subway newsstands that carry the Dai- 
ly News, giving away copies of the 
other newspapers in an effort to thwart 
sale of the News, Gannon said. 

Local 100 represents 35,000 bus and 


subway workers in New York City. 

The effort has been very successful, 
Gannon said, with an average of 60 
workers volunteering to give away the 
papers on their free time or vacation 
time. 

“We’re not there to harass the 
hawkers,” said Gannon, who noted that 
a majority of the subway riders 
nonetheless are not buying the Daily 
News. 

Meanwhile, about two dozen striking 
Daily News reporters took over the 
paper’s Brooklyn news bureau for a few 
hours last week to protest the com- 
pany’s failure to bargain in good faith. 

“The News has been holding us, our 
families and our jobs hostage for more 
than two months and we want manage- 
ment to come back to the bargaining 
table and engage in true negotiations,” 
said Tom Robbins, one of the strikers. 

The News has “illegally replaced 
2,300 strikers with permanent replace- 
ment workers,” said Juan Gonzalez, 
chairman of the Newspaper Guild strike 
committee. “We want to save the 
newspaper and end the strike.” Police 
quickly removed the protesters and ar- 
rested 10 people. 


Director of Information: Rex Hardesty 

Editor: Michael Byrne 

News Editor: John R. Oravec 

Assistant Editors: Arlee C. Green, 

Candice Johnson, James B. Parks 

Staff Writers: Muriel H. Cooper, Mike Hall, 
Colleen M. O’Neill, Sharolyn A. Rosier 

Graphics /layout: Stan Hitt 

AFL-CIO Headquarters: 815 Sixteenth St.. N.W., Washington, D.C. 20006 
Telephone: (202) 637-5010 

Vol. 36, No. 1 ®<v ^gfe . ; ,3 MONDAY, JANUARY 7, 1991 




The AFL-CIO News (ISSN-001-1 185) is issued every two weeks at 815 Sixteenth St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 
The AFL-CIO does not accept paid advertising in any of its official publications. No one is authorized to solicit 
advertising for any publications in the name of the AFL-CIO. 


Official Publication 
of the 

American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations 

Lane Kirkland, president 
Thomas R. Donahue, secretary-treasurer 

EXECUTIVE COUNCIL 


Albert Shanker 
William H. Wynn 
Joyce D. Miller 
Richard I. Kilroy 
William H. By water 
John T. Joyce 
Robert A. Georgine 
Jay Mazur 
John J. Barry 
Susan Bianchi-Sand 
John N. Sturdivant 


Edward T. Hanley 
John DeConcini 
John J. Sweeney 
Vincent R. Sombrotto 
Marvin J. Boede 
Lynn R. Williams 
Milan Stone 
Lenore Miller 
Sigurd Lucassen 
Moe Biller 
Richard L. Trumka 


Angelo Fosco 
Wayne E. Glenn 
James E. Hatfield 
Gerald W. McEntee 
Owen Bieber 
Morton Bahr 
Gene Upshaw 
Jack Sheinkman 
William J. McCarthy 
George J. Kourpias 
Frank Hanley 






U nion leaders can choose from 48 in- 
stitutes offered by the George 
Meany Center for Labor Studies dur- 
ing the first six months of 1991. This 
year, a Western Semester is offered 
during June at the University of Califor- 
nia at Berkeley. The course descriptions 
on these pages are for programs in 
Silver Spring, except where indicated. 

All full-time union officers, represen- 
tatives and employees of AFL-CIO af- 
filiates are eligible to attend these pro- 
grams, which are designed to increase 
their knowledge and polish their skills. 

Institutes, except for the College 
Degree Program and the Certified 
Employee Benefit Specialist (CEBS) 
Programs, are tuition-free. The College 
Degree Program and the Western 
Semester also require a special applica- 
tion form, available on request. 

Any AFL-CIO organization or af- 
filiate that wants to use the center 
should contact Janis Underwood, 
Registrar, George Meany Center, 
10000 New Hampshire Ave., Silver 
Spring, Md. 20903, or telephone 
301/431-6400. 


Organizing Techniques I 

February 3-8 
May 19-24 
June 23-28 

(Western Semester, English 
and Spanish) 

An introduction to basic organizing 
skills for new union organizers as well 
as a refresher course for organizers in 
the private sector. 

Strategies will be discussed for deal- 
ing with anti-union arguments and 
techniques used by employers. An over- 
view of the law concerning organizing 
also will be covered. Through role play- 
ing and discussion, participants will 
learn improved communications skills 
and their application to house calls, 
other one-on-one contacts and 
meetings. 

Coordinator: Marilyn G. Sneiderman 


Organizing II 

March 3-8 

Cosponsored by the AFL-CIO 
Organizing Institute, this course is for 
organizers who have completed 
Organizing I, The Organizing Institute 
Apprenticeship, and/or who have exten- 
sive experience in organizing. 

The course will focus on strengthen- 
ing an organizer’s strategic and 
analytical thinking by using case studies 
to critically discuss recent campaigns. 
The sessions will focus on enhancing 
those skills needed to manage people in 
a campaign, run multiple campaigns, 
target larger units and train committees 
and volunteer organizers. 

Coordinator: Marilyn G. Sneiderman 


Labor Law for Organizers: 
Traditional and 
New Approaches 

January 6-11 

This program is for national and local 
staff with responsibility for and ex- 
perience in organizing in the private 



% 



The George Meany Center for Labor Studies 
offers 48 institutes during the first six months 
of 199T These four pages describe them. 



Meany Center students chart the key stages of an organizing campaign. 


sector. Organizing in the building trades 
is excluded. 

The course emphasizes law as part of 
organizing strategy and the proper role 
of the National Labor Relations Act 
(NLRA) in a campaign (how to avoid 
having the law run the campaign). The 
program also will deal with alternative 
routes to obtaining recognition, in- 
cluding tactics to obtain voluntary 
recognition and the legal issues those 
tactics involve. 

Coordinator: Sharon Simon 


Organizing in the 
Construction Industry 

May 5-10 
June 2-7 

(Western Semester) 

This institute will offer building 
trades organizers an opportunity to 
build their skills in implementing local 
and regional campaigns. Participants 
will focus on oral and written com- 
munications with members, unorgan- 
ized workers, contractors and pur- 
chasers of construction services, 
regional survey and targeting techni- 
ques, and on-site membership recruit- 
ment activity. 

Participants will use simulations to 
get hands-on experience in organizing 
under the guidance of experienced 
building trades organizers and labor 
educators. 

Coordinator: Robert J. Pleasure 


Contract Negotiations: 
Private Sector 

January 6-11 
February 10-15 
(University of Oregon) 

This institute is for full-time officers 
and staff who negotiate agreements in 
the private sector. Early sessions focus 
on the role of the chief negotiator at dif- 
ferent points in the bargaining process, 
including preparing and designing in- 
itial proposals, developing committee 
work and record-keeping procedures, 
the structure and function of opening 
statements, styles of language and 
economic bargaining, and preparing for 
and directing the ratification process. 


Actual bargaining-table tactics, such 
as the timing and structure of counter- 
proposals, avoiding bargaining bot- 
tlenecks, effective communications at 
the bargaining-table and the use of 
mediation, will be developed through 
the use of case problems. 

Coordinator: Jeffrey MacDonald 


Contract Negotiations in 
the Construction Industry 

April 28 — May 3 

This program is for union staff and 
officers responsible for negotiating 
labor agreements with construction in- 
dustry employers. The central purpose 
of the program is to improve the bar- 
gaining skills of union negotiators in an 
increasingly difficult and complex bar- 
gaining environment. 

Early sessions will focus on how to 
manage a negotiation from initial pro- 
posals through ratification. The special 
problems associated with employer as- 
sociation bargaining will be analyzed 
and discussed with a full review of legal 
developments affecting bargaining in 
the construction industry. 

Coordinator: Jeffrey MacDonald 


The Craft of Negotiating 

April 7-12 
June 16-21 
(Western Semester) 

This institute on the techniques of 
contract negotiating is for full-time of- 
ficers and staff who negotiate agree- 
ments in the private sector. There will 
be sessions on the role of the chief 
negotiator at different points of the 
bargaining process, preparation and 
design of initial proposals, developing 
committee work and record-keeping 
procedures, styles of language and 
economic bargaining, and preparing for 
and directing the ratification process. 

Actual bargaining-table tactics, such 
as the timing and structure of counter- 
proposals, effective communications at 
the bargaining table and the use of 
mediation will be developed through the 
use of case problems. 

Coordinator: Jeffrey MacDonald 


Negotiating Contracts with 
State and Local Agencies 

February 24 — March 1 
This institute on contract negotiating 
techniques is for union officers and staff 
who negotiate labor agreements with 
state and local agencies. Federal sector 
negotiations are not addressed. 

Early sessions will discuss the role of 
the chief negotiator at different points 
in the bargaining process, including the 
preparation and design of initial pro- 
posals, committee work and record- 
keeping procedures, the structure and 
function of opening statements, styles 
of language and economic bargaining, 
and preparing for and directing the 
ratification process. 

Special focus will be directed at third- 
party dispute resolution procedures and 
their impact on bargaining strategies. 
The program also will include sessions 
on reading, analyzing and using key 
public sector financial documents. 

Coordinator: Jeffrey MacDonald 


Using Microcomputers 
in Negotiations 

June 2-7 

This institute introduces participants 
to applications of small computers in 
contract negotiations. The primary 
focus is on the use of off-the-shelf 
spreadsheet software in developing 
contract-costing capabilities, which will 
assist the negotiator in evaluating 
employer economic proposals and 
developing effective counterproposals. 
Although Lotus 1-2-3 is used in classes, 
the skills developed are applicable to 
any standard spreadsheet program. 
Knowledge of computers is not 
necessary. But it is helpful to be 
familiar with standard contract-costing 
techniques. 

This institute is for union staff or of- 
ficers whose primary responsibility is 
contract negotiations or back-up 
research for negotiators. 

Coordinator: Jeffrey MacDonald 



Negotiating and Writing 
Contract Language 

June 9-14 

This institute is designed to improve 
skills needed to develop proposals and 
write contracts that will protect and im- 
prove the rights of members and their 
unions. Uniform principles of contract 
interpretation will be discussed. Issues 
of concern to all negotiators, including 
union security, recognition and other 
contract matters, will be examined. 

Many unions face management nego- 
tiators who approach the negotiations 
with written proposals that substantially 
alter the traditional rights of unions and 
employees. Sessions will cover strate- 
gies and techniques for drafting and 
negotiating in today’s bargaining 
environment. 

There will be a focus on developing 
proposals, and writing draft contracts 
responsive to actual workplace and 
labor relations issues. 

Coordinator: Sharon Simon 


Arbitration: Preparation 
and Presentation 

January 13-18 
April 14-19 
June 2-7 

(Western Semester) 

This institute concentrates on 
developing the necessary skills to 
prepare and present arbitration cases. 
Discussions will focus on what matters 
can be arbitrated and the selection of ar- 
bitrators. Since discipline and discharge 
cases cause more than half of all 
grievance arbitrations, special attention 
is paid to their investigation and to the 
rules arbitrators use in deciding them. 
Mock cases will be presented before 
professional arbitrators willing to share 
their knowledge. 

This program is for union represen- 
tatives newly assigned to arbitration, or 
who will have arbitration as part of their 
responsibility. It will help experienced 
representatives analyze and brush up on 
their techniques. 

Coordinator: David G. Alexander 


Standards of Discipline 
and Discharge in 
Arbitration 

February 10-15 
June 16-21 

This institute examines discipline and 
discharge standards and related issues 
of misconduct applied in grievance ar- 
bitration hearings. Participants will hear 


from arbitrators and examine case 
studies that concentrate on these issues: 

The concept of just cause and the 
development of standards by ar- 
bitrators; investigation procedures and 
standards of proof in discipline and 
discharge cases, and discipline and 
discharge and evidentiary standards for 
alcohol-related, drug-related and off- 
duty misconduct. 

Participation in this institute is limited 
to those who have attended the basic ar- 
bitration institute, or who are ex- 
perienced advocates in grievance 
arbitration. 

Coordinator: David G. Alexander 


Arbitration in the Federal 
Sector 

March 17-22 

Although many procedures and prac- 
tices in private-sector arbitration apply 
at the federal level, significant dif- 
ferences do exist and will be discussed 
during this institute. 

Mock cases will be presented before 
professional arbitrators with experience 
in the federal sector. The cases will be 
videotaped and played back for 
analysis. 

This institute is for representatives in 
federal sector unions who are or will 
have arbitration as part of their respon- 
sibility . Experienced representatives 
can analyze and brush up on their 
techniques. 

Coordinator: David G. Alexander 


Advanced Arbitration 

May 19-24 

This institute is designed to provide 
advanced training for grievance arbitra- 
tion to help participants improve their 
techniques. 

There will be exercises in the 
preparation and writing of post-hearing 
briefs, and discussions to assist par- 
ticipants in the examination and cross- 
examination of witnesses. 

Participation is limited to those who 
have attended the basic arbitration in- 
stitute, or who are experienced ad- 
vocates in grievance arbitration. 

Coordinator: David G. Alexander 


Making the Legal System 
Work 

January 20-25 

This program is designed to improve 
the ability of union staff, officers and 
stewards to solve employment-related 


problems under existing local, state and 
federal legislation without losing sight 
of the primary importance of the 
union’s rights under the collective 
bargaining agreement. The program 
will build on existing problem-solving 
and advocacy skills to enable the par- 
ticipant to more effectively represent 
the interests of union members. 

Coordinator: David G. Alexander 


New Staff Program 

June 2-14 

This two-week program is designed 
for individuals recently appointed or 
elected to a full-time union staff posi- 
tion. Those individuals who have taken 
Organizing Techniques I and Con- 
tract Negotiations should not enroll in 
this program. The program has three 
basic goals: To develop personal skills 
needed to function effectively in the 
many different roles of a union staff 
member; to improve planning skills 
needed to manage a contract negotia- 
tion, and to organize a campaign to 
revitalize a local union, and to provide 
insight into the structure, operation and 
goals of the U.S. labor movement. 

Coordinator: Jeffrey MacDonald 


TV: The Cool Medium 

January 22-25 

This three-day workshop coaches 
union leaders who are confronted oc- 
casionally by television reporters and 
television cameras. 

Participants will have many exercises 
facing video cameras: a hostile confron- 
tation, a panel discussion, an in-studio 
interview and 60-second addresses. 

One session focuses on working with 
TV reporters: controlling an interview, 
recognizing deadly questions and 
avoiding “no comment.” Another con- 
centrates on relating to the camera, 
gestures, posture, eye contact, dress 
and makeup, body language, relaxation 
techniques and visual aids. 

Coordinator: Gene Morrill and Louise 
D. Walsh 


Newswriting and Editing 
for Union Publications 

March 10-15 
June 9-14 
(Western Semester) 

Union editors get coaching on 
newswriting and editing and pick up 
ideas from other union editors on how 
to make a publication more readable 


and credible. Classes focus on 
newswriting, feature writing, headline 
writing, photo editing, news sources, 
layout and design. 

Coordinator: Louise D. Walsh 


Effective Speaking 

May 5-10 

This workshop focuses on these 
basics: 

Preparation for speaking — Selecting 
topics, researching, outlining and 
editing. Also covered are delivery of the 
message with vocal variety, rate, eye 
contact, audience analysis and an 
awareness of time and locale. 

Daily Assignments — The workshop 
format provides a variety of speaking 
situations. 

Individual Coaching — Several exer- 
cises are videotaped for playback and 
critique. 

Listening — Exercises will em- 
phasize listening skills, helping students 
become more attentive and responsive. 

Coordinator: Gene Morrill 


The Union Administrator 
and Business Agent 

January 13-18 
June 16-21 

This workshop, for full-time officers 
and business agents, will focus on 
several major concerns: identifying and 
solving problems, enhancing leadership 
style, organizing time and support 
systems, organizing the backup system 
in the office, monitoring finances and 
budgeting, reaching members, and 
keeping out of trouble with the law. 

Coordinator: Marilyn G. Sneiderman 


Labor Law in the 
Construction Industry 

February 3-8 

The special treatment of the construc- 
tion industry by federal law requires 
that a specialized course be offered to 
building leaders and staff. The institute 
will cover: union referral practices; 
union regulation of work and anti-trust 
laws; non-traditional economic 
pressures; corporate change in the 
employing unit including the problems 
of double-breasted contractors, 
bankruptcies and mergers; union secur- 
ity, union dues and related legal issues; 
collective bargaining and contract en- 
forcement in multi-employer bargain- 
ing units, and ERISA and job-creating 
investments. 

Coordinator: Robert J. Pleasure 


Application to Register for Labor Studies 


T o reserve a place in an institute, workshop or seminar at the George Meany 
Center, please complete this applications and mail it with your check for $120. 
Your deposit of $90 will be credited to your room and board bill, and $30 covers 
your registration fee. The deposit for registrants who live in the Washington, 
D.C. area and commute to class is $70. It covers lunches for one week and 
registration. 

Deposits will be refunded if notice of cancellation is received by the Wednes- 
day before the program. Please make the check payable to the George Meany 
Center for Labor Studies. 

For more information about any program, call the Registrar at 301/431-6400. 


PRINT OR TYPE 

Please enroll me for (course): 

Dates: Enclosed is a deposit of $ 

(Deposit required with application) 

Name of applicant: Mr. /Ms. — 

Address: 


Registrar 

George Meany Center for 
Labor Studies, Inc. 

10000 New Hampshire Avenue 
Silver Spring, Maryland 20903 


CHECK ONE 

□ Commuting to class 

□ Single room @ $90 daily 

□ Double room @ $70 daily per 

person doubling with 


City: State: 

Sponsoring Union: , 

Applicant’s Union Office or Position: _ 


Zip 


Office phone and area code 


Signature 


Date 




Western Semester takes core classes to California 


T he George Meany Center will 
make the labor studies core cur- 
riculum more accessible to union 
leaders and staff in the western states 
by opening its first Western 
Semester at the Clark Kerr Center of 
the University of California at 
Berkeley in June. 

The programs will be sponsored 
by the George Meany Center and the 
AFL-CIO Department of Education, 
in cooperation with western univer- 
sity and college labor education 
centers. 

Seven institutes from the Center’s 
core curriculum will be offered. 
They are: Organizing Techniques (in 


English and Spanish); Arbitration: 
Preparation and Presentation; Labor 
Law in the Construction Industry; 
The Craft of Negotiating, and News- 
writing and Editing for Union 
Publications. 

The AFL-CIO Department of 
Education will offer workshops in 
Advanced Teaching Techniques in 
Labor Education and One-on-One 
Communications in English and 
Spanish. 

Enrollment will be limited to staff 
and officers of AFL-CIO affiliated 
unions. 

Because of limited space, first 
priority will be given to those ap- 


plicants west of the Mississippi 
River. All registrations are based on 
double occupancy (two-bedroom 
suites with a shared bathroom) at the 
daily rate of $98. This includes three 
meals per day beginning with dinner 
the first evening. 

Full registration is due upon ap- 
plication. Registration fees are as 
follows: $490 for five-day courses, 
$294 for three-day courses and $196 
for two-day courses. 

Commuter fees include lunch each 
day and are $175 for a five-day 
course, $105 for a three-day course 
and $70 for a two-day course. 
Weekly parking stickers are 


available to commuters who drive 
for $15. 

Cancellations must be received 14 
days prior to the beginning of class 
for full refund of registration; after 
14 days, one-half of the registration 
will be refunded. 

All classes will begin at 7 p.m. the 
first evening. Class confirmation, as 
well as housing and transportation 
information, will be sent upon reg- 
istration. 

For more information about en- 
rolling in the Western Semester, 
please call the Registrar’s office at 
the George Meany Center for Labor 
Studies at 301/431-6400. 



Students compare notes during seminar. 



‘Audio magazine’ highlights 
labor studies center programs 


Central Labor Councils: 
Leadership and Leverage 

February 19-22 

This institute is for full-time and part- 
time officers and staff of Central Labor 
Councils who want to improve the 
“leadership and leverage’’ of their 
councils to advance the aims of the 
labor movement in their areas. Par- 
ticipants will look at being more effec- 
tive in their administrative, service and 
coordination roles. 

Throughout the week, participants 
will consider AFL-CIO policies and 
procedures that relate to Central Labor 
Councils. Sessions will examine ways 
to encourage local union affiliation and 
strategies to build community support 
and work with the news media. Par- 
ticipants will look at how to meet the 
needs of different affiliates through 
upgrading services in education, com- 
munity relations and strike support. 

Coordinator: Marilyn G. Sneiderman 


Personal Computers for 
Local Unions 

February 19-22 
This institute will provide union staff 
members with information about the 
uses of mini- and micro-computer 
systems. Their applications will be 
discussed with suggestions for staff 
training and computer maintenance. 

Classes are taught in plain, non- 
technical terms by instructors who are 
computer specialists as well as 
unionists. There will be hands-on 
workshop sessions for participants us- 
ing state-of-the-art mini-computers. The 
course provides information that will 
help union staff assess their computer 
needs and deal with computer vendors. 

Coordinator: Chuck Hodell 


Labor Relations in the 
Federal Sector 

March 4-8 

This week-long institute will provide 
an overview to important subjects af- 
fecting the role of staff and officers in 
unions representing workers in the 
federal sector. The institute will be 
taught by professionals in labor rela- 
tions who have extensive experience in 
the federal sector. 

The institute will cover such subjects 
as: collective bargaining in the federal 
sector; grievance handling and arbi- 
tration; how to deal with adverse and 
performance-based actions, and 
strengthening the union from within. 

Coordinator: David G . Alexander 


Occupational Health 
and Safety 

March 24-29 

This institute is designed to help 
union officials respond effectively to the 
complex problems relating to chemical 
and physical hazards in the workplace, 
through a mix of problem-solving ap- 
proaches: contract negotiations, 
grievance procedure and arbitration, the 
National Labor Relations Board, safety 
and health committees, OSH A inspec- 
tions, the OSHA appeals process, other 
government safety and health agencies, 
and mobilizing community support 
around health and safety issues. 

Coordinator: Marilyn G. Sneiderman 


Effective Union Action 
for Civil Rights 
April 15-19 

The AFL-CIO Civil Rights Depart- 
ment’s annual conference is planned 
especially for civil rights and women’s 
rights designees of AFL-CIO unions. 
The conference is useful as well for all 
interested union officers and staff 
members. 

Coordinator: Marilyn G. Sneiderman 


Union Issues for Working 
Women 

May 5-10 

This institute identifies concerns of 
women workers while developing new 
strategies and approaches to tap the 
energy that millions of women bring to 
the trade union movement. Participants 
examine how unions can act on 
women’s issues through organizing, 
bargaining, contract administration and 
legislation. The institute also focuses on 
building leadership skills. 

Coordinator: Marilyn G. Sneiderman 


Advanced Teaching 
Techniques 

June 9-12 
(Western Semester) 

This institute is for experienced labor 
educators interested in using “instruc- 
tional technology.” There are two ma- 
jor objectives — to explore the current 
and potential uses of instructional 
technology (computers, videos and 
other electronic devices) in labor educa- 
tion, and to determine appropriate uses 
of such techniques within the context of 
good instructional design. 

Coordinator : Ed Czarnecki 


T he George Meany Center for Labor 
Studies is introducing an “Off- 
Center” audio magazine, quarterly 
cassettes that will provide the latest in- 
formation on institutes and labor 
developments. 

Recorded and produced on the cam- 
pus of the Meany Center in cooperation 
with the AFL-CIO Education Depart- 
ment, the first cassette offers course up- 
dates in organizing, communications, 


arbitration, labor law and bargaining. 

The Off-Center program will include 
interviews with labor instructors and 
labor leaders participating in the Meany 
Center programs, developed in short, 
three-to-four minute segments in an 
entertaining format. Tapes run about 
sixty minutes. 

Contact the George Meany Center at 
10000 New Hampshire Avenue, Silver 
Spring, Md. 20903. 



-'sors^ 


George Meany Center 
for Labor Studies, Inc. 

10000 New Hampshire Avenue 
Silver Spring, Maryland 20903 
301/431-6400 

Board of Trustees 
Chairman 

Lane Kirkland, President , AFL-CIO 
Secretary- Treasurer 

Thomas R. Donahue, Secretary-Treasurer, AFL-CIO 
Assistant Secretary 

Dorothy Shields. Director of Education, AFL-CIO 
Executive Director 

Robert J. Pleasure, George Meany Center for Labor Studies, Inc. 


Robert H. Atwell, President 
American Council on Education 
Morton Bahr, President 
Communications Workers of America 
Eula Bingham, Professor 
College of Medicine 
University of Cincinnati 
Edward J. Cleary, President 
New York State AFL-CIO 
John DeConcini, International President 
Bakery, Confectionery and Tobacco 
Workers International Union 
Frank Hanley, President 
International Union of Operating Engineers 
Benjamin L. Hooks, Executive Director 
National Association for the Advancement 
of Colored People 


Sigurd Lucassen, General President 
United Brotherhood of Carpenters 
and Joiners of America 
Ray Marshall, Professor 
LBJ School of Public Affairs 
The University of Texas at Austin 
Joyce D. Miller, Vice President 
Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union 
Albert Shanker, President 
American Federation of Teachers 
John N. Sturdivant, President 
American Federation of Government Employees 
John J. Sweeney, International President 
Service Employees International Union 
William H. Wynn, International President 
United Food and Commercial 
Workers International Union 





One-on-One Coordinator 
Training Programs 

June 16-18 

(English/Western Semester) 
June 19-21 

(Spanish/Western Semester) 

The one-on-one program is a struc- 
tured communications method designed 
to train local union officers, stewards 
and activists to talk to the members face 
to face about important issues and, in 
the process, ask members their opinion 
and enlist their support. 

Training consists of planning a one- 
on-one canvass; developing a survey; 
leaflet and training materials on an 
issue, and teaching others these 
techniques. 

Coordinator: Susan Washington 


George Meary Center 



Teaching Techniques for 
Labor Education 

March 10-15 
June 23-28 
(Western Semester) 
Co-sponsored with the AFL-CIO 
Department of Education, this institute 
explains adult education techniques and 
teaches how to run a workshop in the 
field. Topics include how to use ques- 
tionnaires, role plays, audio-visuals and 
how to conduct effective classroom 
discussions. 

Coordinators: Marjorie Rachlin, 
Marilyn G. Sneiderman , Diana Linton 
and Susan Washington (Western 
Semester) 


Certified Employee 
Benefit Specialist (CEBS) 
Programs 

January 7-11 
(Social Security Savings 
Plans — Course III) 
January 7-11 

(Life and Health Benefits — 
Course I) 

This program consists of 10 courses 
and corresponding examinations in 
areas of importance to the employee 
benefits field, including: life, health and 
other group benefit programs; Social 
Security, savings plans and other retire- 
ment arrangements, and the contem- 
porary legal environment of employee 
benefit plans. 


The 10 courses cover the legal, finan- 
cial and institutional framework within 
which employee benefit plans must 
operate. Emphasis is placed on the fun- 
damental principles underlying the 
design and operation of individual 
benefit programs. 

Coordinator: Jeffrey MacDonald 



Labor and the Schools 

June 12-14 
(Western Semester) 

This institute gives examples of the 
labor movement’s efforts to tell labor’s 
story in the schools, and guides par- 
ticipants through the preparation and 
delivery of a simulated presentation for 
students. 

Coordinator: Mary Lehman 



Enrollment is open for institutes and programs in bold type. 


JANUARY 

6-11 

Contract Negotiations: Private 
Sector 

6-11 

Labor Law for Organizers 
6-11 

International Brotherhood of Elec- 
trical Workers 

7-11 

CEBS/Social Security Savings 
Plans/Course III 

7-11 

CEBS/Life and Health Benefits I 

13-18 

Arbitration: Preparation & 
Presentation 

13-18 

United Food and Commercial 
Workers 

13-18 

United Brotherhood of Carpenters 

13-18 

Union Administrator & Business 
Agent 

20-25 

International Brotherhood of Elec- 
trical Workers 

20-25 

AFL-CIO COPE 

20- 25 

Making the Legal System Work 

21- 25 

AFL-CIO Community Services 

22- 25 

TV: The Cool Medium 
26-Feb. 1 

College Degree Program 


FEBRUARY 

3-6 

Association of Flight Attendants 

3-8 

Organizing I 

3-8 

AFSCME 

3-8 

Labor Law in the Construction 
Industry 

3-8 

International Association of Iron 
Workers 


3 -March 2 

American Institute for Free Labor 
Development #149 

9- 14 

Amalgamated Transit Union 

10- 15 

Standards of Discipline & 
Discharge in Arbitration 

10-15 

American Federation of 
Government Employees 

10-15 

Contract Negotiations: Private 
Sector 

(University of Oregon) 

15-20 

The Newspaper Guild 

19-22 

Personal Computers for Local 
Unions 

19-22 

Central Labor Councils 

19-22 

Transport Workers Union 

21-24 

Frontlash 

24-March 1 

Negotiating Contracts with State 
and Local Agencies 

24-March 1 

Laborers’ International Union 
24-March 1 

Service Employees Int’l. Union 
24- March 2 

American Federation of Teachers 


MARCH 

3-8 

Brotherhood of Maintenance of 
Way Employees 

3- 8 

Organizing II 

4- 8 

Association of Flight Attendants 

4-8 

Labor Relations in the Federal 
Sector 

9- 12 

Amalgamated Transit Union 

10- 15 

Newswriting & Editing for Union 
Publications 


10-15 

Teaching Techniques for Labor 
Education 

13-17 

Amalgamated Transit Union 

16-21 

Amalgamated Transit Union 

17-22 

Arbitration in the Federal Sector 

17- 23 

Bricklayers 
17-April 13 

American Institute for Free Labor 
Development #750 

18- 22 

Communications Workers of 
America 

23- 27 

Amalgamated Transit Union 

24- 29 

Occupational Health & Safety 
31 -April 12 

Communications Workers of 
America 


APRIL 

7-12 

Craft of Negotiating 

7-12 

Air Line Pilots Association 
7-26 

African-American Labor Center 

14- 19 

Arbitration: Preparation & 
Presentation 

15- 19 

Effective Union Action in Civil 
Rights 

20- 25 

Amalgamated Transit Union 

21- 26 

International Association of Iron 
Workers 

21-May 18 

American Institute for Free Labor 
Development #757 

28-May 3 

Contract Negotiations in the 
Construction Industry 

28-May 17 

Communications Workers of 
America 

28-May 1 

International Ladies’ Garment 
Workers Union 


28-May 3 

Bakery, Confectionery and 
Tobacco Workers Union 

28-May 3 
AFSCME 


MAY 

5-10 

Effective Speaking 

5-10 

Organizing in the Construction 
Industry 

5-10 

Laborers’ International Union 
5-10 

Union Issues for Working 
Women 

11-16 

Amalgamated Transit Union 
13-16 

Association of Flight Attendants 

19-24 

Advanced Arbitration 

19-24 

Brotherhood of Maintenance of 
Way Employees 

19-24 

Organizing I 

19-June 7 

African-American Labor Center 
28-31 

International Union of Electronic 
Workers 


JUNE 

2-7 

Using Microcomputers in 
Negotiations 

2-7 

Arbitration: Preparation and 
Presentation 
(Western Semester) 

2-7 

Organizing in the Construction 
Industry 

(Western Semester) 

2-14 

New Staff Program 

2-7 

Bakery, Confectionery and 
Tobacco Workers Union 

2-29 

American Institute for Free Labor 
Development #752 


9-12 

Advanced Teaching Techniques 
(Western Semester) 

9-14 

Negotiating & Writing Contract 
Language 

9-14 

Association of Flight Attendants 
9-14 

AFSCME 

9- 14 

Newswriting and Editing for 
Union Publications 
(Western Semester) 

10- 14 

CEBS (Course to be Announced) 
10-14 

CEBS (Course to be Announced) 

12-14 

Labor and the Schools 
(Western Semester) 

15- 20 

Amalgamated Transit Union 

16- 18 

One-On-One Coordinator 
Training Programs (English) 
(Western Semester) 

16-21 

Standards of Discipline & 
Discharge in Arbitration 

16-21 

Union Administrator & Business 
Agent 

16-21 

The Craft of Negotiating 
(Western Semester) 

19-21 

One-On-One Coordinator 
Training Programs 
(Spanish) 

(Western Semester) 

23-25 

The Great Labor Arts Exchange 
23-28 

Brotherhood of Maintenance of 
Way Employees 

23-28 

United Food and Commercial 
Workers 

23-28 

Organizing Techniques I 
(English and Spanish) 
(Western Semester) 

23-28 

Teaching Techniques for Labor 
Education 
(Western Semester) 




room logjam is symptom of crisis 


Emergency 

Continued from Page 1 

George of the Teachers’ Federation of 
Nurses and Health Professionals, re- 
ported on his seven years in the emer- 
gency room: “It is very common to see 
non-emergency illnesses in the emer- 
gency room. This is often due to the fact 
that many people cannot afford to go to 
a doctor. 

“Working parents whose child be- 
comes ill in the evening will go to the 
emergency room for care,” he said. 
“Other parents will not call their doc- 
tor, because they cannot afford to take 
the next day off from work to go to the 
doctor’s office.” 

Karen Ignagni, director of the AFL- 


O ptions for national health care 
reform were the main order of 
business at the annual meeting of the 
Labor/Higher Education Council, spon- 
sored by the AFL-CIO and the Amer- 
ican Council on Education, held Nov. 
28-29. 

Council participants at the Boston 
meeting worked in small groups to 
develop a consensus on basic principles 
for a national system, including discus- 
sion of universality, comprehensive- 
ness, portability, equitable access, ef- 
ficient services, simplicity and rationali- 
ty, cost containment and accountability 
and wellness. 

AFL-CIO Secretary-Treasurer Thomas 
R. Donahue told the council that health 
care is “America’s great big peculiar 
mess.” He pointed out that “the issue 
occupies all our attention, none of the 
proposed solutions is clear and easy, 
nobody likes the current system, and 
national health care reform is a common 
interest of the ACE and the AFL-CIO. 
We have to work together on it.” 
Attending the meeting were officials 
from international unions, colleges and 
universities and educational associa- 
tions. In addition to Donahue, the par- 
ticipants heard from ACE officials, 
health care reform advocates and union 
and university presidents. 

Dr. Robert J. Blendon of Harvard 
University’s School of Public Health, 
summarizing survey data from 100,000 
Americans, said that “the cost of medi- 
cal care is one of the most important 
problems for American workers; that 
among industrialized nations, Amer- 

Texas AFL-CIO 

By Sharolyn Rosier 

T he Texas AFL-CIO has won a tem- 
porary injunction halting the full Jan. 

1 implementation of the Texas Work- 
ers’ Compensation Act. The injunction 
is the first step in a constitutional 
challenge to the new law filed in a state 
District Court. 

Texas AFL-CIO President Joe D. 
Gunn, noting the law fails to protect in- 
jured workers or to guarantee justice as 
required by the Texas constitution, said 
that “the injunction prohibits the state 
from using a law that is regressive, 
punitive and patently unfair. ” The court 
also ruled that the Texas AFL-CIO has 
proper legal standing in the challenge. 

Besides denying workers the fairness 
of due process, Gunn said, the law does 
not provide for equal protection and the 
right to jury trials. He also questioned 
whether the law conforms with legis- 
lative revenue-raising requirements. 

In granting the injunction, State Dis- 


CIO Department of Employee Benefits, 
noted that the “use of the emergency 
room as the health care provider of last 
resort for millions of Americans is a 
testament to the need for health care 
reform.” 

“Hospitals that can’t afford to be the 
provider of last resort are closing their 
doors to people who deserve to receive 
quality and accessible care in a dignified 
setting,” Ignagni said. 

Kellermann, in a telephone interview, 
cited studies showing that emergency 
room care is far more expensive than 
other medical care, “and ultimately 
costs the taxpayers, government and in- 
sured patients much more,” he said. 


icans are the most dissatisfied with their 
health care system; that employers 
don’t know how to control health care 
costs, and that Americans seem ready 
for national health care reform.” 

John J. Sweeney, president of the 
Service Employees and head of the 
AFL-CIO’s Health Care Committee, 
characterized national health care 
reform as “our toughest political issue, 
which will have to be dealt with soon.” 

The issue, Sweeney said, is “just too 
big and too complex to be solved plan- 
by-plan or employer-by-employer.” He 
called on education to join labor in seek- 
ing health care changes. 

Dr. Stuart H. Altman of Brandeis 
University’s School of Social Welfare, 
told the council that “the public is 
financially scared.” He said the United 
States needs “to make our health care 
system financially more equitable, 
fairer and more stable, or the system 
can’t continue much longer.” 

In other business, the council adopted 
a wide-ranging statement on “Labor in 
Higher Education Governance,” urg- 
ing “nominating and appointing 
authorities to consider the leaders of 
organized labor for election or appoint- 
ment to the boards of higher educa- 
tion.” 

Noting that one-third of all trustees 
are corporate officials, the council said 
that “leaders of organized labor bring 
considerable resources, talent and 
knowledge deeply rooted in the com- 
munity that can be immensely helpful 
to boards that seek to be well-balanced 
in their composition and expertise.” 


trict Judge Eugene Stewart questioned 
the constitutionality of a law that does 
not permit covered workers to opt out 
of the new system. 

Passed by the legislature and signed 
by Gov. William Clements last Decem- 
ber after a year of often bitter disputes, 
the new law ordered an extensive over- 
haul of the system that pays the medical 
bills, some living expenses and limited 
compensation for workers injured on 
the job. 

“We opposed the legislation when it 
passed because it was a bad law,” Gunn 
said. “We regret we had to appeal to 
the judicial system for justice, but that’s 
why we have a governmental system of 
checks and balances. Unfortunately, in 
recent years the judiciary repeatedly has 
had to correct the actions and inactions 
of state government in Texas. Hopeful- 
ly, with a new administration coming 
into office, that’s about to change.” 

Gunn said that while Texas workers’ 


“Another problem we clearly see,” 
Kellermann continued, “is patients who 
put off treatment hoping they’ll get bet- 
ter and the illness will go away — by 
that time, they’re so sick they require 
hospitalization and major medical in- 
tervention. . . . That illness then is far 
more costly, more difficult to treat, than 
it needed to be.” 

He also said he spends much of his 
time doing basic, walk-in, primary care 
medicine. “It’s not the most cost- 
effective, but it’s the most realistic op- 
tion for most people.” 

Texas State Sen. Chet Brooks testi- 
fied at the AFL-CIO health care hear- 
ing in Austin Oct. 25 that “there are 



Newsmakers 


DEATHS 

Joseph A. DiGiorgio, 74, who 

served as secretary-treasurer of the 
Seafarers for nearly 20 years until his 
retirement last year, died Dec. 26 in 
Valley Lee, Md. DiGiorgio spent 40 of 
his 50 years in the union in elected of- 
fice, advancing from patrolman and 
port agent to secretary-treasurer in 
1972. He also served as an employee 
trustee on various trust fund boards, in- 
cluding the welfare, pension and vaca- 
tion plans, which are administered by 
the SIU and its contracted operators. 

Charles H. Vaughan, 53, art and 
lighting director, set designer, graphic 
artist and computer coordinator for the 
AFL-CIO’s Labor Institute of Public 
Affairs, died Dec. 29 after a massive 
heart attack. Vaughan, a full-time staff 
member since January 1989, designed 
the AFL-CIO convention settings, 
created graphics and lighting for LIPA 
programs and productions. In a letter 
to family members. AFL-CIO President 
Lane Kirkland and Secretary-Treasurer 
Thomas R. Donahue noted that “the 
trade union movement was indeed for- 
tunate that Chuck Vaughan chose to 
devote his unique, creative talents to the 
cause of helping workers achieve a bet- 
ter life for themselves and their 
families.” He was a member of the 
Newspaper Guild and IATSE. 


compensation insurance premiums that 
employers pay are among the highest 
in the nation employees receive benefits 
that are among the lowest. Since 1985, 
workers’ compensation insurance has 
tripled. 

The new law would raise the max- 
imum benefit from the current $252 to 
$426. However, Gunn said, while the 
maximum benefits go up for the lowest- 
paid 77 percent of Texas workers, the 
new formulas actually reduce the 
amount of weekly benefits. 

In addition, workers would have 
disputes heard in a “contested case 
hearing” and then could appeal the ad- 
ministrative ruling to a panel of three 
state lawyers. 

They would not be allowed to appeal 
the case to a court for a jury trial until 
going through the new bureaucratic 
hearing procedure. 

Gunn said this restriction violates the 
state constitution’s “open courts” pro- 


over 3 million Texans who have ab- 
solutely no health insurance. One 
million of these uninsured Texans are 
children, and over half of them will not 
even be seen by a doctor this year.” 
“Those who will seek medical atten- 
tion are five times as likely as a child 
who does have insurance to use the 
emergency room as the primary source 
of medical care,” he said. 

The solution, Kellermann said, is 
“some rational, appropriate form of na- 
tional health care, where everybody 
pays and everybody’s eligible to receive 
a good, basic, decent standard of health 
care, with a strong interest on preven- 
tive medicine as well.” 

RWDSU approves 
1199 separation 

T he Retail, Wholesale and Department 
Store Union announced that its af- 
filiate, Local 1199, separated effective 
Jan. 1, after the union and its local 
determined “that their organizing and 
servicing initiatives would best be 
served if they separated.” 

The RWDSU Executive Board unani- 
mously endorsed the agreement in late 
December. 

The union said the separation allows 
Local 1199 leadership to pursue its 
preference to concentrate “its funds and 
efforts solely in the field of health 
care.” The RWDSU, which has 200 
locals in the United States and Canada, 
will pursue a 1990 convention commit- 
ment of several million dollars to 
organizing “among food workers, par- 
ticularly in poultry plants, retail 
workers and other workers in fields it 
currently represents. ’ ’ 

The RWDSU statement noted that 
Local 1 199 represents between 60,000 
and 70,000 members in the health care 
field and that the RWDSU now has be- 
tween 1 10,000 and 120,000 members, 
“largely in retail, food processing and 
distribution, general manufacturing and 
clerical and service areas.” 
“Organizing drives are currently 
under way among food processing 
workers in the southern United States, 
and U.S. and Canadian retail and in- 
dustrial workers,” the RWDSU said. 

The union noted that in addition to 
authorizing funds for organizing, the 
convention “established a training pro- 
gram for staff and stewards and com- 
mitted a half million dollars to literacy 
programs for poultry workers.” 


vision by placing “dramatic restrictions 
on both access to courts and redress for 
injuries sustained.” 

The law also denies workers a jury 
trial “in the full constitutional sense” 
by limiting the issues a jury can con- 
sider if a workers’ compensation case 
does go to court, the state federation suit 
says. 

Other provisions of the law violate 
the state constitution by treating work- 
ers differently, the union asserts. For 
example, the suit charges, seasonal 
workers, the majority of whom are 
Hispanic migrant workers, will get 
fewer benefits than non-seasonal 
workers. 

Attorneys representing the Texas 
AFL-CIO in the court action are David 
R. Richards, a well-known constitu- 
tional lawyer and former general 
counsel to the Texas AFL-CIO, and Bill 
Whitehurst, former president of the 
Texas Bar Association. 


Labor education parley mulls 
path to health care reform 


wins court stay of new workers’ comp law 




On land and sea, unions oppose AT&T’s policies 


By Sharolyn Rosier 

T he Communications Workers, an- 
gered by contract violations by 
American Telephone and Telegraph 
Co., have opposed the company’s 
hostile takeover of NCR Corp., warn- 
ing that AT&T jobs are at stake. 

And in another broadside against the 
telecommunications giant, the AFL- 
CIO Maritime Trades Department has 
condemned AT&T for considering the 
use of foreign crews to man its two new 
cable-laying ships. 

AT&T’s attitudes were the subject of 
an emergency meeting of CWA local 
leaders in Chicago, called by CWA 
Vice President Jim Irvine. 

“In light of AT&T’s violation of the 
collective bargaining contract with the 
union,” Irvine said, “we would urge 
NCR employees to get AT&T to put 
their commitment to retain all NCR 
employees after a possible takeover in 
writing. But even that doesn’t count 
with AT&T management anymore. 

“AT&T has gone from a company 
that cared about its employees and 
treated them with dignity and respect, 
to a company that betrays its employees 
at every turn,” Irvine said. 


NCR has rejected AT&T’s takeover 
bid, but AT&T has taken its case to 
stockholders, offering $90 per share of 
stock. The going rate for the stock is 
$53 per share, said Irvine. 

The union charges that AT&T has 
circumvented the contract bargained in 
1989, establishing new titles for em- 
ployees. In order to get around the col- 
lective bargaining contract, the union 
said, the company has divided into 19 
separate and competitive business units, 
which are not abiding by the national 
contract. 

Ready to fight 

“Our members are angry and frus- 
trated at AT&T’s mismanagement, and 
frankly, the mood out there is that peo- 
ple are ready to fight and are not going 
to take any more,” said Irvine. 

CWA officers, stewards and mem- 
bers have gathered hundreds of signa- 
tures of prominent Americans in an ef- 
fort to build community coalitions 
against AT&T activities. Called Con- 
cerned Communities Against AT&T 
Closings, the signers express their con- 
cern about AT&T’s pursuit of a “cor- 
porate policy which threatens the 


economic health of our communities 
and displaces longtime employees.” 

Meanwhile, the Maritime Trades 
Department called on Congress to ex- 
amine the foreign crew scheme, which 
the department said may be the “open- 
ing gun in a plan by AT&T to export 
jobs throughout the giant enterprise.” 

In a letter to members of Congress, 
MTD President Michael Sacco said, 
“Should AT&T be foolish enough to go 
forward with the scheme to hire foreign 
seamen, they certainly would forfeit 
any claim to further use the word 
American in the company name as far 
as the people of this country are con- 
cerned.” 

Sacco noted that the Seafarers, who 
have had a collective bargaining rela- 
tionship with AT&T’s subsidiary 
Transoceanic Cable Ship Co. for 31 
years, have always worked in coopera- 
tion with the company. For example, 
SIU has developed training programs to 
achieve greater efficiency and lower 
costs, he said. 

AT&T’s cable-laying ships, Long 
Lines and Charles L. Brown, hold 
laboratories and rooms full of com- 
munications gear and are among the 


most technologically advanced vessels 
afloat. No foreigners serve aboard 
either vessel. 

The expansion of AT&T’s cable ship 
fleet calls for three new cable ships — 
one of which, the Global Link, has been 
through sea trials and was expected to 
be fully operational this month. 

Agreement reached 

According to the union, the company 
and the union worked on a manning 
scale for the Global Link in August. 
Additionally, the two parties agreed the 
union would announce at its member- 
ship meetings of September and Oc- 
tober that Seafarers interested in 
employment on the new cable ships 
should register accordingly. American 
licensed officers flew to Singapore, 
joined the Global Link, and have been 
aboard the vessel since mid-summer. 

Subsequently, AT&T began con- 
sidering putting the vessel under a 
foreign flag and manning it with 
non- Americans. 

“At stake in AT&T’s job export 
strategies are hundreds of thousands of 
jobs and America’s industrial and tech- 
nological capability,” Sacco warned. 


Labor coalition wins VDT protections in San Francisco law 


Continued from Page 1 

tion of glare, correct lighting levels, and 
noise reduction of impact printers. 
Upon request, employers must provide 
arm rests, wrist rests, foot rests, ad- 
justable document holders and task 
lighting. 

Under the ordinance, employers who 
do not provide rest breaks every two 
hours will have to provide 15 minutes 
of alternate work. If no alternate work 
is available, the employer must provide 
a written explanation to the employee. 

A VDT advisory committee, com- 
posed of seven representatives of labor, 
business and the academic community, 


will be appointed by April 1 to review 
scientific and technological research 
and to submit an annual report to the 
board. 

The measure was introduced in late 
August by Supervisor Nancy Walker. 
On Dec. 10, the bill was adopted on its 
first reading by an 8-1 vote. It garnered 
a 7-4 vote on its second reading. 

Mayor Agnos, who hadn’t committed 
to signing the measure, called a seven- 
hour meeting Dec. 22, at which rep- 
resentatives of labor and business 
cooperated to craft compromise amend- 
ments that address business concerns. 
Agnos then signed the legislation. The 


proposed amendments will be the sub- 
ject of a Jan. 7 hearing and likely will 
be adopted by the board later. 

The city’s business community had 
campaigned vehemently against the 
measure, holding that the cost of com- 
pliance would make them uncompeti- 
tive and predicting businesses would 
move from the area. The compromise 
language addresses the employers’ con- 
cerns and reduces the possibility of a 
court challenge, Varacalli said. 

The amendments provide that, start- 
ing one year after the effective date, any 
new equipment bought would have to 
comply with the ordinance. Within 30 


months, businesses would have to 
upgrade old equipment to comply with 
the law, but would not have to spend 
more than $250 per workstation. Full 
compliance, regardless of cost, would 
have to be achieved four years after the 
ordinance takes effect. 

The VDT Coalition includes the San 
Francisco AFL-CIO, SEIU and its Joint 
Council 2 and Locals 250, 535, 790 and 
1000, AFSCME Local 3218, Com- 
munications Workers Local 9410, Of- 
fice and Professional Employees Local 
3, Newspaper Guild Local 52, Trans- 
port Workers Local 200 and the Pro- 
fessional and Technical Employees. 



VOLUME 36, NUMBER 1 
JANUARY 7, 1991 


INSIDE 

San Francisco law 
protects VDT users 

A union-backed coalition wins land- 
mark protections — including light and 
equipment standards — for some 
60,000 workers using video display ter- 
minals in San Francisco. 

Emergency room woes 
point to health crisis 

Families who have lost their health in- 
surance are forgoing treatment at doc- 
tors’ offices and eventually ending up 
at crowded hospital emergency rooms, 
where care is costly. 




AFGE suit challenges 
ban on outside pay 

The Government Employees are chal- 
lenging a federal ethics law that bars 
workers from being paid for speeches 
or articles on topics outside their 
government job responsibilities. 

Court supports 
ALPA recall rights 

Eastern Airlines said it will obey an ap- 
peals court ruling that rejected the car- 
rier’s practice of giving preference to 
trainees over Air Line Pilots who of- 
fered to return to work. 





Labor studies center 
lists 1991 programs 

The George Meany Center for Labor 
Studies offers its 1991 course schedule 
and introduces a Western Semester pro- 
gram at the University of California at 
Berkeley. 

Texas federation 
blocks unfair law 

The Texas AFL-CIO won the first 
round in a court battle over the state’s 
new workers’ compensation law, win- 
ning a temporary court injunction 
blocking the measure. 


mmmm 


The AFL-CIO NEWS (ISSN 001 -1 1 85) is published every two weeks. 
Second Class postage paid at Washington, D.C. Subscriptions $10 per 
year. POSTMASTER: Address changes to Room 209, 815 16th Street, 
N.W., Washington, D.C. 20006. 


1 / 7/91 


The AFL-CIO does not accept paid advertising in any of its official publications. No one is authorized 
to solicit advertising for any publications in the name of the AFL-CIO. 







VOLUME 36, NUMBER 2 JANUARY 21, 1991 


Workers struggle in worsening economy 


AFL-CIO seeks 
jobs programs ; 
UI revamping 

By Candice Johnson 

T he unemployment insurance system 
is failing the workers it was set up 
to help, AFL-CIO Secretary-Treasurer 
Thomas R. Donahue said, warning that 
millions of workers will be swamped by 
the deepening recession if the jobless 
benefits system is not repaired. 

The federation also called on Con- 
gress to develop recession-fighting jobs 
programs to meet neglected needs, and 
to expand retraining programs for dis- 
placed workers. 

Changes in the UI program made in 


the 1980s “completely disqualified 
many workers and chopped up protec- 
tions that were created for the long-term 
unemployed during recessions,” 
Donahue said, noting that only a third 
of unemployed workers received bene- 
fits in 1990, compared to two-thirds 
compensated during the 1975 recession. 

“For those lucky enough to beat the 
odds and get some benefits, their pay- 
ments average only a third of their lost 
wages” because of caps set by state 
legislatures on weekly benefits, Dona- 
hue said. 

The AFL-CIO has called on Con- 
gress to set some minimum standards 
for eligibility and benefits so that more 
workers are covered by the program. 
In addition, the federation said, Con- 
gress must address the serious shortfalls 
Continued on Page 3 


System fails 
to meet needs 
of unemployed 

By Sharolyn Rosier 
and Candice Johnson 

L aid off in March 1990 from his job 
with Analog Digital Statistics in 
Waltham, Mass., Thomas Maguire col- 
lected unemployment insurance for six 
months while running into brick walls 
in his search for a new job. 

Although highly skilled and ex- 
perienced, Maguire remains unem- 
ployed and uncompensated. Conse- 
quently, he has begun dipping into the 
college tuition fund he set up for his 17- 
year-old daughter to support his family, 


which includes four other children. 

Maguire’s story, told to the Senate 
Labor and Human Resources Commit- 
tee, is typical among American workers 
in these times when, facing layoffs and 
a tightening job market, they cannot 
count on unemployment compensation 
to help them ride out the current 
recession. 

The flawed benefit system failed 
Ernie William Bramlett, who had 
worked at a meat processing plant in 
Troy, Ohio, for 11 years. One day in 
January 1990, the company said it 
would shut down for repairs, for about 
4 to 6 weeks. “But that turned out to 
be our last day of work,” Bramlett 
recalled. With no notice, nearly 400 
workers were out on the street. 

B.J. Packing, which had bought the 
Continued on Page 13 



AFL-CIO President Lane Kirkland joins protest at the Soviet 
Embassy in Washington against the Jan. 12 invasion of 
the independent republic of Lithuania. With him is Presi- 
dent William H. Bywater of the Electronic Workers. They 
called for a cutoff of "all economic aid, credits and 


Steve Yarmola/AFL-CIO News 

loans to the USSR until democratic rights are restored 
in Lithuania." Kirkland made a similar call three weeks 
earlier after being warned by Kazimieras Uoka of the 
Lithuanian Workers Union that Soviets might take ac- 
tion "under cover of the crisis in the Persian Gulf." 


Kirkland says labor stands with troops 


T he labor movement stands in full sup- 
port of American troops, AFL-CIO 
President Lane Kirkland said the morn- 
ing after allied air strikes began in Iraq 
and Kuwait. 

“Whatever the differences over the 
best way to end Iraq’s brutal occupation 
of Kuwait, these differences must be set 
aside,” Kirkland said. 

“The American labor movement 
stands in full support of our country and 
of the men and women in our armed 


forces and their courageous efforts to 
bring this conflict to an early and 
decisive conclusion.” 

The Kirkland statement came as U.S. 
government and military officials were 
calling the Jan. 16 air strikes highly suc- 
cessful, but stressing that they were only 
the first phase. 

Since Iraq’s Aug. 2, 1990, invasion of 
Kuwait, Kirkland’s only previous com- 
ment came in the federal budget battle. 

He said on Aug. 22 that “in the face 


of this crisis, the Gramm-Rudman- 
Hollings law should be suspended to in- 
sure the nation has the flexibility to deal 
realistically with the Middle East 
emergency and related defense needs, 
with the possibility of inflation and/or 
recession, and with the threat of a severe 
energy shortage.” 

And, he noted at that time, “the na- 
tion’s human and social needs continue 
and cannot be further neglected as a 
matter of expediency.” 


USWA settles 
pension suit: 
$415 million 

By James B. Parks 

M ore than 3,000 current and former 
Steelworkers will receive a record 
$415 million from the Continental Can 
Corp. under an agreement to settle two 
civil lawsuits against the company and 
its parent Kiewit Holdings Group. 

The suit claims company officials 
conspired to deny the workers their 
negotiated pension benefits. 

“This is a historic event in the con- 
tinuing battle to protect the pension 
rights of American workers,” said 
Robert Plotkin, the lead attorney for the 
workers. The settlement, Plotkin said, 
is the largest payout to workers in the 
history of the Employee Retirement In- 
come Security Act of 1974, which pro- 
hibits employers from trying to avoid 
pension obligations. 

“Although the company dragged 
these cases through the courts for 
almost 10 years despite its clear-cut 
guilt, the USWA is pleased that the 
workers who had been fraudulently 
deprived of their hard-earned pensions 
are finally going to be compensated,” 
said Leon Lynch, USWA vice president 
for human affairs and chief negotiator 
with the container industry. 

“This unconscionable act by the 
company has created untold hardship on 
people who gave their working lives to 
Continental Can only to be turned out 
into the cold without so much as a thank 
you,” he said. 

Half of the settlement amount, $207.5 
million, has been deposited in a special 
interest-bearing account under the 

Continued on Page 6 






Raymond Crowell/Page One Photography 

As part of the AFL-CIO's campaign to keep workers' con- in all the major concourses at Washington's National 
cerns in the focus of political leaders and opinion and Dulles Airports. The airport advertising is a part 
makers, backlit "Union Yes" billboards are now in place the federation's multimedia "Union Yes" effort. 


ultimatum seen as ploy 


Rail report 
offers basis 
for accord 

By Arlee C. Green 

T he nation’s major railroads and the 
11 unions representing their 
employees found a glint of hope in a 
Presidential Emergency Board’s recom- 
mendations for resolving a three-year- 
old national contract dispute. 

“We believe the recommendations, 
with some modification, establish a 
solid base for a negotiated settlement, 
if the rail carriers pull back from their 
position on no wage increases and 
sweeping rule concessions,” said 
Richard I. Kilroy, president of the 
AFL-CIO Transportation Trades 
Department and of the Transportation 
Communications Union. 

“Rail labor did not receive, by a long 
shot, what we have patiently waited for 
after three years of bargaining and no 
wage increases,” Kilroy added. 

The Presidential Emergency Board 
No. 219 examined two sets of issues: 
health and welfare, and wages and work 
rules. Its historic 118-page report 
covered a consolidation of 22 separate 
contract cases filed with the National 
Mediation Board. 

Speaking to the board’s recommen- 
dations on health and welfare issues, 
Kilroy said the TCU believes the 
recommendations are “sufficient to 
reach an agreement, even though some 
portion of future increased costs would 
be borne by the employees from cost- 
of-living adjustments.” 

Prompt settlement needed 

The threat of war in the Middle East 
“also influences our decision to try to 
settle this issue as quickly as possible 
so that rail labor can remain a vital part 
of the defense or war effort,” he said. 

The National Railway Labor Confer- 
ence, representing 56 major rail 
transport companies, wants the unions 
to accept major rule changes and a 
nearly eight-year wage freeze. Of the 
emergency board’s report, the NLRC 
said the recommendations “go too far 
on wages and not nearly far enough on 
work rule relief. ’ ’ The unions are seek- 
ing annual 5 -percent increases and a 
modest cost-of-living adjustment, 
retroactive to July 1, 1988. 

The emergency board recommended 
a $2,000 lump-sum signing bonus, 
3-percent increases on July 1, 1991 and 
1993 and a 4-percent boost on July 1, 
1994. Three-percent lump-sum bonuses 
would be paid on July 1 , 1992, and Jan. 
1, 1993 and 1994, with a 2-percent 
lump-sum on Jan. 1, 1995. A cost-of- 
living raise would kick in July 1 , 1995. 


Daily News 

By James B. Parks 

L eaders of the unions striking the New 
York Daily News dismissed as a ploy 
an announcement that the paper may 
close or be sold, saying they would con- 
tinue to press management to stop 
posturing and talk about a settlement 
that would save the News. 

The announcement by News Pub- 
lisher James Hoge that the paper would 
close or be sold unless it could stop its 
financial hemorrhage was characterized 
as another “squeeze play” from a 
management bent not on a settlement 
but on a “union-free environment.” 
The nine unions also said they would 
continue their boycott of the paper’s 
advertisers and pursue a corporate cam- 
paign against the paper’s Chicago-based 
parent Tribune Co. 

In an effort to resolve the strike, New 
York Mayor David Dinkins summoned 
union leaders and Hoge to a Jan. 17 
summit at Gracie Mansion. 

After the meeting, George 
McDonald, president of the Allied 
Printing Trades Council, which 
represents the striking unions, said the 
meeting explored “the News’ position 
on settling with the unions or selling the 
paper.” 

“The meeting was one of procedure 
of how to go forward with negotia- 
tions,” he explained. “We are on call 


at the Mayor’s request to meet again. ” 

McDonald had said earlier he thought 
the Daily News’ Jan. 16 announcement 
about closing or selling was “just 
another ploy to in their attempt to close 
the paper eventually and blame the 
unions.” 

But he said the unions would be will- 
ing to make “major concessions” such 
as the four-day work week that 
employees of the New York Post ac- 
cepted last year to keep the paper from 
closing down. 

“We’ll come up with any efforts we 
can to save the paper,” McDonald said. 
“If they shut it down, there is nothing 
we can do about it. If they sell it, we’d 
be willing to negotiate with any new 
buyer to save the paper.” 

But McDonald did not hold out much 
hope of a settlement. “The company is 
still not looking to reach a settlement. 
They summoned Hoge to Chicago and 
laid down the law that that’s the end of 
the line,” he said. 

Barry Lipton, president of the New 
York City Newspaper Guild, said the 
move was designed to force conces- 
sions. “It’s a squeeze play, designed to 
create a pressure cooker situation,” he 
said. “Now we’ll see what the next card 
in the deck is.” 

Citing losses of $200 million over the 
past decade, Hoge announced the paper 


would either be sold or closed unless its 
“viability and profitability” could be 
assured. Earlier losses prompted a $30 
million concession by the same unions 
in 1987 bargaining, in exchange for 
management commitments for new 
plant and investment, which were not 
kept. 

Hoge did not set any deadline and 
said the paper would continue to 
negotiate with the striking unions while 
a New York investment firm advises it 
on a possible sale. But management’s 
“bargaining” was typified by a Jan. 15 
rebuff of a drivers’ union offer of a $15 
million concession package from that 
union alone. 

The Daily News sent letters to strik- 
ing and non-striking employees, Hoge 
said, to satisfy legal requirements under 
the federal plant closing law of a 60-day 
notice to employees on the possibility 
of the paper closing. 

But the time period for a possible sale 
was “a subject for negotiation with the 
unions,” he said. 

“It may never come to shutting it 
down, but we have to fulfill our obliga- 
tion,” Hoge said. He said he hoped the 
shutdown threat prompts a settlement, 
because the “closure of this paper is in 
nobody’s interest.” 

About 2,300 News employees from 
Continued on Page 16 



Director of Information: Rex Hardesty 

Editor: Michael Byrne 

News Editor: John R. Oravec 

Assistant Editors: Arlee C. Green, 

Candice Johnson, James B. Parks 

Staff Writers: Muriel H. Cooper, Mike Hall, 
Colleen M. O’Neill, Sharolyn A. Rosier 

Graphics /layout: Stan Hitt 


AFL-CIO Headquarters: 815 Sixteenth St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20006 
Telephone: (202) 637-5010 


Vol. 36, No. 2 ®<^§gfei >3 MONDAY, JANUARY 21, 1991 



The AFL-CIO News (ISSN-001-1 185) is issued every two weeks at 815 Sixteenth St.. N.W., Washington. D.C. 
The AFL-CIO does not accept paid advertising in any of its official publications. No one is authorized to solicit 
advertising for any publications in the name of the AFL-CIO. 


Official Publication 
of the 

American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations 


Lane Kirkland, president 
Thomas R. Donahue, secretary-treasurer 

EXECUTIVE COUNCIL 


Albert Shanker 
William H. Wynn 
Joyce D. Miller 
Richard I. Kilroy 
William H. By water 
John T. Joyce 
Robert A. Georgine 
Jay Mazur 
John J. Barry 
Susan Bianchi-Sand 
John N. Sturdivant 


Edward T. Hanley 
John DeConcini 
John J. Sweeney 
Vincent R. Sombrotto 
Marvin J. Boede 
Lynn R. Williams 
Milan Stone 
Lenore Miller 
Sigurd Lucassen 
Moe Biller 
Richard L. Trumka 


Angelo Fosco 
Wayne E. Glenn 
James E. Hatfield 
Gerald W. McEntee 
Owen Bieber 
Morton Bahr 
Gene Upshaw 
Jack Sheinkman 
William J. McCarthy 
George J. Kourpias 
Frank Hanley 






IMSLfflON 


Congress puts priority 
on key labor legislation 



Steve Yarmola/AFL-CIO News 

AFL-CIO Vice President Lynn Williams testifies before the Senate Labor and 
Human Resources Committee on the need for anti-recession policies. 

AFL-CIO says jobs, retraining 
programs needed in recession 


By Mike Hall 

F our major pieces of AFL-CIO- 
backed legislation, including three 
that fell victim to President Bush’s 
vetoes, were given top priority by the 
102nd Congress. 

Civil rights, family and medical 
leave, anti-strikebreaker and Hatch Act 
reform bills were reintroduced the first 
day the House was in session. 

In addition, support for national 
health care reform, a major legislative 
priority of the AFL-CIO in this Con- 
gress, was voiced by several Demo- 
cratic leaders. 

“Within the next few weeks, the 
(House) Speaker will announce that 
health care legislation will be our 
highest priority on the domestic agenda 
for the 102nd Congress,” House 
Democratic Leader Richard Gephardt 
(D-Mo.) said in testimony before the 
Senate Labor and Human Resources 
Committee. “I expect we will begin 
work in earnest on major health care 
legislation in the early months of the 
first session.” 

Health care priority 

Senate Majority Leader George 
Mitchell of Maine, who provided writ- 
ten testimony to the committee, also 
promised health care would be a top 
Senate issue. 

The Civil Rights Act of 1991, as 
H.R. 1, was the first bill introduced in 
the House. Similar legislation was 
vetoed last year after winning by large 
margins in both chambers. 

“The swift passage of this bill will 
give the administration a chance to do 
the right thing,” said Rep. Jack Brooks 
(D-Texas) who introduced the bill. 

The bill is designed to repair the 
damage done by several Supreme Court 
rulings, which made it more difficult for 
minority and female workers to gain 
legal remedies for workplace bias. 

Even though last year’s legislation 
contained language specifying that the 
bill did not require quotas, Bush cited 
quotas as a major reason for his veto. 

Calling the quota charge “a red her- 
ring,” Brooks said H.R. 1 specifies that 
“it shall not be construed to require or 
encourage the adoption of quotas.” 
No House hearings have been sched- 
uled, but Rep. Don Edwards (D-Calif.) 
said, “We hope to have this bill on the 
floor as quickly as possible.” It has not 
yet been introduced in the Senate. 

Family and medical leave legislation 
was the second bill dropped into the 
hopper. Introduced by Rep. William 
Clay (D-Mo.), H.R. 2 is the same 


I n response to inquiries from union 
workers about the possibility of 
federal asbestos compensation legisla- 
tion, AFL-CIO Legislative Director 
Robert M. McGlotten has advised that 
no legislation regarding any asbestos 
compensation system has been 
introduced. 

“Moreover, so far as we are aware, 
no such legislation has even been 
drafted,” McGlotten said. 

McGlotten noted, however, that the 


bipartisan compromise that passed the 
House and Senate only to be struck 
down by Bush last year. The Senate 
version, sponsored by Sen. Christopher 
Dodd (D-Conn.) is S. 5 

The bill allows a worker to take up 
to 12 weeks of unpaid leave for the birth 
or adoption of a child, for the serious 
illness of an immediate family member 
or for the employee’s own illness. 

It also would require the continuation 
of employer-provided health insurance 
during the leave and the reinstatement 
of the employee to the same or equiva- 
lent position after the leave. 

Clay noted that former Rep. Lynn 
Martin (R-Ill.), the newly nominated 
Secretary of Labor, voted for the bill 
and also for the override last year. 
“Hopefully (that) will help the presi- 
dent re-evaluate his position,” he said. 

Legislation banning the use of perma- 
nent replacement workers during an 
economic strike has been introduced in 
the House and Senate (H.R. 5 and 
S. 55). Last year, hearings in both 
chambers highlighted the contradiction 
in the law and the human toll from ex- 
panded hiring of “permanent” 
replacements. 

Workers at the New York Daily 
News are the . latest of thousands of 
workers in recent years who exercised 
their right to strike only to see 
employers hire replacements. 

To reverse 1938 ruling 

The legislation would reverse a 1938 
Supreme Court ruling that, while 
employers cannot fire workers engag- 
ed in a legal strike, they can “per- 
manently replace” them. 

“The striking workers are legally 
helpless to do anything but look on as 
they lose their jobs,” Clay said. The 
bills have gained 132 co-sponsors in the 
House and 22 in the Senate. 

With the reintroduction of Hatch Act 
reform, H.R. 20, federal workers will 
have another chance to receive many of 
the political rights most Americans en- 
joy. This legislation also passed by 
large margins in both houses last year 
but was then vetoed by Bush. 

Hatch Act restrictions on various of 
forms of political activity affect some 
3 million federal and postal employees. 
They cannot speak at political gather- 
ings, serve as convention delegates, cir- 
culate nomination petitions or run for 
partisan office. 

The bill would lift many of the 3,000 
regulations enforcing and interpreting 
the Act. The bill also maintains prohibi- 
tions against on-the-job political activity. 


AFL-CIO has an “open mind” on 
whether the federation would support 
or oppose a substitute for the current 
legal system. 

He emphasized that the AFL-CIO 
would “only consider supporting 
changes in the current law that increase 
the total amount provided to current and 
future asbestos claimants over the 
amount being provided through the cur- 
rent legal procedures.” 

Thousands of workers who were ex- 


Continued from Page 1 

in some state funds by setting minimum 
financing standards and should rework 
the federal extended benefit program so 
that workers in high unemployment 
areas affected by the recession can ac- 
tually receive benefits. 

In a letter to Rep. Dan Rostenkowski 
(D-Minn.), chairman of the House 
Ways and Means Committee, AFL- 
CIO Legislative Director Robert M. 
McGlotten said that modifications to the 
extended benefit program make it “vir- 
tually useless.” The federation is call- 
ing for a 50-percent federal payment to 
extend benefits an additional 39 weeks, 
with the trigger tied to a state’s total 
unemployment rate. 

Testifying for the AFL-CIO before 
the Senate Labor and Human Resources 
Committee, Steelworkers President 
Lynn Williams noted that the number 
of long-term jobless — 26 weeks or 
more — now stands at 799,000 work- 
ers, an increase of 100,000 in the past 
two months. 

Williams called for “a special sup- 
plemental health care program for the 
unemployed ... to pay health care pre- 
miums temporarily for workers who 
lose their jobs and face the loss of health 
insurance.” 

The AFL-CIO also criticized the 
“experience rating” system, under 
which companies with fewer workers 
on jobless benefits pay lower taxes, en- 
couraging employers to support restrict- 
ions on eligibility. 

“Too many state legislators and state 
UI administrators adopt the business 
view that it is more important to keep 
taxes low and eligibility restrictions 
tight, instead of helping workers and 


posed to asbestos in the workplace and 
later developed diseases linked to the 
substance currently are involved in 
long, drawn-out legal battles for com- 
pensation. Many of these workers have 
been contacted by lawyers and groups 
that specialize in representing asbestos 
victims, who have been saying leg- 
islation that would restrict asbestos 
compensation had been introduced in 
Congress. McGlotten ’s comments 
countered this misinformation. 


their families,” said Mark Roberts, 
assistant director of the AFL-CIO 
Department of Economic Research. 

Williams urged the Senate panel to 
address the nation’s infrastructure and 
social ills while trying to stimulate the 
economy and provide jobs. “This 
recession, as other recessions, needs to 
be addressed with specific federal anti- 
recession policies.” 

A jobs program, Williams said, could 
provide “extensive new infrastructure 
as well as repair and replacement of the 
existing system of bridges, highways, 
water and sewage treatment facilities, 
and toxic waste cleanup.” 

“New, low-cost housing is needed as 
well as rehabilitation of existing hous- 
ing for low- and moderate-income 
families,” Williams said. 

Williams disputed the economic 
forecasters who say this recession will 
be short and shallow, noting that 
workers bear the biggest brunt of the 
miscalculations. 

“In the last recession, the consensus 
among economic forecasters widely 
missed the mark on unemployment” as 
the jobless rate in the Reagan recession 
hit 10.7 percent in late 1982, he said. 

“It took until 1985 for unemployment 
to come back down 7.3 percent and un- 
til 1988 for unemployment to drop to 
5.5 percent,” he said. He contrasted 
that with the relatively quick recovery 
from previous U.S. recessions, proving 
that federal anti-recession moves can 
speed the recovery. 

“Unemployment is a terrible experi- 
ence,” he continued. “It is first of all 
a loss of income, but it is more than 
that. It is loss of respect and status, loss 
of using one’s productive capability. 

comp claims 

Some asbestos victims groups also at- 
tacked Rep. Pat Williams (D-Mont.) for 
stating his concerns about the inade- 
quacies of litigation as the means of set- 
tling asbestos claims. 

McGlotten strongly defended 
Williams, emphasizing that the con- 
gressman has compiled an 89 percent 
labor voting record and has a solid 
record on asbestos questions and on 
workers’ health and safety issues 
generally. 


Federation debunks rumors on asbestos 







Ravenswood 
Steelworkers 
win benefits 



Dale Ferrell/Ferrell Photographies 


Thousands rally in support of Steelworkers locked out by Ravenswood Aluminum Corp. 


By Sharolyn Rosier 

S ome 1,700 Steelworkers, locked out 
Nov. 1 by Ravenswood Aluminum 
Corp. of Ravenswood, W.Va., began 
the New Year with two rulings in their 
favor. 

The state unemployment commission 
reversed findings of a lower panel and 
awarded unemployment compensation 
to the members of USWA Local 5668. 
In addition, the National Labor Rela- 
tions Board issued a formal unfair labor 
practices complaint against the com- 
pany for using strikebreaker security 
forces to interfere with picketing 
activity. 

Vance Security, the same strike- 
breaking outfit hired by Pittston Coal 
Group during its dispute with the Mine 
Workers, was characterized by Jackson 
County Circuit Court Judge Fred Fox 
as a “group of arrogant, quasi-military 
strangers.” 

In granting unemployment compen- 
sation, the review board of the state’s 
Department of Employment Security 
found that the Steelworkers have “il- 
lustrated and shown a willingness to 
work,” adding that “it was the action 
of the employer that prevented them 
from doing so.” 

Ravenswood supervisors ordered 
workers on the overnight shift to leave 
the facility Nov. 1, shortly after union 
negotiators turned down management’s 
final proposal for a new contract to 
replace one that expired midnight Oct. 
31. 

Union representatives offered to ex- 
tend the terms of the expired contract 
while negotiations continued and to give 
48 hours’ notice before any strike was 
called, but the RAC refused the offer. 

“What this company has done is an 
affront to every worker in the state of 


West Virginia,” said Joe Chapman, 
USWA staff representative. 

A proposal submitted by RAC would 
have eliminated both a bonus system, 
which recently has accounted for well 
over 10 percent of each employee’s 
take-home pay, and all cost-of-living 
protection, said the union. 

In addition, the company has failed 
to pay wages and benefits owed to 
workers for work performed prior to 
the lockout, the union said in a lawsuit 
filed in Jackson County Circuit Court. 

“It’s obvious RAC is determined to 
pay off its debt on the backs of its 
workers,” said Chapman. “How else 
does one explain what the company is 
doing? It goes beyond mere corporation 
greed, bad as that is.” 

Chapman noted that the union on 
Nov. 28 presented the company with 
dramatically revised proposals in a 
meeting supervised by federal mediator 
Carmon Newell, offering to withdraw 
a proposal to continue the price-based 
bonus plan if the company agreed to 


restore wage rates existing in 1983. 

That proposal would result in an 
average increase of $1 .34 an hour over 
the current wage rate during the three- 
year-life of the agreement, Chapman 
said. The price bonus has been paying 
workers as much as $2 an hour. The 
union also significantly revised a con- 
siderable number of non-monetary 
items. 

“The company just absolutely, blank- 
ly refused all our proposals,” said 
Chapman. “This is the first time in all 
of my 24 years of bargaining experience 
that a company involved in a work stop- 
page has refused to discuss its reasons 
for rejecting a contract proposal. I’m 
astounded at how hard-headed they 
are.” 

RAC is currently operating the plant 
at reduced production levels, using 
salaried employees and as many as 600 
replacement workers. 

A hearing on the NLRB charge will 
be conducted April 17. The board cited 
the company for removing and damag- 


ing picket signs, and removing an 
American flag raised in a picket area. 
It further cited RAC security forces for 
“in a provocating manner, marching en 
masse” against pickets. 

The charges stem from incidents that 
prompted Circuit Court Judge Fox, in 
a ruling Dec. 5, to order RAC security 
forces to remain on company property. 

“The complaint confirms the union’s 
repeated charges of RAC harassment 
toward union members exercising their 
guaranteed right to publicly protest 
against unfair treatment,” said Chap- 
man. “RAC must learn that intimida- 
tion is not an acceptable labor relations 
tool.” 

Local 5668 President Dan Stidham 
vowed that the workers would continue 
to fight, but noted that “each day the 
lockout lasts threatens the livelihood, 
living standards and economic stability 
of the local’s members.” 

Union members who would like to 
assist Local 5668 in its campaign should 
call 304/768-7395. 


Wheeling Steelworkers win back $70 million 


By Arlee C. Green 

T he 13,500 active and retired Steel- 
workers, whose contract givebacks 
helped return Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel 
Corp. to profitability, recaptured nearly 
$70 million in wages and benefits owed 
to them when the USWA signed a new 
bargaining agreement with the com- 
pany. 

The contract signing followed by one 
day the court approval of Wheeling- 
Pittsburgh ’s amended reorganization 
plan by federal bankruptcy Judge War- 
ren H. Bentz. 

Andrew “Lefty” Palm, chair of the 
union’s negotiating committee and 
director of USWA District 15 in Pitts- 
burgh, hailed the contract signing as a 
“new beginning of a long struggle for 
giving Steelworkers at Wheeling-Pitts- 
burgh their payback for helping this 
company survive bankruptcy.” 
According to USWA District 23 
Director Jim Bowen of Wheeling, 
W.Va., “This signing represents a long 
overdue dividend to the major 
stakeholders of this company that will 
be felt for years to come.” 

The new labor agreement will permit 
the active and retired workers at 


Wheeling-Pittsburgh to recover $35 
million from a profit-sharing plan 
negotiated in 1983. Similarly, workers 
and retirees will receive 2.2 million 
shares, or roughly 11 percent of the 
common stock in the reorganized com- 
pany. The USWA said that other mem- 
bers’ claims, totaling nearly $20 
million, will be paid at about 70 cents 
on the dollar. 

Taken together, Palm said, the total 
financial distribution to USWA mem- 
bers will amount to about $70 million. 

USWA General Counsel Paul White- 
head said the court’s action concludes 
one of the longest bankruptcy 
reorganizations in history. 

An official tally of ballots on file at 
the bankruptcy court shows Steel- 
workers holding claims and stock in 
Wheeling-Pittsburgh had voted 95 per- 
cent in favor of the reorganization plan. 
The contract was ratified, 4,615 to 329. 

Under the labor accord, active 
workers will receive a $1.50 an hour 
increase, retroactive to July 1, 1990, 
and a cash payment equal to an extra 
week of 1990 vacation. The new con- 
tract covers plants in Ohio, West 
Virginia and Pennsylvania. 


Other benefits restored in the new 
agreement are additional holidays, in- 
creased shift differentials and higher 
Sunday shift premiums. The USWA 
members also gained a new profit- 
sharing program, cost-of-living protec- 
tions, enhanced insurance benefits and 
increased protections against contract- 
ing out of work. 

Retirees will be eligible to enroll in 
major medical insurance coverage with 
50 percent of the cost to be paid by the 
steelmaker and certain surviving 
spouses will be eligible for new annual 
cash benefits, the union said. 

The new labor pact was reached in 
mid- August, two days before a strike 
deadline. The 5,500 active members 
had earlier rejected a package that 
would have paid them just 13 cents on 
the dollar for their $114 million in 
claims against the company, while other 
creditors would have gotten 74 cents on 
the dollar. 

Wheeling-Pittsburgh ’s largest share- 
holder and creditor, New York investor 
Ron LeBow, led a group of investors in 
talks with the USWA, eventually pro- 
ducing the accord that provides a 
payback of 52 cents on the dollar. 


Union Privilege 
gains deferment 
on R.I. payments 

Thanks to the AFL-CIO’s Union 
Privilege program, some 6,400 union 
members in Rhode Island will be able 
to defer their credit card payments 
without penalty if they cannot reach 
funds frozen when Gov. Bruce Sundlun 
closed many banks and credit unions. 

“The Bank of New York (Delaware) 
will allow Rhode Island union members 
who carry the Union Privilege Master- 
Card to defer their January payments if 
they’ve been affected by the closings,” 
said Union Privilege Director David 
Silberman. The bank will disregard any 
delinquency and waive any late fees 
caused by the closings, he said. 

“In addition,” Silberman said, “the 
bank has agreed to temporarily increase 
the credit lines of Rhode Island mem- 
bers by up to $500 to help them through 
the crisis.” 

Silberman said that Union Privilege 
MasterCard holders who need as- 
sistance can call the bank at 
800/622-2580. 




ARCO agrees to pay record OSHA fine for explosion 


By Arlee C. Green 

A RCO Chemical Co. has agreed to 
pay a record $3. 48-million fine to 
settle hundreds of safety violations 
found after an explosion killed 17 
workers last July. 

ARCO is the second major chemical 
company fined for safety violations that 
led to explosions in plants in the 
Houston area. Phillips Petroleum Co. 
is contesting a $5.6 million penalty 
related to a 1989 explosion that killed 
23 workers. 

The two explosions prompted the Oc- 
cupational Safety and Health Admin- 
istration to propose a safety standard for 
chemical plants, which is the subject of 
hearings being conducted in Washing- 
ton and Houston. 

ARCO agreed to pay the $3.48 mil- 
lion in the wake of an OSHA investiga- 
tion that uncovered numerous safety 
violations following the blast at its 
Channelview, Texas, plant on July 5. 
Of the 17 workers killed, a dozen were 
contract workers. The blast’s 200-foot- 
tall fireball leveled a city -block-long 
area inside the non-union ARCO plant. 

Earlier, Phillips was fined $5.6 
million for 575 safety violations related 
to an Oct. 23, 1989, explosion at its 
Pasadena, Texas, plant. Of the 23 
workers killed, 14 were members of the 
Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers. 
More than 100 persons were injured. 
In both instances, contract employees 


were doing maintenance work in the 
area where the explosions occurred. 
OC AW repeatedly has urged employers 
not to contract outside firms to do the 
critical maintenance work on equipment 
in an industry where minor mistakes 
can lead to catastrophes. 

OCAW, the AFL-CIO and other 
unions will testify Feb. 26 in Houston 
at a second OSHA hearing on its pro- 
posed chemical process safety manage- 


ment standard. The proposal’s failure 
to address the use of contract workers 
will be cited as a critical shortcoming, 
the unions said. 

At a mid-December hearing, repre- 
sentatives of construction and industrial 
unions underscored the proposed rule’s 
weaknesses and omissions. 

In its findings on the ARCO blast, 
OSHA noted that employees of several 
contract firms were on-site at the time 
of the blast. Since ARCO maintained 
total control of the site and dictated the 
working conditions, OSHA held it 
responsible for worker safety. ARCO 
Chemical Co. is a subsidiary of the Los 


Angeles-based Atlantic Richfield Co. 

OSHA found that an oxygen analyzer 
malfunctioned three weeks before the 
accident, allowing excessive oxygen 
levels in a 900,000-gallon caustic 
wastewater tank. Contract maintenance 
workers shut off nitrogen to the tank at 
a time when it needed to be increased 
to prevent an explosion from the oxygen 
buildup. 

The company was cited for 347 will- 


ful violations for failing to protect 347 
workers on-site against hazards posed 
by failure to monitor conditions that led 
to the explosion, and 15 serious vio- 
lations covering employee training, 
emergency response plans, lockout/tag- 
out devices, fire detection and pro- 
tection equipment, employee alarms, 
medical examinations and hazard com- 
munications. 

As part of the settlement, ARCO will 
revamp its safety programs at facilities 
in Channelview and Bay port, Texas, 
Paines ville, Ohio, and Pittsburgh. It 
will analyze hazards associated with the 
chemical processes used at each plant, 


and develop recommendations to be 
implemented. OSHA will monitor the 
company’s efforts at improving its 
safety preparedness. 

The record ARCO settlement 
eclipsed the mid-December agreement 
with the USX Corp., which agreed to 
pay $3.3 million in fines to settle safety 
citations issued by OSHA in November 
1989. The agency had proposed penal- 
ties totaling $7.3 million for violations 
at USX’s Fairless Hills, Pa., steel mill 
and Clairton, Pa., coke works. 

Safety committees of Steelworkers 
Locals 1557 and 4889 had documented 
thousands of serious hazards at the two 
facilities, where 17 workers had died 
since 1972, including four in the two 
years prior to OSHA’s action. 

The local unions supported the settle- 
ment, saying it confirms their conten- 
tion that “USX willfully allowed the 
safety and health conditions in its 
facilities to deteriorate to such a point 
that workers were in serious danger.’’ 

The company still refuses to provide 
the union with reports it sent to OSHA 
on its plans for correcting the viola- 
tions, the union said. 

In the settlement, USX agreed to cor- 
rect violations relating to hearing im- 
pairment, electricity, hazard com- 
munication, crane operation and record- 
keeping, and to extend the safety effort 
to other plants in Pennsylvania, Illinois 
and Alabama. 


OCAW repeatedly has urged employers not to 
contract outside firms to do the critical main- 
tenance work on equipment in an industry where 
minor mistakes can lead to catastrophes . 


Mine Workers mount drive 
to counter acid rain fallout 



UMWA photo 


UMWA President Richard Trumka tells a conference on acid rain that coalition- 
building is needed to save Mine Workers' jobs. 


By Arlee C. Green 

T he Mine Workers, warning of poten- 
tially high job losses among their 
members in the Midwest, have 
launched a grass-roots campaign to urge 
governors, legislators and public util- 
ity regulators to promote the construc- 
tion of scrubbers and other clean coal 
technologies to reduce emissions at 
electric power plants now burning high- 
sulfur coal. 

UMWA President Richard Trumka 
predicted that the Clean Air Act amend- 
ments enacted last fall could cost the 
jobs of 15,000 miners who dig high- 
sulfur coal unless electric utilities are 
encouraged or required to install expen- 
sive scrubbers to reduce emissions. 

Under the Clean Air Act, utilities 
must reduce sulfur dioxide emissions by 
10 million tons by the year 2000. 
Because scrubbers are not required 
under the law, utilities now burning 
locally available high-sulfur coal will be 
tempted to begin “fuel- switching’’ by 
importing low-sulfur coal mined in 
other regions, Trumka said. 

Coalition-building will be a key to the 
union’s success, Trumka told 400 union- 
ists attending a strategy conference in 
Lexington, Ky. He urged strong ties 


with other unions, consumers, the coal 
and utility industries and other groups. 

“We’ll be needing to reach out as 
never before,” Trumka said. “Where 
we have the opportunity to build those 
clean coal coalitions, we want it to be 
as big and as strong and inclusive as we 
can make it.” 

Among the proposals UMWA mem- 
bers will be advancing at the state level 
include measures to provide relief to 
utility companies for the costs of con- 
structing and installing scrubbers and 
other equipment, plus other incentives 
to promote the use of locally mined 
coal, Trumka said. 

Stanley I. Garnett II, vice president 
of finance for Allegheny Power Sys- 
tems Inc. (APS), said, “We cannot see 
the logic of abandoning our local coal 
resources and switching to distant, low- 
sulfur coal. Doing so will inevitably 
lead to massive unemployment in our 
service area, will cost us some of our 
biggest electric customers and will ex- 
pose our energy supply to the dangers 
of the long-haul.” 

APS is a utility holding company 
whose subsidiaries include Monon- 
gahela Power Co., Potomac Edison Co. 
and West Penn Power Co. Nearly 90 


percent of the companies’ generating 
power is coal-fired, with 97 percent of 
the 18 million tons of coal used annually 
coming from mines in West Virginia, 
Pennsylvania, Maryland and Ohio, 
Garnett said. 

He predicted it would cost APS about 
$2 billion over the next 10 years to in- 
stall scrubbers at its power plants. But 
the increasing investment in scrubbers, 
he said, “will not only significantly 
lower the ultimate cost of scrubbers, but 


will also avoid ‘rate shock’ problems 
which occur when utilities are not 
allowed to include new equipment in the 
rate base until after new facilities go in 
service.” 

Rep. Bill DeWeese, majority leader 
of the Pennsylvania General Assembly, 
presented the view from the states and 
urged the participants to press for enact- 
ment of legislation backing installation 
of scrubbers, calling it a good policy for 
utilities and the environment. 


AFSCME, AFGE win units injustice, Treasury Departments 


F ederal workers, in separate elections 
at the Justice and Treasury Depart- 
ments, voted overwhelmingly to 
unionize, selecting AFSCME and the 
Government Employees as their bar- 
gaining representatives. 

At the Justice Department, AFSCME 
District Council 26 won a unit of 1 , 150 
employees that includes secretaries, ad- 
ministrative, clerical, paralegals and 
legal technicians in the six litigating 
divisions and the Office of the Solicitor 
General. The workers selected 
AFSCME, 460-32. 

The council waged a two-year 


organizing campaign where the main 
issue was the lack of upward mobility. 
Carl Goldman, organizing director for 
Council 26, said the union was able to 
point to other sectors of the Justice 
Department where mandated upward 
mobility programs were working. 

The key to the union’s success in win- 
ning the Justice Department employees 
who are spread out in 1 1 buildings in 
downtown Washington was an organiz- 
ing committee of 100 workers that met 
weekly, Goldman said. Now that 
AFSCME has won, the council is work- 
ing to sign up new members. 


AFSCME Council 26 already repre- 
sented about 800 Justice Department 
workers in three other units — U.S. At- 
torney’s Office for District of Colum- 
bia, Justice Management Division, and 
Office of Justice Programs — and 
workers at the Library of Congress, 
U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, 
Peace Corps and Action. 

AFGE won a unit of more than 400 
workers at the Treasury Department’s 
Office of Thrift Supervision. AFGE 
President John N. Sturdivant said the 
final tally of ballots — 187-5 — “sends 
a clear message to OTS management 


that, like it or not, the union is here to 
stay.” 

The OTS was created under the 
Financial Institutions Reform Recovery 
and Enforcement Act of 1989 to deal 
with the savings and loan crisis. Many 
of its employees formerly worked at the 
now-abolished Federal Home Loan 
Bank Board. 

Although AFGE Local 3295 was the 
certified bargaining agent for bank 
board employees, workers again were 
given a choice regarding union 
representation after the new agency was 
created. 




Steelworkers split profits from bankrupt company’s sale 


By James B. Parks 

S ome 2,000 workers at the Sharon 
Steel Corp. stand to make about 
$17,000 each as their share of the prof- 
its after the company was sold for $300 
million. 

In 1986, in order to save the com- 
pany, production and maintenance 
workers agreed to participate in an 
employee stock ownership plan in lieu 
of concessions that averaged about 
$20,000 each, said Jim English, the 
Steelworkers’ associate general 
counsel. 

But the company declared bankruptcy 
before the employees could get their 
stock. The workers continued to work 
under the contract, but requested that 
the bankruptcy court require the com- 
pany to pay the employees what they 
would have earned under the ESOP. 

The workers will receive the full 
value of their “stock” from the date of 


the bankruptcy filing — March 1987 — 
and about 32 cents on the dollar for its 
value from the date of the contract to 
the filing, English said. 

The sale to the investment banking 
firm of Castle Harlan Inc. will bring 
Sharon out from under the protection 
of the federal bankruptcy court through 
a reorganization plan approved in 
November. 

New 4-year contract 

The bankruptcy judge approved the 
reorganization after members of the 
Steelworkers approved a new four-year 
contract that takes effect with the sale. 

The reorganization leaves two com- 
panies, Sharon Steel, which includes the 
steel operations, and Mueller In- 
dustries, which consists of all former 
Sharon subsidiaries. 

The contract does not change wage 
rates, but establishes a new profit- 


sharing plan and sets up a bonus pro- 
gram linked to the monthly level of steel 
shipments. 

The new contract, English said, con- 
tains several unique features. The 
USWA reached a collective bargaining 
agreement with Castle Harlan that will 
make Sharon Steel more likely to suc- 
ceed, he said. 

The unions thought the buyers paid 
too much for the company and that they 
would be under capitalized, English 
said. 

To protect the workers and to make 
the company more competitive, the 
Steelworkers negotiated restrictive 
language on dividends and several other 
requirements. 

Under the contract, no dividends can 
be paid if the new owners are in default 
on major collective bargaining agree- 
ments, in default to the banks, have 
operating income below a certain 


amount or are not complying with re- 
quired capital expenditures. 

The union also gains a seat on the 
company’s board of directors, he said. 

Guaranteed loans 

Sharon Steel’s former owners must 
guarantee $16.5 million in loans to 
finance a new continuous caster and pay 
for the retiree insurance for the next five 
years. 

As part of the deal, the union now 
holds a mortgage on the steel com- 
pany’s assets to secure the retiree in- 
surance obligations. 

Finally, the seller had to put $65 
million of the sale proceeds into the 
pension fund. The fund was five years 
behind in payments, English said, and 
this will bring it up to two years behind. 
Mueller will agree to a lien on the 
obligation for the remaining two years, 
he said. 


Continental Can pension ploy 
costs $415 million to settle 



Dave Rentz/Steelworkers 


Celebrating the $415 million settlement of a suit on Continental Can Co.'s 
ploy to block workers from getting their pensions are from left: USWA 
Local 4337 President William Donnelly, plaintiff Al Jakub, USWA District 
15 Director Andrew "Lefty" Palm and plaintiff Robert Gavalik. 


Continued from Page 1 

court’s control. The other half is to be 
deposited by Feb. 28. 

Lynch said the exact amounts each 
employee will receive are still being 
computed, but some published reports 
have claimed the amount may range 
from $10,000 to $250,000. 

Meanwhile, the Labor Department is 
investigating whether top Continental 
officials broke criminal laws in connec- 
tion with the secret plan to lay off 
workers to keep them from qualifying 
for pensions. It was that plan which led 
to the civil suits. 

“We don’t know what the investiga- 
tion will show, but in our minds there 
were clear violations of the law and of 
our contract,” Lynch said. “If the in- 
vestigation does uncover violations, we 
hope those responsible will be pun- 
ished.” 

Conspiracy alleged 

The New York Times reported that 
Labor and Justice Department invest- 
igators have gathered evidence they 
believe prove that Continental Can ex- 
ecutives conspired to defraud the work- 
ers of their rightful pensions and are 
guilty of perjury and obstruction of 
justice. 

The suits were filed in 1983. In May 
1989, H. Lee Sarokin, a U.S. District 
Court judge in Newark, N.J., declared 


in a blistering opinion, that Continen- 
tal Can officials had engaged in a 
“complex, secret and deliberate 
scheme” to deny workers negotiated 
pension benefits. 

“The evidence of the plan, its secrecy 
and its execution comes from the files 
of the defendants themselves,” Sarokin 
said. “The documents are more than a 
smoking gun. They are a fusillade.” 

An appeals court this past summer 
unanimously upheld Sarokin’s ruling, 
calling what Continental had run “a 
devious scheme.” 

Computer secretly used 

Sarokin found that Continental vio- 
lated federal pension laws by secretly 
having a computer program written that 
enabled the company to manipulate 
work among its plants so that factories 
would be closed and workers laid off 
just before the workers became eligible 
for pension payments. 

In some cases, laid-off workers 
needed only weeks or months to qualify 
for the pensions, which usually 
amounted to between $300 and $600 
per month for persons whose age and 
service combined totaled at least 65 
years. The pensions also carried a $300 
to $400 monthly supplement to age 62 
as well as health and life insurance 
through retirement. 

During the suit, documents presented 


into evidence showed the company tried 
to conceal the existence of the plan by 
changing the computer program after 
workers found out about it. 

Documents showed the plan was 
called “BELL,” a reverse acronym for 
“Let’s Limit Employee Benefits.” 

The scheme first came to light at 
Continental’s West Mifflin, Pa., plant 
in 1981, when the USWA became 
suspicious of large scale layoffs of 
workers close to pension eligibility and 
the extraordinary lengths the company 


went to in order to prevent recalls. 

Plotkin credited the union for its com- 
mitment to the case. “Most of the class 
members are former members of the 
union, and were former members 
throughout this litigation. And yet the 
union advanced more than $2.5 million 
for out-of-pocket expenses for this 
litigation. 

“Litigation of this size and complex- 
ity could not have been prosecuted 
without the financial support of the 
union,” he said. 


New England pension fund using MacBride Principles 


By James B. Parks 

T he New England Health Care 
Employee Pension Fund has become 
the first Taft-Hartley fund to apply the 
MacBride Principles for justice in 
Northern Ireland for its investments. 

This action opens up a whole new 
sector of labor taking up the campaign 
for human rights in Northern Ireland, 
said Joseph Jamison, the New York 
State AFL-CIO’s director of research 
and director of the Irish-American 
Labor Coalition. 

Expanding movement 

Up to now, the campaign for the 
MacBride Principles has been waged by 
the public employee pension funds, 
Jamison said. He expressed hope that 
the New England fund’s endorsement 
will help the movement catch on. 

Taft-Hartley funds are jointly run by 
trustees from labor and management, 
Jamison said, and fall under the restric- 


tions of the federal Employee Retire- 
ment Income Security Act of 1974. 

Public employee funds are regulated 
by state and local governments and have 
less business influence in making in- 
vestment decisions, he said. So far, 13 
state employee pension funds have 
adopted the MacBride Principles. 

In a letter to the Marco Consulting 
Group, the New England fund’s outside 
investment manager, fund trustees said 
that religious discrimination is en- 
trenched in Northern Ireland. The 
trustees instructed Marco to vote for 
resolutions at various annual stock- 
holders’ meetings supporting the 
principles. 

Last summer, a labor delegation 
headed by AFL-CIO Secretary- 
Treasurer Thomas R. Donahue visited 
Ireland under the auspices of the Irish 
Congress of Trade Unions. 

The delegation’s report to the AFL- 
CIO Executive Council urged continued 


support for the MacBride Principles 
even though the Irish government had 
approved a new Fair Employment Act. 
The act falls far short of labor’s aspira- 
tions, the report said. 

“By continuing the pressure interna- 
tionally ... the somewhat stronger new 
law on the books can make progress 
toward alleviating the pattern of en- 
trenched sectarian discrimination that 
still exists in the North,” the group’s 
report said. 

Blue-ribbon delegation 

The delegation also included AFL- 
CIO Vice Presidents Morton Bahr of 
the Communications Workers and John 
Sweeney of the Service Employees, and 
Edward Cleary, president of the New 
York State AFL-CIO. 

The AFL-CIO Executive Council in 
1985 endorsed the MacBride Principles, 
which were developed by human rights 
activist Sean MacBride. 


The principles lay the foundation for 
justice in the workplaces. They call for: 

• Increasing the number of persons 
from underrepresented religious groups 
throughout the workforce. 

• Guaranteeing security for minor- 
ity employees. 

• Banning provocative religious or 
political symbols from the workplace. 

• Publicly announcing all job open- 
ings and making special efforts to 
recruit applicants from the under- 
represented groups. 

• Abolishing job reservations, ap- 
prenticeships, etc., that discriminate 
against workers on the basis of religion 
or ethnic origin. 

• Developing training programs for 
minorities. 

• Establishing procedures to iden- 
tify and recruit minorities for manage- 
ment positions, and appointing a senior 
manager to oversee the affirmative ac- 
tion plan. 




Report on Congress 

1990 



w 

Record 

Compiled by Mike Hall 


Labor's 1990 report card on Con- 
gress tabulates the votes on major issues 
of concern to the AFL-CIO in the second 
session of the 101st Congress. In the 
tables on the pages that follow, Senate 
and House members have been rated R 
(right) and W (wrong) on the basis of 
positions they took on these issues: 

House 

1 Eastern Airlines Veto Override 

• — More than a year after the 
strike against Eastern Airlines, the 
House voted to override President 
Bush’s veto of H.R. 1231 , which would 
have established a four-member bipar- 
tisan panel to investigate the dispute. 
The vote fell short of the two-thirds 
needed to override, 261-160. 

Yes — Right No — Wrong 

2 Clean Air, Wise Amendment 
• — During debate on the House 
clean air bill, H.R. 3030, Rep. Robert 
Wise (D-W. Va.) offered an amendment 
to provide extended unemployment 
compensation and training benefits to 
workers who might lose their jobs 
because of the new regulations. Sup- 
ported by the AFL-CIO, the amend- 
ment was adopted by a 274-146 vote on 
May 23. The final version of clean air 
legislation contained a modified 
unemployment allowance and training 
provision. 

Yes — Right No — Wrong 

3 Housing, Oakar Amentment — 

• The building trades strongly sup- 
ported an amendment to the Housing 
and Community Development Act of 
1990 (H.R. 1180), offered by Rep. 
Rose Mary Oakar (D-Ohio), that would 
have maintained state and local 
authorities’ rights to set structural, elec- 
trical and plumbing codes for modular 
homes. The amendment was defeated 
July 31 by a 200-211 vote. The final 
housing bill set up a study commission 
on the issue. 

Yes — Right No — Wrong 

4 Textile Veto Override — The 
• Textile, Apparel and Footwear 
Act of 1990, supported by the AFL- 
CIO, would have limited imports in tex- 
tiles and apparel to a 1 percent per year 
increase and limited imports of foot- 
wear to 1989 levels. The legislation was 
badly needed by workers who have been 
hit hard by textile and apparel imports. 
On Oct. 10, the House fell 10 votes short 
of overriding President Bush’s veto. 
Yes — Right No — Wrong 

5 Immigration, Morrison Amend- 
• ment — H.R. 4300, the Im- 
migration Revision and Family 
Reunification Act, struck a balance that 
establishes minimum protections for 
American workers’ jobs while 
establishing visa numbers that are 
realistic in light of present employment 
of alien workers and future employment 
needs. During floor consideration, Rep. 
Bruce Morrison (D-Conn.) offered an 
amendment to further strengthen the job 
protection provisions by requiring 
employers who bring in aliens as non- 


immigrant temporary workers to certify 
that they have agreed to provide educa- 
tion and training for American workers 
or students so those jobs could eventual- 
ly be filled by U.S. workers. The 
amendment was defeated Oct. 2 by a 
194-229 vote. The immigration bill was 
passed and signed into law. 

Yes — Right No — Wrong 

6 Fish Inspection, Dingell/Wax- 
• man Substitute — The AFL- 
CIO supported H.R. 3155, which 
would have vested fish inspection 
authority in the Food and Drug Ad- 
ministration, which has the expertise 
and experience to develop standards for 
safe and effective seafood inspection. 
The legislation also contained strong 
whistleblower language. Offered as a 
substitute to a Senate-passed bill, H.R. 
3155 passed 277-153 on Oct. 24. 
Because no House-Senate conference 
was completed, the bill died. 

Yes — Right No — Wrong 

7 Voter Registration, Motion to 
• Recommit — The National Voter 
Registration Act, H.R. 2190, intro- 
duced by Rep. A1 Swift (D-Wash.) and 
backed by the AFL-CIO, would have 
significantly increased the number of 
registered voters in federal elections. 
Besides allowing “motor voter” 
registration, in which driver’s license 
application (along with non-driver ID’s) 
would be considered an application for 
voter registration, the bill would have 
required government agencies to active- 
ly provide for voter registration, and 
would have allowed voters to register 
by mail. The bill passed the House but 
died in the Senate. During debate, Rep. 
Paul Gillmor (R-Ohio) moved to 
recommit the bill with instructions to 
change and weaken several key provi- 
sions. The motion, opposed by the 
AFL-CIO, failed by 156-265 vote. 
Yes — Wrong No — Right 


8 Child Care, Stenholm Amend- 
• ment — The AFL-CIO supported 
a comprehensive child care bill, H.R. 
3, that expanded Head Start, provided 
grants for child care services for infants 
and toddlers through community-based 
providers and developed before- and 
after-school care through the public 
school system. A weak substitute was 
offered by Charles Stenholm (D-Texas) 
and Clay Shaw (R-Fla.), which was 
beaten 195-225 on March 29. Eventual- 
ly several provisions of House- and 
Senate-passed child care legislation 
were included in the omnibus budget 
reconciliation bill. 

Yes — Wrong No — Right 

9 Balanced Budget — One of the 
• most bankrupt fiscal remnants of 
the Reagan era resurfaced in the 
House — a call for a constitutional 
amendment to require Congress to 
balance the federal budget regardless of 
economic circumstances. On July 17, 
the amendment fell short of the two- 
thirds majority needed for passage. 
Yes — Wrong No — Right 


1 A Family and Medical Leave 
I U • Veto Override - H.R. 770, 
supported by the AFL-CIO, would have 
allowed up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave 
for the birth, adoption or serious illness 
of a child. The legislation also would 
have allowed leave for a worker’s own 
serious illness, as well as for the care 
of an elderly dependent. Workers 
would be guaranteed their same or 
equivalent jobs following the leave and 
pre-existing health benefits would con- 
tinue during the leave. It would exempt 
employers of 50 or fewer workers. The 
bill passed the House and Senate, but 
President Bush vetoed the legislation. 


On July 25, the House failed to over- 
ride the veto, 232-195. 

Yes — Right No — Wrong 


1 1 Civil Rights, LaFalce/Michel 
I • Amendment — The AFL- 
CIO backed legislation in the House, 
H.R. 4000, that would have restored 
civil rights job protections weakened by 
several Supreme Court decisions in 
1989. During debate on the bill, The 
Civil Rights Act of 1990, Reps. John 
LaFalce (D-N.Y.) and Robert Michel 
(R-Ill.) offered a substitute that would 
have gutted several important provi- 
sions of the bill. It was defeated by a 
188-238 vote Aug. 3. President Bush’s 
veto of final civil rights legislation was 
sustained. 

Yes — Wrong No — Right 


1 A Budget, Rostenkowski Sub- 
I Mm % stitute — The AFL-CIO 
worked closely with House Democrats 
to develop a progressive and fair recon- 
ciliation tax package which shifted the 
tax burden from lower- to middle- 
income working Americans to the 
wealthy, who enjoyed a decade of tax 
breaks from the supply side economic 
schemes of two Republican presidents. 
The bulk of the House package’s details 
were contained in amendment offered 
to H.R. 5835, the Omnibus Reconcilia- 
tion bill, by Ways and Means Commit- 
tee Chairman Rep. Dan Rostenkowski 
(D-Ill), which was approved by a 
238-192 vote on October 16. A final 
budget package containing most of the 
Ways and Means provisions was ap- 
proved and signed into law. 

Yes — Right No — Wrong 

Senate 

1 Clean Air, Byrd Amendment 

• — The AFL-CIO backed many 
aspects of S. 1630, which sets new and 
more stringent standards for toxic emis- 
sions, automobile pollution and sulfur 
emissions from power plants that are 
designed to combat acid rain. The 
federation’s overriding concern was to 
prevent, as much as possible, signifi- 
cant job loss and dislocation for 
American workers and to soften the 
blow for workers who could lose their 
jobs as a result of the legislation. An 
AFL-CIO-supported amendment to the 
bill, introduced by Sen. Robert C. Byrd 
(D-W.Va.), would have offered coal 
miners three years of declining percen- 
tage benefits, in addition to the normal 
unemployment benefits, and also 
granted non-miners the equivalent of 
one year of trade adjustment assistance. 
The amendment was defeated, 49-50, 
on March 29. Clean air legislation ap- 
proved later contained modified 
unemployed worker relief. 

Yes — Right No — Wrong 

2 Amtrak Veto Override — 
• President Bush vetoed an Amtrak 
reauthorization bill, citing a labor- 
backed provision that would have 
allowed the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission to review and approve the ac- 
quisition of any of the 14 Class I 
railroads by any non-railroad interest to 
make sure that the public’s interest was 
protected. The House overrode the 
veto, but the Senate was three votes 
short, 64-36, on June 12. 

Yes — Right No — Wrong 

3 Hatch Act Veto Override — S. 

• 135 would have allowed federal 
and postal workers, on their own time 
and out of uniform, to more fully par- 
ticipate in the political process by stuff- 
ing envelopes, answering phones and 
engaging in other campaign activity. 
Workers could also hold offices in a 


political party or club, participate in a 
partisan voter registration drive or cir- 
culate a nomination petition for a can- 
didate and speak at a primary caucus in 
favor of a candidate. President Bush 
vetoed the bill and, on June 21, the 
Senate failed 65-30 to override the veto. 
Yes — Right No — Wrong 

4 Davis-Bacon, Chafee Amend- 
• ment — During debate on Hous- 
ing Reauthorization (S. 566), an amend- 
ment was offered by Sen. John Chaf- 
fee (R-R.I.) that, in effect, would have 
removed prevailing wage protection 
from federal housing construction pro- 
jects. The amendment would have 
nullified the Davis-Bacon Act for HUD 
contracts under $1 million. A motion 
by Sen. Alan Cranston (D-Calif.) to 
table the amendment, which was back- 
ed by the AFL-CIO, was approved by 
a 59-39 vote. 

Yes — Right No — Wrong 

5 Textile Trade — S. 2411 set im- 
• port limits for textile, apparel and 
footwear products that would have pro- 
tected the jobs of several hundred thou- 
sand workers in the those industries. 
The bill allowed imports of textiles and 
apparel to grow at a 1 percent annual 
rate and footwear imports to be frozen 
at 1989 levels. The legislation passed 
the Senate, 68-32, on July 17, but was 
later vetoed by President Bush. 

Yes — Right No — Wrong 

6 Fish Inspection, Hollings/ 
• Stevens Substitute — The AFL- 
CIO opposed S. 2924, the Fish Safety 
Act of 1990, because it did not include 
protections for workers who report 
abuses when inspectors are not in the 
plant. A substitute measure, backed by 
the AFL-CIO and offered by Sens. 
Ernest Hollings (D-S.C.), Edward M. 
Kennedy (D-Mass.) and Ted Stevens 
(R- Alaska), which included whistle- 
blower protections, was defeated, 
39-59. 

Yes — Right No — Wrong 

7 Fuel Efficiency, Cloture — 
• While the AFL-CIO supports a 
national energy policy, including the 
need to increase fuel efficiency for 
motor vehicles, it opposed S. 1224, in- 
troduced by Sen. Richard Bryan (D- 
Nev.), which required standards so strict 
that it would have resulted in plant clos- 
ings and significant unemployment. On 
Sept. 25, by a 57-42 vote, the bill failed 
to gain the three-fifths majority needed 
for cloture and effectively was killed for 
the session. 

Yes — Wrong No — Right 

8 0SHA Penalties, Hatch Amend- 
• ment — The AFL-CIO has called 
for comprehensive reform of OSH A, 
including increased criminal penalties 
for willful health and safety violations 
by an employer that lead to injury or 
death. These penalties were included in 
the Senate’s version of budget recon- 
ciliation, but were stricken under an 
amendment offered Oct. 18 by Sen. Or- 
rin Hatch (R-Utah). A motion to table 
the Hatch amendment failed 21-79. 
Yes — Right No — Wrong 

9 Civil Rights Veto Override — 

• S. 2104, the Civil Rights Act of 
1990, introduced by Sens. Edward M. 
Kennedy (D-Mass.) and James Jeffords 
(R-Vt.), would have strengthened 
several provisions of the 1964 Civil 
Rights Act that were weakened by the 
Supreme Court during 1989 decisions. 
The legislation passed the House and 
Senate but was vetoed by President 
Bush. On Oct. 24, the Senate sus- 
tained the veto by a 66-34 vote, one 
short of the votes needed to override. 
Yes — Right No — Wrong 




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9 Yates S (D) 

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11 Annunzio F (D) 

12 Crane P (R) 

13 Fawell H (R) 

14 Hasten D (R) 

15 Madigan E (R) 

16 Martin L (R) 

17 Evans L (D) 

18 Michel R (R) 

19 Bruce T (D) 

20 Durbin R (D) 

21 Costello J (D) 

22 Poshard G (D) 

Indiana 

1 Visclosky P (D) 

2 Sharp P (D) 

3 Hiler J (R) 

4 Long J (D) 

5 Jontz J (D) 

6 Burton D (R) 

7 Myers J (R) 

8 McCloskey F (D) 

9 Hamilton L (D) 

10 Jacobs A (D) 


Iowa 


1 Leach J (R) 

2 Tauke T (R) 

3 Nagle D (D) 

4 Smith N (D) 

5 Lightfoot J (R) 

6 Grandy F (R) 

Kansas 

1 Roberts P (R) 

2 Slattery J (D) 

3 Meyers J (R) 

4 Glickman D (D) 

5 Whittaker B (R) 

Kentucky 

1 Hubbard C (D) 

2 Natcher W (D) 

3 Mazzoli R (D) 

4 Bunning J (R) 

5 Rogers H (R) 

6 Hopkins L (R) 

7 Perkins C (D) 

Louisiana 

1 Livingston B (R) 

2 Boggs L (D) 

3 Tauzin W (D) 

4 McCrery J (R) 

5 Huckaby J (D) 

6 Baker R (R) 

7 Hayes J (D) 

8 Holloway C (R) 

Maine 

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2 Snowe O (R) 

Maryland 

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2 Bentley H (R) 

3 Cardin B (D) 

4 McMillen T (D) 

5 Hoyer S (D) 

6 Byron B (D) 

7 Mfume K (D) 

8 Morelia C (R) 

Massachusetts 

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2 Neal R (D) 

3 Early J (D) 

4 Frank B (D) 

5 Atkins C (D) 

6 Mavroules N (D) 

7 Markey E (D) 

8 Kennedy J (D) 

9 Moakley J (D) 

10 Studds G (D) 

11 Donnelly B (D) 

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2 Pursell C (R) 

3 Wolpe H (D) 

4 Upton F (R) 

5 Henry P (R) 

6 Carr B (D) 

7 Kildee D (D) 

8 Traxler B (D) 

9 Vander Jagt G (R) 

10 Schuette B (R) 

11 Davis R (R) 

12 Bonior D (D) 

13 Crockett G (D) 

14 Hertel D (D) 

15 Ford W (D) 

16 Dinged J (D) 

17 Levin S (D) 


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Key to Symbols 

R Voted Right or was paired Right. 

W Voted Wrong or was paired Wrong. 

A Absent and not paired or voted “present.” 

I Not in Congress at time. 

Number before each name shows congressional district. 


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W 

W 

11 

134 

8 

Missouri 


















Pennsylvania 


















1 Clay W (D) 

A 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

5 

0 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

283 

13 

96 

1 Foglietta T (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

0 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

137 

5 

96 

2 Buechner J (R) 

W 

W 

R 

w 

W 

R 

2 

4 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

9 

43 

17 

2 Gray W (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

W 

5 

1 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

176 

6 

97 

3 Gephardt R (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

0 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

183 

35 

84 

3 Borski R (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

9 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

110 

3 

97 

4 Skelton I (D) 

R 

R 

W 

R 

W 

W 

3 

3 

R 

W 

W 

W 

R 

R 

147 

72 

67 

4 Kolter J (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

0 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

W 

104 

7 

94 

5 Wheat A (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

0 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

111 

4 

97 

5 Schulze R (R) 

W 

R 

W 

R 

W 

R 

3 

3 

A 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

59 

206 

22 

6 Coleman E (R) 

R 

W 

W 

R 

W 

W 

2 

4 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

49 

180 

21 

6 Yatron G (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

0 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

W 

269 

50 

84 

7 Hancock M (R) 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

0 

6 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

1 

23 

4 

7 Weldon C (R) 

R 

R 

A 

R 

W 

R 

4 

1 

W 

W 

W 

R 

W 

W 

27 

22 

55 

8 Emerson B (R) 

W 

R 

W 

R 

W 

W 

2 

4 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

34 

113 

23 

8 Kostmayer P (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

0 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

175 

20 

90 

9 Volkmer H (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

W 

W 

4 

2 

R 

R 

W 

R 

R 

R 

164 

64 

72 

9 Shuster B (R) 

W 

W 

A 

R 

W 

W 

1 

4 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

51 

238 

18 

Montana 


















10 McDade J (R) 

R 

R 

W 

R 

R 

R 

5 

1 

R 

W 

W 

R 

W 

W 

247 

113 

69 


















11 Kapjorski P (D) 

R 

R 

W 

R 

R 

R 

5 

1 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

77 

8 

91 

1 Williams P (D) 

R 

A 

A 

R 

W 

W 

2 

2 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

162 

20 

89 

12 Murtha J (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

0 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

245 

37 

87 

2 Marlenee R (R) 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

0 

6 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

38 

185 

18 

13 Coughlin L (R) 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

R 

1 

5 

W 

W 

W 

R 

W 

W 

117 

213 

35 


















14 Coyne W (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

0 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

145 

5 

97 

Nebraska 


















15 Ritter D (R) 

W 

R 

W 

R 

W 

R 

3 

3 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

64 

121 

35 

1 Bereuter D (R) 

2 Hoagland P (D) 

3 Smith V (R) 

W 

R 

W 

W 

R 

W 

W 

R 

W 

W 

R 

W 

W 

R 

W 

W 

R 

W 

0 

6 

0 

6 

0 

6 

W 

R 

W 

W 

R 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

R 

W 

W 

R 

W 

39 

21 

29 

150 

3 

245 

21 

88 

11 

16 Walker R (R) 

17 Gekas G (R) 

18 Walgren D (D) 

19 Goodling B (R) 

W 

W 

R 

W 

W 

W 

R 

R 

W 

W 

R 

W 

W 

R 

R 

R 

W 

W 

R 

A 

R 

R 

R 

R 

1 

2 

6 

3 

5 

4 

0 

2 

W 

W 

R 

W 

W 

w 

R 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

R 

W 

W 

W 

R 

W 

W 

W 

R 

W 

31 

20 

193 

70 

200 

95 

33 

192 

13 

17 

85 

27 

Nevada 


















20 Gaydos J (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

0 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

286 

29 

91 


















21 Ridge T (R) 

R 

R 

W 

R 

W 

R 

4 

2 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

63 

51 

55 

1 Bilbray J (D) 

R 

R 

W 

R 

R 

R 

5 

1 

R 

R 

W 

R 

R 

W 

46 

8 

85 

22 Murphy A (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

0 

R 

R 

W 

R 

W 

R 

185 

40 

82 

2 Vucanovich B (R) 

W 

W 

W 

R 

W 

W 

1 

5 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

11 

103 

10 

23 Clinger W (R) 

W 

A 

W 

R 

W 

R 

2 

3 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

73 

111 

40 

New Hampshire 

















Rhode Island 


















1 Smith R (R) 

W 

W 

W 

R 

W 

R 

2 

4 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

12 

73 

14 

1 Machtley R (R) 

R 

W 

R 

R 

W 

W 

3 

3 

R 

R 

W 

R 

W 

W 

12 

12 

50 

2 Douglas C (R) 

W 

W 

W 

R 

W 

R 

2 

4 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

4 

20 

17 

2 Schneider C (R) 

R 

W 

R 

R 

W 

W 

3 

3 

R 

R 

W 

R 

R 

W 

101 

42 

71 

New Jersey 


















South Carolina 

















1 Vacancy 

I 

I 

I 

I 

I 

I 

0 

0 

I 

I 

I 

I 

I 

I 

231 

19 

92 

1 Ravenel A (R) 

W 

W 

W 

R 

W 

R 

2 

4 

W 

W 

W 

R 

W 

W 

20 

34 

37 

2 Hughes W (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

W 

R 

5 

1 

R 

R 

R 

A 

R 

R 

208 

66 

76 

2 Spence F (R) 

W 

W 

W 

R 

W 

R 

2 

4 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

52 

261 

17 

3 Pallone F (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

0 

R 

R 

W 

R 

R 

W 

21 

3 

88 

3 Derrick B (D) 

R 

R 

W 

R 

W 

R 

4 

2 

R 

W 

W 

W 

R 

R 

152 

117 

57 

4 Smith C (R) 

R 

R 

W 

R 

W 

R 

4 

2 

R 

W 

W 

R 

W 

W 

109 

41 

73 

4 Patterson L (D) 

R 

R 

W 

R 

W 

R 

4 

2 

R 

W 

W 

W 

R 

W 

31 

23 

57 

5 Roukema M (R) 

R 

W 

A 

R 

W 

R 

3 

-2 

W 

A 

W 

R 

W 

W 

51 

97 

34 

5 Spratt J (D) 

R 

R 

W 

R 

w 

R 

4 

2 

R 

R 

W 

W 

R 

R 

70 

43 

62 

6 Dwyer B (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

0 

R 

A 

R 

R 

R 

R 

143 

5 

97 

6 Tallon R (D) 

R 

R 

W 

R 

w 

W 

3 

3 

R 

R 

W 

W 

R 

R 

76 

38 

67 

7 Rinaldo M (R) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

W 

R 

5 

1 

W 

R 

W 

R 

R 

W 

240 

52 

82 

South Dakota 


















8 Roe R (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

W 

R 

5 

1 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

289 

28 

91 


















9 Torricelli R (D) 
10 Payne D (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

6 

0 

0 

R 

R 

A 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

102 

22 

5 

0 

95 

100 

AL Johnson T (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

W 

5 

1 

R 

R 

W 

R 

R 

R 

46 

8 

85 

11 Gallo D (R) 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

R 

1 

5 

W 

A 

W 

W 

W 

W 

28 

55 

34 

Tennessee 


















12 Courter J (R) 

W 

W 

W 

w 

W 

R 

1 

5 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

50 

122 

29 


















13 Saxton H (R) 

R 

W 

W 

w 

W 

R 

2 

4 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

30 

55 

35 

1 Quillen J (R) 

W 

R 

W 

R 

W 

R 

3 

3 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

65 

291 

18 

14 Guarini F (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

W 

R 

5 

1 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

173 

15 

92 

2 Duncan J (R) 

W 

R 

W 

R 

R 

W 

3 

3 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

7 

17 

29 

New Mexico 


















3 Lloyd M (D) 

4 Cooper J (D) 

R 

R 

R 

W 

W 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

W 

R 

4 

5 

2 

1 

R 

R 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

R 

R 

R 

R 

159 

76 

108 

37 

60 

67 

1 Schiff S (R) 

W 

R 

W 

R 

W 

W 

2 

4 

W 

W 

W r 

W 

W 

W 

5 

19 

21 

5 Clement B (D) 

R 

R 

W 

R 

R 

R 

5 

1 

R 

R 

w 

R 

R 

R 

30 

7 

81 

2 Skeen J (R) 

W 

W 

W 

R 

W 

W 

1 

5 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

17 

133 

11 

6 Gordon B (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

0 

R 

R 

w 

R 

R 

R 

70 

13 

84 

3 Richardson B (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

0 

R 

R 

W 

R 

R 

R 

104 

11 

90 

7 Sundquist D (R) 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

R 

1 

5 

W 

W 

w 

W 

W 

W 

19 

93 

17 














8 Tanner J (D) 

R 

R 

W 

R 

W 

W 

3 

3 

R 

R 

w 

w 

R 

R 

15 

9 

63 

New York 


















9 Ford H (D) 

A 

R 

A 

R 

R 

R 

4 

0 

A 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

238 

19 

93 

1 Hochbrueckner G (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

0 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

51 

2 

96 

Texas 


















2 Downey T (D) 

R 

R 

R 

W 

R 

R 

5 

1 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

236 

33 

88 


















3 Mrazek R (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

0 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

97 

15 

87 

1 Chapman J (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

0 

R 

R 

W 

R 

W 

R 

47 

30 

61 

4 Lent N (R) 

W 

W 

A 

W 

W 

R 

1 

4 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

96 

212 

31 

2 Wilson C (D) 

W 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

5 

1 

R 

R 

W 

R 

R 

R 

190 

85 

69 

5 McGrath R (R) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

0 

W 

R 

W 

R 

W 

R 

62 

83 

43 

3 Bartlett S (R) 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

R 

1 

5 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

5 

110 

4 

6 Flake F (D) 

R 

R 

W 

R 

R 

R 

5 

1 

R 

R 

R 

A 

R 

R 

50 


98 

4 Hall R (D) 

W 

W 

A 

R 

W 

W 

1 

4 

R 

vv 

W 

w 

A 

W 

50 

94 

35 

7 Ackerman G (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

0 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

109 

1 

99 

5 Bryant J (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

0 

R 

R 

w 

R 

R 

R 

104 

7 

94 

8 Scheuer J (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

0 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

308 

27 

92 

6 Barton J (R) 

W 

A 

W 

W 

W 

W 

0 

5 

W 

W 

w 

W 

W 

W 

3 

80 

4 

9 Manton T (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

0 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

79 

3 

96 

7 Archer B (R) 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

R 

1 

5 

W 

W 

w 

W 

w 

W 

14 

308 

4 

10 Schumer C (D) 

R 

R 

R 

W 

R 

R 

5 

1 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

132 

12 

92 

8 Fields J (R) 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

R 

1 

5 

W 

W 

w 

W 

w 

W 

10 

140 

7 

11 Towns E (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

0 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

105 

1 

99 

9 Brooks J (D) 

A 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

5 

0 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

306 

90 

77 

12 Owens M (D) 

R 

R 

R 

A 

A 

R 

4 

0 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

108 

1 

99 

10 Pickle J (D) 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

0 

6 

R 

R 

W 

W 

R 

R 

191 

164 

54 

13 Solarz S (D) 

R 

R 

R 

W 

R 

R 

5 

1 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

242 

28 

90 

11 Leath M (D) 

W 

R 

A 

R 

W 

W 

2 

3 

R 

W 

W 

W 

A 

W 

53 

126 

30 

14 Molinari G (R) 

I 

W 

W 

W 

W 

R 

1 

4 

I 

R 

W 

R 

W 

R 

44 

94 

32 

12 Geren P (D) 

R 

R 

R 

W 

W 

R 

4 

2 

R 

R 

W 

W 

W 

W 

9 

8 

53 

15 Green B (R) 

W 

w 

W 

W 

W 

R 

1 

5 

R 

W 

R 

R 

R 

W 

107 

98 

52 

13 Sarpalius B (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

W 

W 

4 

2 

R 

A 

w 

W 

W 

W 

10 

13 

43 

16 Rangel C (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

0 

R 

R 

R 

R- 

R 

R 

293 

17 

95 

14 Laughlin G (D) 

R 

R 

W 

R 

W 

W 

3 

3 

R 

A 

w 

W 

W 

W 

8 

12 

40 

17 Weiss T (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

0 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

208 

17 

92 

15 de la Garza E (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

W 

5 

1 

R 

R 

w 

R 

R 

R 

208 

128 

62 

18 Garcia R (D) 

R 

A 

R 

R 

A 

R 

R 

R 

A 

6 

0 

A 

A 

R 

172 

6 

97 

16 Coleman R (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

W 

5 

1 

R 

R 

w 

R 

R 

R 

98 

14 

88 

19 Serrano (D) 

O 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

5 

0 

O 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

10 

0 

100 

17 Stenholm C (D) 

W 

W 

W 

R 

W 

W 

1 

5 

R 

W 

w 

W 

W 

R 

36 

149 

19 

20 Engel E (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

A 

R 

5 

0 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

23 

0 

100 

18 Washington (D) 

R 

R 

A 

R 

R 

R 

5 

0 

R 

R 

R 

A 

R 

R 

10 

0 

100 

21 Lowey N (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

0 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

24 

0 

100 

19 Combest L (R) 

W 

W 

W 

R 

W 

W 

1 

5 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

9 

76 

11 

22 Fish H (R) 

W 

R 

W 

R 

W 

R 

3 

3 

W 

W 

W 

R 

R 

R 

154 

170 

48 

20 Gonzalez H (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

0 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

337 

34 

91 

24 Gilman B (R) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

0 

W 

R 

R 

R 

R 

W 

221 

73 

75 

21 Smith L (R) 

W 

W 

W 

R 

W 

R 

2 

4 

W 

W 

W 

R 

W 

W 

7 

46 

13 

24 McNulty M (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

0 

R 

R 

W 

R 

R 

R 

23 

1 

96 

22 DeLay T (R) 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

R 

1 

5 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

2 

82 

2 

25 Solomon G (R) 

A 

R 

W 

R 

W 

R 

3 

2 

W 

W 

W 

R 

W 

W 

45 

137 

25 

23 Bustamante A (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

0 

R 

R 

W 

R 

R 

R 

78 

4 

95 

26 Boehlert S (R) 

R 

W 

R 

R 

W 

R 

4 

2 

W 

W 

W 

R 

W 

R 

78 

37 

68 

24 Frost M (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

0 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

143 

34 

81 

27 Martin D (R) 

W 

R 

W 

R 

W 

R 

3 

3 

W 

W 

W 

R 

W 

W 

45 

99 

31 

25 Andrews M (D) 

R 

W 

R 

R 

W 

R 

4 

2 

R 

R 

W 

R 

R 

R 

73 

40 

65 

28 Walsh J (R) 

R 

R 

W 

W 

W 

W 

2 

4 

R 

W 

W 

W 

R 

W 

8 

16 

33 

26 Armey D (R) 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

R 

1 

5 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

2 

83 

2 

29 McHugh M (D) 

R 

R 

R 

W 

R 

R 

5 

1 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

222 

46 

83 

27 Ortiz S (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

0 

R 

W 

W 

R 

R 

R 

94 

16 

85 

30 Horton F (R) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

W 

R 

5 

1 

R 

R 

W 

R 

R 

R 

253 

111 

70 



















31 Slaughter L (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

0 

R 

R 

W 

R 

R 

R 

50 

3 

94 

Utah 


















32 Paxon B (R) 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

R 

1 

5 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

2 

22 

8 


















33 LaFalce J (D) 

R 

R 

R 

W 

R 

R 

5 

1 

R 

W 

R 

W 

W 

R 

222 

45 

83 

1 Hansen J (R) 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

0 

6 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

5 

138 

3 

34 Nowak H (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

0 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

253 

22 

92 

2 Owens W (D) 

R 

R 

R 

W 

W 

R 

4 

2 

R 

R 

W 

R 

R 

R 

63 

9 

88 

35 Houghton A (R) 

W 

R 

W 

R 

W 

W 

2 

4 

W 

W 

R 

W 

W 

W 

18 

34 

35 

3 Nielson H (R) 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

R 

1 

5 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

11 

103 

10 

North Carolina 

















Vermont 


















1 Jones W (D) 

2 Valentine T (D) 

R 

W 

R 

W 

R 

W 

R 

R 

R 

W 

R 

W 

6 

1 

0 

5 

R 

R 

A 

R 

W 

W 

W 

W 

R 

R 

R 

R 

171 

51 

156 

64 

52 

44 

AL Smith P (R) 

W 

W 

R 

R 

W 

R 

3 

3 

W 

R 

W 

R 

W 

R 

12 

12 

50 

3 Lancaster H (D) 

R 

R 

W 

R 

W 

W 

3 

3 

R 

W 

W 

W 

R 

R 

33 

21 

61 



















4 Price D (D) 

R 

R 

W 

R 

W 

R 

4 

2 

R 

R 

W 

R 

R 

R 

45 

9 

83 

Virginia 

1 Bateman H (R) 

2 Pickett O (D) 

3 Bliley T (R) 

4 Sisisky N (D) 

5 Payne L (D) 

6 Olin J (D) 

7 Slaughter D (R) 


















5 Neal S (D) 

6 Coble H (R) 

7 Rose C (D) 

8 Hefner W (D) 

9 McMillan A (R) 

10 Ballenger C (R) 

11 Clarke J (D) 

A 

W 

R 

R 

W 

W 

R 

W 

W 

R 

R 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

R 

W 

W 

W 

W 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

R 

W 

W 

W 

R 

W 

W 

2 

1 

4 

3 

2 

2 

3 

5 

2 

3 

4 

5 
4 

R 

W 

R 

R 

W 

W 

R 

R 

W 

R 

R 

W 

W 

R 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

R 

W 

W 

W 

W 

R 

W 

R 

R 

W 

W 

R 

R 

W 

R 

R 

W 

W 

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143 

13 

180 

148 

13 

7 

61 

119 

72 

95 

118 

72 

46 

21 

55 
15 
65 

56 
15 
13 
74 

W 

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W 

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0 

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6 

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W 

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W 

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11 

39 

18 

73 

15 

66 

11 

103 

15 

132 

42 

14 

48 

74 

10 

72 

12 

63 

52 

58 

13 

North Dakota 


















8 Parris S (R) 

9 Boucher R (D) 

R 

R 

W 

R 

W 

R 

R 

R 

W 

R 

W 

R 

2 

6 

4 

0 

W 

R 

W 

R 

W 

R 

W 

R 

W 

R 

W 

R 

36 

93 

107 

19 

25 

83 

AL Dorgan B (D) 

R 

R 

A 

W 

R 

W 

3 

2 

R 

R 

W 

R 

R 

R 

111 

35 

76 

10 Wolf F (R) 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

0 

6 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

25 

124 

17 

Ohio 


















Washington 


















1 Luken T (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

0 

R 

R 

W 

R 

R 

R 

188 

51 

79 

1 Miller J (R) 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

R 

1 

5 

W 

W 

W 

R 

W 

W 

30 

55 

35 

2 Gradison B (R) 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

0 

6 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

36 

233 

13 

2 Swift A (D) 

R 

R 

R 

W 

R 

R 

5 

1 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

158 

30 

84 

3 Hall T (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

0 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

149 

34 

81 

3 Unsoeld J (D) 

R 

R 

A 

W 

R 

R 

4 

1 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

22 

1 

96 

4 Oxley M (R) 

W 

R 

W 

W 

W 

R 

2 

4 

W 

W 

w 

W 

W 

W 

11 

133 

8 

4 Morrison S (R) 

W 

W 

R 

W 

W 

W 

1 

5 

W 

W 

W 

R 

W 

W 

36 

112 

24 

5 Gillmor P (R) 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

R 

1 

5 

W 

W 

w 

R 

W 

W 

2 

22 

8 

5 Foley T (D) 

S 

S 

S 

S 

S 

S 

0 

0 

S 

S 

s 

S 

S 

S 

266 

65 

80 

6 McEwen B (R) 

W 

R 

W 

W 

W 

W 


5 

W 

W 

w 

W 

w 

W 

24 

122 

16 

6 Dicks N (D) 

R 

R 

R 

w 

R 

R 

5 

1 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

192 

35 

85 

7 DeWine M (R) 

W 

R 

W 

W 

W 

W 

1 

5 

W 

W 

w 

R 

w 

W 

16 

99 

14 

7 McDermott J (D) 

R 

R 

R 

w 

R 

R 

5 

1 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

23 

1 

96 

8 Lukens D (R) 

W 

A 

W 

R 

W 

O 

1 

3 

W 

W 

w 

W 

w 

W 

8 

65 

11 

8 Chandler R (R) 

W 

W 

W 

w 

W 

R 

1 

5 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

19 

94 

17 

9 Kaptur M (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

0 

R 

R 

R 

A 

R 

R 

102 

9 

92 

West Virginia 


















10 Miller C (R) 

11 Eckart D (D) 

W 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

W 

R 

W 

R 

3 

6 

3 

0 

W 

R 

W 

R 

W 

W 

W 

R 

W 

R 

W 

R 

48 

133 

296 

17 

14 

89 




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R 





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107 


94 

12 Kasich J (R) 

W 

R 

W 

W 

W 

R 

2 

4 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

17 

97 

15 

1 Mollohan A (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

0 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

7 

13 Pease D (D) 

R 

R 

R 

W 

R 

R 

5 

1 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

192 

38 

83 

2 Staggers H (D) 

R 

R 

W 

R 

R 

W 

4 

2 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

105 

10 

91 

14 Sawyer T (D) 

15 Wylie C (R) 

R 

R 

R 

W 

R 

R 

5 

1 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

50 

4 

93 

3 Wise B (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

0 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

106 

7 

94 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

R 

1 

5 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

72 

265 

21 

4 Rahall N (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

0 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

199 

25 

89 

16 Regula R (R) 

17 Traficant J (D) 

W 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

W 

R 

R 

R 

4 

6 

2 

0 

W 

R 

W 

R 

W 

R 

R 

R 

W 

R 

W 

W 

107 

84 

194 

1 

36 

99 

Wisconsin 


















18 Applegate D (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

0 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

W 

177 

54 

77 

1 Aspin L (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

0 

R 

R 

R 

W 

R 

R 

263 

44 

86 

19 Feighan E (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

0 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

106 

7 

94 

2 Kastenmeier R (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

W 

R 

5 

1 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

347 

39 

90 

20 Oakar M (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

W 

5 

1 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

211 

15 

93 

3 Gunderson S (R) 

W 

W 

W 

R 

W 

W 

1 

5 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

41 

106 

28 

21 Stokes L (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

6 

0 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

295 

16 

95 

4 Kleczka G (D) 

R 

R 

R 

W 

R 

R 

5 

1 

R 

R 

W 

R 

R 

R 

81 

16 

84 

Oklahoma 


















5 Moody J (D) 

R 

R 

R 

R 

R 

W 

5 

1 

R 

R 

W 

R 

R 

R 

98 

12 

89 


















6 Petri T (R) 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

R 

1 

5 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

45 

142 

24 

1 Inhofe J (R) 

2 Synar M (D) 

3 Watkins W (D) 

W 

R 

R 

W 

R 

R 

W 

A 

R 

W 

W 

R 

W 

R 

W 

W 

R 

W 

0 

4 

4 

6 

1 

2 

W 

R 

R 

W 

R 

W 

W 

R 

W 

W 

R 

W 

W 

R 

R 

W 

R 

R 

7 

120 

111 

46 

67 

125 

13 

64 

47 

7 Obey D (D) 

8 Roth T (R) 

9 Sensenbrenner F (R) 

R 

W 

W 

R 

W 

W 

R 

W 

W 

R 

R 

W 

R 

W 

W 

W 

W 

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5 

1 

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A 

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R 

W 

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286 

25 

16 

42 

154 

169 

87 

14 

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4 McCurdy D (D) 

5 Edwards M (R) 

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W 

W 

w 

W 

W 

W 

W 

R 

W 

2 

0 

4 

6 

R 

W 

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R 

W 

R 

W 

R 

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65 

22 

76 

203 

46 

10 

Wyoming 


















6 English G (D) 

R 

R 

R 

W 

W 

W 

3 

3 

R 

W 

W 

R 

R 

R 

91 

185 

33 

AL Thomas C (R) 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

0 

6 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

0 

20 

0 



HOW YOUR SENATORS VOTED 


Alabama 

Heflin H (D) 

Shelby R (D) 

Alaska 

Murkowski F (R) 

Stevens T (R) 

Arizona 

DeConcini D (D) 

McCain J (R) 

Arkansas 

Bumpers D (D) 

Pryor D (D) 

California 

Cranston A (D) 

Wilson P (R) 

Colorado 

Armstrong W' (R) 

Wirth T (D) 

Connecticut 

Dodd C (D) 

Lieberman J (D) 

Delaware 

Biden J (D) 

Roth W (R) 

Florida 

Graham B (R) 

Mack C (R) 

Georgia 

Fowler W (D) 

Nunn S (D) 

Hawaii 

Akaka D (D) 

Inouye D (D) 

Matsunaga S (D) 

Idaho 

McClure J (R) 

Symms S (R) 

Illinois 

Dixon A (D) 

Simon P (D) 

Indiana 

Coats D (R) 

Lugar R (R) 

Iowa 

Grassley C (R) 

Harkin T (D) 

Kansas 

Dole B (R) 

Kassebaum N (R) 

Kentucky 

Ford W (D) 

McConnell M (R) 

Louisiana 

Breaux J (D) 

Johnston J (D) 

Maine 

Cohen W (R) 

Mitchell G (D) 

Maryland 

Mikulski B (D) 

Sarbanes P (D) 

Massachusetts 

Kennedy E (D) 

Kerry J (D) 

Michigan 

Levin C (D) 

Riegle D (D) 

Minnesota 

Boschwitz R (R) 

Durenberger D (R) 

Mississippi 

Cochran T (R) 

Lott T (R) 

Missouri 

Bond C (R) 

Danforth J (R) 

Montana 

Baucus M (D) 

Burns C (R) 

Nebraska 

Exon J (D) 

Kerrey R (D) 


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Bryan R (D) 

Reid H (D) 

New Hampshire 

Humphrey G (R) 

Rudman W (R) 

New Jersey 

Bradley B (D) 

Lautenberg F (D) 

New Mexico 

Bingaman J (D) 

Domenici P (R) 

New York 

D’Amato A (R) 

Moynihan D (D) 

North Carolina 

Helms J (R) 

Sanford T (D) 

North Dakota 

Burdick Q (D) 

Conrad K (D) 

Ohio 

Glenn J (D) 

Metzenbaum H (D) 

Oklahoma 

Boren D (D) 

Nickles D (R) 

Oregon 

Hatfield M (R) 

Packwood B (R) 

Pennsylvania 

Heinz J (R) 

Specter A (R) 

Rhode Island 

Chafee J (R) 

Pell C (D) 

South Carolina 

Hollings E (D) 

Thurmond S (R) 

South Dakota 

Daschle T (D) 

Pressler L (R) 

Tennessee 

Gore A (D) 

Sasser J (D) 

Texas 

Bentsen L (D) 


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Leahy P (D) 

Virginia 

Robb C (D) 

Warner J (R) 

Washington 

Adams B (D) 

Gorton S (R) 

West Virginia 

Byrd R (D) 

Rockefeller J (D) 

Wisconsin 

Kasten B (R) 

Kohl H (D) 

Wyoming 

Simpson A (R) 

Wallop M (R) 


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Utah 












Garn J (R) 

W 

W 

w 

w 

R 

R 

R 

W 

3 

5 

W 

Hatch O (R) 

W 

W 

w 

w 

R 

R 

R 

W 

3 

5 

w 


WWRRRWWW 3 5 R 

WRRRRWWW 44 R 


WRRWRRWW 44 R 

WRRWRRRW 53 W 


RRRRWRWR 62 R 

WWWWWWWW 0 8 W 


RRRRRRRW 71 R 

RRRRRRWW 62 R 


R W 


17 2 

37 5 


14 167 
27 122 


154 28 

98 7 


87 19 

67 213 


71 78 

202 19 


26 262 
36 6 


315 52 

36 7 


208 49 

220 13 


78 106 
5 145 


158 152 
145 166 


147 73 

104 45 


104 121 
328 31 


186 130 

46 350 


35 7 

57 115 


61 9 

177 43 


158 131 
3 74 


27 238 
29 191 


8 11 
222 44 


13 6 

35 155 


36 6 

2 17 


291 102 

71 8 


Key to Symbols 

R Voted Right or was paired Right. 

W Voted Wrong or was paired Wrong. 

A Absent and not paired or voted “present.” 

I Not in Congress at time. 

Number before each name shows congressional district. 


89 


85 

93 


82 

24 


9 

86 


84 


81 

94 


42 

3 


51 

47 


67 

70 


46 

91 


59 

12 


83 

33 


87 

80 


55 

4 


10 

13 


42 

83 


68 

18 


86 

11 


74 

90 


w 

R 

W 

R 

R 

R 

W 

4 

4 

W 

37 

113 

25 

R 

R 

R 

R 

W 

W 

W 

5 

3 

R 

15 

4 

79 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

R 

W 

1 

7 

W 

13 

173 

7 

W 

W 

W 

W 

W 

R 

W 

1 

7 

W 

17 

201 

8 






CIWA helps 
IAM gain 
major unit 



The largely Hispanic workforce at American Racing Equip- 
ment, behind Spanish "Union Yes” banners, celebrate 


Mary Ann Stuehrmann 

victory in the NLRB election of the Machinists as their 
bargaining representative. 


By Candice Johnson 

T he Machinists, bolstered by the ef- 
forts of the California Immigrant 
Workers Association, won a major 
organizing victory at American Racing 
Equipment Inc. in Los Angeles. 

The 1,200 workers, nearly all Mex- 
ican and Salvadoran immigrants, voted 
for the IAM by a 655-403 margin in a 
National Labor Relations Board election 
held last month. 

AFL-CIO Regional Director David 
Sickler noted that the win at American 
Racing was the largest manufacturing 
election victory in the Los Angeles area 
since 1964. 

Cooperation among the five unions 
earlier involved in organizing attempts 
at the plant, the IAM’s full scale effort 
and organizers “able to relate to the im- 
migrant workers” were key to the vic- 
tory, he added. 

Ernest Medrano, an AFL-CIO field 
representative who worked with CIWA 
on the project, cited a litany of prob- 
lems that workers had with American 
Racing management: promises made 
during an earlier organizing campaign 
were broken; time and motion con- 
sultants were brought in to cut jobs and 
speed up production; health insurance 
coverage was woefully inadequate, and 
workers who suffered a job injury or 
took maternity leave were not rehired. 

While workers were earning about $7 
an hour, the biggest issue was workers’ 
need for respect and dignity on the job, 
Medrano said. A key slogan in the cam- 
paign became “don’t get rid of me like 
a machine,” he noted. 


Last July, as the auto aluminum 
wheel manufacturer pressed its speed- 
up, workers walked out in a wildcat 
strike, completely shutting down pro- 
duction and winning a promise of a pay 
raise. The workers later united behind 
the IAM organizing drive. 

CIWA members joined the team of 
nine organizers in making more than 
600 house calls, and offered English- 
as-a-second-language instruction to 
ARE workers. 

CIWA is an associate member pro- 
gram of the AFL-CIO’s Los Angeles/ 
Orange County organizing committee, 
with membership made up primarily of 
immigrant workers who came into con- 
tact with the labor movement through 
legal assistance, English and civics 
classes and other programs offered by 
the city, state and national organizations 
of the AFL-CIO. 

Medrano said CIWA’s greatest con- 


tribution may have been a “know your 
rights” presentation conducted early in 
the campaign, informing the immigrant 
workers that they need not be in- 
timidated by management threats. 

“That helped to establish trust, 
especially in workers who had doubts,” 
Medrano said. He noted that a 1988 
Teamsters organizing campaign was 
stymied when management threatened 
workers, then contacted the Immigra- 
tion and Naturalization Service, scar- 
ing away many union supporters. 

“We wanted to prevent that this time, 
so workers would know what to do if 
the company raised INS fears again,” 
he said. 

Organizers also focused on workers’ 
cultural concerns, filling the IAM’s 
nearby hall with Spanish-language 
posters and materials, tying campaign 
activities to Latin American holidays 
and bringing in Farm Workers Presi- 


dent Cesar Chavez to meet with work- 
ers before the election. 

With three factory shifts, the IAM 
hall was open nearly round the clock, 
Medrano said, as volunteers and com- 
mittee members worked on handbills 
and house call schedules. 

The campaign also gained the support 
of the Hispanic community and “La 
Hermandad Mexicana,” a well-known 
publication that ran updates on the cam- 
paign, giving the drive even more 
credibility, Medrano said. 

The aggressive campaign beat back 
anti-union techniques employed by 
ARE, which hired unionbuster Ed 
Villanueva and held weekly captive- 
audience meetings from November until 
the election. 

The IAM members have elected a 
negotiating committee and are waiting 
for a company response to the call for 
contract talks. 


New York City unions gain contract, gird for budget battle 


By James B. Parks 

D espite new labor agreements, two 
major municipal unions expect 
“some pretty good battles” with New 
York City Mayor David Dinkins over 
proposed layoffs and salary freezes to 
solve the city’s fiscal crisis. 

AFSCME District Council 37 and 
Teamsters Local 237 signed a 15-month 
contract with the city in early January. 

The contract calls for a 4.5 percent 
wage increase for over 150,000 city 
employees. But Dinkins “arbitrarily” 
announced that he will freeze wages at 
the end of the contract, said Stanley 
Hill, president of District 37. 

The unions say the proposed freeze 
should be part of the bargaining for a 
new contract. ‘ ‘It is our view that at the 
end of the contract, we’ll go in and 
negotiate a new contract,” said Frank 
Mazza, spokesman for Local 237. 

Hill agreed. “The mayor cannot ar- 
bitrarily make that decision. We will 
deal with that in 1992” when the cur- 
rent contract expires, he said. 

The unions also plan to fight the 


mayor on layoffs proposed under a 
budget that Dinkins unveiled Jan. 16. 
The proposed budget, which seek to 
eliminate an expected deficit of $2.6 
billion, would cut 24,600 full- and part- 
time city jobs, with two-thirds of those 
coming through layoffs. 

“I feel very strongly that there are 
other options the city can try,” Hill 
said. Above all, the city should allow 
attrition to reduce the staff, he said. 

Hill proposed cutting city contracts 
by 40 percent, which he said would 
save $2.6 billion, and eliminating waste 
in government. 

“There are other ways to cut costs,” 
Hill said, “but we must sit down with 
the city and talk about it and not go at 
it helter-skelter as we’re doing now.” 

The contract calls for the city to first 
reduce its staff by attrition, Mazza said, 
and then let people go in inverse order 
of seniority. And the unions intend to 
make sure the city abides by the con- 
tract, he said. 

Dinkins has appointed a labor- 
management task force to resolve the 


layoff issues. “I expect some pretty 
good battles within the task force as to 
the number of reductions and how to go 
about doing it,” Mazza said. 

But both Barry Feinstein, president 
of Local 237, and Hill stressed that they 
want to work with the city to solve the 
crisis. 

“This is the time for the healing to 
start to take place,” Feinstein said. 

“The negotiations were strained and 
tough and I’m glad they’re over,” Hill 
said. “We have a long way to go to heal 
some wounds.” 

The contract calls for 1.5 percent of 
the increase from the city budget in the 
first 12 months and 2 percent from 
changes in the pension fund invest- 
ments. 

Another 1 percent will come from 
next year’s city budget to cover the last 
three months of the contract. 

The contract with the Teamsters is 
retroactive to July 1, 1990, and expires 
Sept. 30, 1991. The agreement with 
District Council 37 is retroactive to Oct. 
1, 1990, and expires at the end of 1991 . 


Feinstein and Hill said they both 
wanted larger increases, but they said 
they came away with the most they 
could get. 

The municipal unions’ contract fol- 
lowed a one-year agreement signed in 
October by the United Federation of 
Teachers, Local 2 of the national AFT. 
That pact called for a 5.5 percent wage 
increase. 

The talks began last spring in a 
friendly climate, with Dinkins sitting in 
on the opening sessions with the unions 
that had been vital to his election. 

The tone of the negotiations changed, 
however, after the contract with the 
UFT was signed. 

The municipal unions requested the 
same deal won by the UFT. The teach- 
ers’ contract was higher than the 
municipal unions’ because the school 
board was able to use state education 
funds to finance its agreement. 

The UFT contract called for 1 .5 per- 
cent in city money, 2.5 percent from 
pension fund changes and 1.5 percent 
from the Board of Education. 


Georgia AFL-CIO program to help educate workers’ children 


Savannah, Ga. 

K ids Chance Inc., a non-profit 
organization designed to provide 
educational assistance to children whose 
parents die in the line of work, was 
established by the Georgia AFL-CIO’s 
34th annual convention. 

“This worthwhile organization will 
demonstrate that people in organized 
labor are willing to see that children 
who want educational assistance receive 


it,” said Georgia AFL-CIO President 
Herb Mabry, who will serve as presi- 
dent of Kids Chance Inc. “I encourage 
each member and local to support the 
organization and urge other states to 
develop similar organizations,” he said. 

Mabry, who has served as president 
of the state federation since 1972, was 
unanimously re-elected by the conven- 
tion, which also unanimously elected 
Richard Ray as secretary-treasurer to 


replace Martha True, who retired. Ray, 
of the Flint Glass Workers, served as 
president of the Atlanta AFL-CIO for 
eight years. 

Tom Payne, business manager of 
Plumbers and Pipe Fitters Local 72, 
was elected executive vice president. 
The convention also elected 10 mem- 
bers to the executive board. 

Workshops were conducted on effec- 
tive communications and get-out-the- 


vote campaigns and election phone 
banks. 

In the keynote address, AFL-CIO 
Secretary-Treasurer Thomas R. Dona- 
hue praised the state federation for its 
fights against anti-union companies. 

“There are few places in this coun- 
try where trade unions have been 
harassed as much as in Georgia,” 
Donahue said, “but you’ve fought back 
and in the end you’ve survived it all.” 





Steve Yormola/AFL-CIO News 

Lane Kirkland meets with Dr. Konstantin Trenchev, leader tion, at AFL-CIO headquarters in Washington. An in- 
of Podkrepa, the Bulgarian free trade union confedera- terpreter, Azalea Rosholt, is at center. 

Bulgarian unions feed democracy 

Labor addresses society's ills with charity and work 


By Muriel H. Cooper 

P odkrepa, the Bulgarian confedera- 
tion of free trade unions that helped 
bring down the government of Prime 
Minister Andrei Lukanov through a 
general strike, has now turned its atten- 
tion to the social needs of that country, 
said Dr. Konstantin Trenchev, the fed- 
eration’s leader. 

Trenchev met with AFL-CIO Presi- 
dent Lane Kirkland, along with other 
union officials and representatives of 
human rights organizations and 
members of Congress, during a visit to 
the United States arranged by the 
AFL-CIO. 

Trenchev explained how Lukanov ’s 
Bulgarian Socialist Party, the reformed 
communists, was ineffective “because 
of the fear of change. The government 
had no program and no clear idea of 
how to help the country.” 

The Podkrepa strike, ultimately sup- 
ported by the opposition group, the 
Union of Democratic Forces (UDF), 
paved the way for a new government 
of transition, led by a non-communist. 
New elections are tentatively scheduled 
for early spring. 

Meanwhile, Podkrepa has moved be- 
yond traditional union issues to an ef- 
fort to address the widespread malaise 
in Bulgarian society, Trenchev said. He 
noted that a recent poll in Sofia, the na- 
tion’s capital, showed that 14 percent 
of the population believe they will not 
make it through the winter. 

“We try to help through charity 
work,” Trenchev said. “After the 
strike in November, everyday problems 
began increasing because there were no 


A 15-member delegation of Soviet free 
trade union leaders touring the 
United States denounced the actions of 
Soviet troops in Lithuania. 

“We the representatives of the Rus- 
sian, Ukrainian, Byelorussian, 
Kazakhstan and Komi Autonomous 
S.S.R. labor movement are declaring 
our strongest protest regarding the in- 
humane actions of the USSR govern- 
ment concerning the people of 
Lithuania,” the unionists said in a let- 


new rules. Prices were decontrolled. 
This will put the inflationary spiral to 
work. Entire groups of people will have 
to struggle for survival.” 

Trenchev met with Joseph Velasquez, 
director of the AFL-CIO Department of 
Community Services, to discuss what 
social and human services Podkrepa 
could offer its members. 

“Trenchev was looking for ways of 
providing services to the union mem- 
bers,” said Velasquez. “We talked 
about unemployment insurance and ac- 
cess to health care. Much of the govern- 


‘7 am deeply con- 
vinced in order to get 
results, you must in- 
vest in yourself. ” 

Dr. Konstantin Trenchev 
Podkrepa leader 


ment services we take for granted they 
don’t even have in that country.” 

“The strength of our organization 
depends on the structure, financial in- 
dependence and prestige,” Trenchev 
explained. “We are not equally 
developed now, but we have some of 
all three.” 

But Podkrepa is looking beyond the 
winter’s survival. “The only way to 
become a true labor union is when a 
market economy is a reality,” Trenchev 
said. 

Podkrepa, which means “support” in 
Bulgarian, was founded two years ago 


ter to Soviet President Mikhail 
Gorbachev. 

“During the last three years, the 
country’s leadership has clearly 
demonstrated its hostility toward its 
own people. We also recognize these 
actions by our government as a viola- 
tion of the USSR peoples’ rights for 
freedom, sovereignty and democracy.” 

The labor leaders, including miners, 
machinists, journalists, and worker ac- 
tivists, represent newly created, in- 


as Bulgaria’s first free trade union 
organization since imposition of com- 
munist rule more than 45 years ago. 
The union membership has grown to 
more than 420,000 paid members. In 
calling for the general strike that ousted 
Lukanov, Podkrepa mobilized more 
than a million workers. 

“Iam deeply convinced in order to 
get results, you must invest in. your- 
self,” said Trenchev, who is a 
pathologist by profession. Unlike U.S. 
trade unions, the Bulgarian free trade 
unions rose first from professional 
organizations. 

Soon after Podkrepa was founded, 
Trenchev and other union leaders were 
jailed. 

Under international pressure and an 
increasingly restless population, 
Trenchev was released. 

A few months following his release, 
a noticeable movement toward democ- 
racy had begun. Todor Zhivkov, long- 
time communist party leader was 
replaced. The nation’s first free elec- 
tions in more than 45 years were 
scheduled. 

Podkrepa, as the largest member of 
the UDF, used its network of members 
to help UDF candidates run strongly, 
particularly in the cities. 

While Podkrepa was growing, the 
Bulgarian Socialist Party struggled to 
form a government or to put together 
a comprehensive program of economic 
reforms, despite its victory in the June 
parliamentary elections. 

With the fall of Lukanov, hopes for 
democratic change ride with Podkrepa’ s 
coalition. 


dependent labor organizations not con- 
nected with the official Soviet govern- 
ment-sponsored unions. The unionists 
are here for 30 days to study the 
American labor movement. 

The trip is being arranged by the 
AFL-CIO and is funded through a grant 
provided by the U.S. Information 
Agency’s International Visitor Pro- 
gram. This is the second time in as 
many years that the AFL-CIO has 
hosted Soviet trade unionists. 


Foreign trade 
unionists end 
exchange tours 

By Sharolyn Rosier 

P olish and Israeli trade unionists 
recently completed tours of the 
United States as part of AFL-CIO in- 
ternational exchange programs. 

The Polish tradesmen were in the 
United States for an apprenticeship pro- 
gram that provided hands-on experience 
with construction equipment, while the 
Israeli Histadrut members completed an 
exchange tour under the auspices of the 
AFL-CIO and the Histadrut. 

The Polish trades program co- 
sponsored by the AFL-CIO Building 
and Construction Trades Department, 
Coca-Cola and the U.S. Department of 
Labor, was designed to assist Poland in 
its shift to a free-market economy while 
also easing that country’s severe hous- 
ing shortage. 

Housing is scarce in Poland due to a 
lack of materials and commitment to 
housing during nearly 50 years of com- 
munist rule, said Iron Worker Vice 
President Ray Robertson. 

Many families live in cramped flats 
with relatives, waiting years for their 
name to be called from a waiting list. 
In Poland, it can take seven years to 
complete an apartment building that 
would take seven months to build 
anywhere in the United States, he said. 

Craft training 

The training program began this sum- 
mer with 10 Polish trainers representing 
bricklayers, carpenters, plumbers and 
pipefitters, electrical workers and iron 
workers. The Polish trainers spent three 
weeks at the George Meany Center for 
Labor Studies, where they were taught 
the latest in teaching methods. 

Following that session, the Poles 
traveled to Chicago, home of thousands 
of Polish- Americans. There they met 
with Polish- American trainers and ap- 
prenticeship directors from each craft 
and worked on construction projects. 

Ultimately, the goal is to train enough 
Polish construction workers to make 
construction projects within Polish 
borders both feasible and attractive to 
European and American businesses, 
Robertson said. Besides boosting Polish 
society, an accelerated construction 
pace would triple what Polish workers 
earned while working for the state-run 
Polish system, he said. 

The trainers returned to Poland to 
teach other Polish laborers at a new 
center established by the AFL-CIO and 
the Department of Labor, which is be- 
ing outfitted with equipment provided 
by U.S. companies. 

Histadrut tours 

The delegation of Histadrut leaders, 
which toured Washington, Atlanta, 
Chattanooga, Tenn., and New York, 
was briefed on the history, structure 
and organization of American labor. 

The Histadrut delegation also par- 
ticipated in workshops and lectures on 
labor-management relations, new tech- 
nologies and trends in organizing. 

The Histadrut tour followed a visit by 
an AFL-CIO delegation to Isreal. 

The AFL-CIO delegation members 
had an “opportunity to raise various 
issues of concern, such as their unions’ 
relationships with those in the West 
Bank,” said Timothy Ryan of the 
Asian- American Free Labor Institute. 

Besides Ryan, the delegation in- 
cluded: Kim Floyd, Wyoming AFL- 
CIO; Anthony Holly, Frontlash; Gerald 
Summers, Service Employees, and 
William Lloyd, SEIU and the A. Phillip 
Randolph Institute. 


Soviet free trade union leaders visiting U.S. 




Workers struggle with 


Continued from Page 1 

plant from DinnerBell, filed for 
bankruptcy protection soon after that. 
Meanwhile, deductions made by B .J. 
Packing for credit union contributions, 
support payments and other items were 
kept by the company, Bramlett said. 

Food and Commercial Workers 
Local 1099, representing the workers, 
has petitioned the bankruptcy court over 
the meatpacker’s tactics. “We got no 
severance pay, no profit-sharing, even 
though the plan was in effect for more 
than two years. Nobody knew the com- 
pany was shutting down,” Bramlett 
said. 

“My unemployment benefits ran out 
the last of August and there were no 
federal benefits. It’s been rough,” he 
said. 

Bramlett has received some help from 
the union food bank and the Veterans 
Administration for rent, water and 
heating oil payments, and the UFCW 


local helped brighten the holidays with 
Christmas gifts and food. 

Sue Thompson, coordinator of the 
Job Training Partnership Act labor pro- 
gram at the Ohio AFL-CIO, pointed out 
that workers need 20 credit weeks of 
employment — about five months — to 
qualify for jobless benefits in the state. 

“It’s a terribly depressed area” and 
employers are using this to their full ad- 
vantage, including hiring part-time 
workers who will not be eligible for 
benefits, she said. 

As the recession deepens, “I don’t 
know what’s going to be there for 
workers seeking jobs in six months or 
a year,” she added. 

Under the current economic condi- 
tions, workers are hard-pressed to find 
jobs that will support families, said 
Leonard Ciskowski, a former Chrysler 
worker and UAW member. 

“I drive 50 or 60 miles some days 
just to be able to fill out an applica- 


AFL-CIO panel documents 
Cuba worker rights abuses 


Miami 

T he AFL-CIO Labor Committee for 
a Free Cuba finalized its documen- 
tation of cases of forced labor, retalia- 
tion and other worker rights violations 
in Cuba during a regional meeting here 
Jan. 17-18. 

The committee, chaired by AFL-CIO 
Vice President John DeConcini of the 
Bakery, Confectionery and Tobacco 
Workers, will present the documenta- 
tion of rights abuses to the International 
Labor Organization (ILO) through the 
International Confederation of Free 
Trade Unions (ICFTU) during an ILO 
meeting in March. 

“With this action, the case against 
Cuba for violations of worker rights 
will be officially re-opened,” DeCon- 
cini said. 

The Miami meeting was the second 
regional meeting conducted by the com- 
mittee, which also has distributed a 
worker rights questionnaire to a number 
of individuals and organizations with 
first-hand knowledge about conditions 
in Cuba. 

The response to the questionnaire, 
DeConcini said, “was tremendous and 
without this help our task would have 
been impossible to accomplish.” 
Besides gathering information on 
worker rights abuses, the committee has 
mounted an appeal for the release of 
two trade unionists who have been in 
Cuban jails for 25 years. Mario Chanes, 
leader of the brewery workers union in 
Puente Grande, and Ernesto Diaz, a 
transport worker and fisherman, are 
thought to be the longest-held political 
prisoners in the world. 

Last September, members of the 
committee attempted to deliver to the 
Cuban interest section of the Czecho- 


slovakian embassy in Washington a 
package of letters written by U.S. union 
leaders to Fidel Castro demanding the 
release of Chanes and Diaz. To date, 
there has been no Cuban reply to the 
appeals. 

“We will not give up,” DeConcini 
vowed. “We will recommend to the 
AFL-CIO Executive Council to launch 
an international appeal for the release 
of these two political prisoners and 
many others.” 

Among the individuals speaking to 
the committee in Miami were: Angel 
Cofino, exiled labor leader and former 
political prisoner; Jorge Bello, Com- 
mission of United Cuban Workers; 
Agustin Garcia, National Cuban Com- 
mission; Conrado Rodriguez, Indepen- 
dent Trade Union Action; Tony 
Calatayud, Independent Cuban Party; 
Huber Matos, Independent and Demo- 
cratic Cuba, and Antonio Navarro, 
Radio Marti. 

In addition to DeConcini, the AFL- 
CIO Labor Committee for a Free Cuba 
includes: Leon Lynch, Steelworkers 
vice president; Marty Urra, president 
of the South Florida AFL-CIO; William 
C. Doherty, executive director, 
American Institute for Free Labor 
Development; Murray Sisselman, 
president, United Teachers of Dade, 
AFT; Jack Otero, vice president of the 
Transportation Communications Union; 
Ed Pulver, secretary-treasurer of the 
New Jersey AFL-CIO; Jose Collado, 
Carpenters representative; Rick Icaza, 
president of Food and Commercial 
Workers Local 770; Olga Diaz, vice 
president of the Clothing and Textile 
Workers, and Robert Harbrant, presi- 
dent of the AFL-CIO Food and Allied 
Service Trades Department. 


layoffs amid recession 


tion,” Ciskowski said. “But when I get 
there, I find out the job is $4 or $6 an 
hour with no benefits. I have five peo- 
ple to support and without health in- 
surance a doctor won’t even give me the 
time of day.” 

The nation’s economic woes are ex- 
acerbated by the government’s inactiv- 
ity over the past decade, said Steel- 
workers President Lynn Williams, testi- 
fying for the AFL-CIO before the 
Senate committee. “This recession has 
many ghosts from the 1980s hanging 
over it. However, concerted national 
action is needed to turn the economy 
onto the right growth path.” 

That siren also was sounded by the 
committee’s chairman, Sen. Edward 
M. Kennedy (D-Mass). “It is time the 
Bush administration got serious about 
fighting this recession,” he said. 

Sen. Nancy Kassebaum, the lone 
Republican at the hearing, sympathized 
with the plight of the worker witnesses, 


noting that “the great legacy of the 
Reagan administration is that we have 
forgotten too many Americans.” 

Harvard economist John Kenneth 
Galbraith urged the committee to look 
at unemployment not in the hard 
unemotional numbers, but in “what lies 
behind those numbers — the personal 
and family trauma, the loss of self- 
esteem, the tight-lipped fear as to the 
future, the wonder as to whether there 
will be a job and income soon or ever 
again. 

“The government should abandon the 
idea of balancing the budget as long as 
the recession persists,” Galbraith said. 
“In addition, the Federal Reserve 
should make substantial reductions in 
interest rates.” 

Economist Robert Eisner of North- 
western University said the government 
should not accept as natural unemploy- 
ment rates in the range of 6 to 7 per- 
cent. 



Bill Burke/Page One Photography 

Monsignor George Higgins, right, recently celebrated Mass in commemora- 
tion of two trade unionists, Mike Hammer and Mark Pearlman of the 
American Institute for Free Labor Development, and Jose Rodolfo Viera 
of the Salvadoran land reform agency, who were killed in El Salvador 10 
years ago. Attending the services were, from left: the Rev. John McCor- 
mick; Hammer's widow, Marita; AIFLD Executive Director William Doherty; 
Pearlman's widow, Anne Pearlman Morton; her husband, Bubba Morton; 
and Mike Hammer Jr. 


Maritime unions crew vessels 
headed to support Desert Storm 


M aritime unions continue to answer 
the call by the Military Sealift 
Command for support of Operation 
Desert Storm. 

A total of 67 ships from the Ready 
Reserve Fleet have been activated for 
service — including 20 in recent 
weeks — since the crisis began in the 
Persian Gulf region in early August, ac- 
cording to the Maritime Administra- 
tion, which maintains the 96-vessel 
RRF fleet. 

Maritime union hiring halls have 
been operating at an all-out pace to meet 
the demand for crews, and Mar Ad Ad- 
ministrator Warren G. Leback praised 


the U.S. merchant marine for its quick 
and cooperative response. 

The number of qualified merchant 
seamen has dropped from 43,000 to 
12,800 since 1970 as the U.S. -flag 
maritime fleet declined sharply in the 
last two decades, Mar Ad noted. The 
call-up of more than 60 RRF vessels has 
required the services of 2,340 merchant 
mariners, according to the agency, 
creating severe pressure on the 
maritime unions to fill the positions. 

It commended “the tireless efforts of 
seafaring labor organizations in lining 
up active and retired members to meet 
national defense needs.” 


Government must act to balance Japan trade, study says 


T he U.S. government must take direct 
action to restore a balanced trade 
relationship with Japan, instead of try- 
ing to persuade the Japanese to allow 
more imports into the country, the 
Economic Policy Institute argues in a 
new study. 

The conclusions represent a major 
shift for the study’s author, Fordham 
University economics professor 
Dominick Salvatore. The Economic 
Policy Institute commissioned the study 
by Salvatore. 

Salvatore’s study, “The Japanese 


Trade Challenge and the U.S. 
Response,” found that Japan’s interna- 
tional economic strategy flagrantly 
violates the rules of open trade. It com- 
bines domestic protection for develop- 
ing industries with aggressive targeting 
of U.S. markets, the study said. 

The result is that the trade imbalance 
with Japan accounted for more than 60 
percent of the increase in the overall 
U.S. trade deficit in the 1980s. 

Each $1 billion in the trade deficit 
translates into 25,000 lost American 
jobs. 


The government should take strong, 
temporary retaliatory action to correct 
the imbalance, including a 15 percent 
multilateral import surcharge on 
specific manufactured goods to curb im- 
ports and give the U.S. bargaining 
leverage with Japan. 

The surcharge would stay in effect 
until Japan opens up its markets more 
widely to American exports of high tech 
and manufactured products and the 
trade deficit has significantly decreased. 

Salvatore also recommended more 
government support for strategic 


domestic industries that have been 
targeted for export drives by Japan or 
other foreign countries. 

To increase American competitive- 
ness, Salvatore said the government 
should increase its support for worker 
education and job training. 

Salvatore said Japan targeted the U.S. 
computer industry in the 1980s and the 
commercial aircraft and space in- 
dustries in the 1990s. Unless it takes 
corrective measures now, the United 
States will lose its dominance in these 
areas, the study concluded. 





Unemployment picture 

December, 1990 





Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 


Escalating 
jobless rate 
exceeds 6 % 

By John R. Oravec 

A nother 263,000 workers were swept 
into the jobless vacuum in Decem- 
ber as the nation’s unemployment rate 
climbed to 6.1 percent — the highest 
since mid- 1987. 

With the recession deepening since 
November, when the jobless rate was 
5.9 percent, the Bureau of Labor 
Statistics counted 7.6 million as official- 
ly unemployed in its year-end report, 

1 million more than in December 1990. 
With additional pending layoffs and 
companies announcing more job cut- 
backs, the employment outlook for 
1991 turned bleak. 

The gloomy prospects were reflected 
in the fourth quarter BLS data, as the 
number of discouraged workers — 
people who want to work but are not 
looking for jobs because they believe 
they could not find any — increased by 

110,000 to 940,000. On top of that, 
workers in part-time jobs who want 
full-time jobs increased by 140,000 to 
5.6 million. 

As a result, AFL-CIO chief econom- 
ist Rudy Oswald noted, 14.1 million 
workers were hit by partial or total 
unemployment in December. 

Only about four in 10 of the official- 
ly unemployed, 3. 1 million, were draw- 
ing jobless benefits in December. That 
left 4.5 million without compensation 
who could not qualify under the 
stringent regulations. 

The spreading recession took its toll 
in jobs in major industrial states, with 
jobless rates soaring to 7.4 percent in 
Massachusetts, 7.3 percent in Michigan, 
7.2 percent in Texas and 7.1 percent in 
California. 

Job losses were heavy throughout 
most sectors of the country in 
December, . pursuing a deteriorating 
trend since mid-year. 

BLS Commissioner Janet Norwood 
told the Joint Economic Committee of 
Congress that “virtually every major 
demographic group — whether defined 
by age, gender or race — has seen a 
rise in joblessness over the June-to- 
December period.’’ 

For adult males, the December rate 
rose to 5.6 percent; adult women, 5.3 
percent; whites, 5.3 percent; unchanged 
for blacks at 12.2 percent; Hispanics, 
9.3 percent, and little changed for 
teenagers at 16.6 percent. 

Sen. Paul Sarbanes (D-Md.), chair- 
man of the JEC, said the year-end BLS 
data flashed warning signs that the 
recession may be neither shallow nor 
short, as the Bush administration and 
some private economists have pre- 
dicted. 

Sarbanes noted that the jobless rate 
has risen on the average of 3 percen- 
tage points in postwar recessions. That 
should push the rate to more than 8 per- 
cent, figuring that the pre-recession low 
rate was 5.1 percent in March 1989. 
Bush administration economists have 
estimated the rate will peak around 6.8 
percent. 

BLS said nonfarm payroll employ- 
ment declined in December by 75,000, 
a bit less than in the previous two 
months. The largest losses came in 


retail trade, 50,000; manufacturing, 
35,000, and construction, 30,000. 

Factories have laid off 570,000 
workers since December 1989 and 
slashed nearly 2 million jobs over the 
last two years. Construction employ- 
ment is down 22 1 ,000 over the year and 
about 275,000 from January 1989. 

Jobs in health care services increased 
by 55,000 in December and are up 
about 600,000 over the year. Jobs in 
education increased by 300,000 during 
the same period. 

In early January, Sears, Roebuck and 
Co. said it would lay off 21,000 
workers at its more than 800 stores 
across the country. It cited disappoint- 
ing sales as the reason for the cutbacks. 

And shortly after the Department of 
Defense canceled plans for the develop- 
ment of the A- 12 Navy warplane, three 
Pentagon contractors announced layoff 
plans that will affect some members of 
the Machinists, Electronic Workers and 
the UAW. 

McDonnell Douglas Corp. said 5,000 
employees could lose their jobs within 
a few days and General Dynamics 
Corp. said it would begin laying off 

4.000 workers in Fort Worth, Tex., and 
Tulsa, Okla. General Electric Co., 
meanwhile, said it would lay off an “un- 
disclosed number’’ of the 8,500 em- 
ployees at its Lynn, Mass., plant 
because of the A- 12 cancellation. 

Ford Motor Co. announced it would 
lay off some 26,000 workers during 
January with the temporary shutdown 
of 12 assembly plants in the United 
States and Canada. Eighteen General 
Motors Corp. and Chrysler Corp. 
plants were not expected to resume pro- 
duction until late January, leaving some 

47.000 U.S. and Canadian workers on 
temporary layoff. 

In other reports: 

• The Commerce Department said 


new orders for manufactured goods 
plunged $14.7 billion in November, the 
sharpest one-month decline on record. 
The 5.9-percent drop in factory orders 
to $235 billion exceeded the previous 
record 5.5-percent fall to $227 billion 
in January 1990. 

• The government’s index of 
leading economic indicators dropped 
1.2 percent in November, the fifth 
straight monthly decline. The Com- 
merce Department said eight of the in- 
dex’s 1 1 components were on the down- 
side. Three components, paced by 
higher stock prices, were on the upside. 
But stock prices have nose-dived in re- 
cent weeks as the Dow Jones industrials 
index skidded more than a 100 points 
in the first trading week of the new 
year. 

• Industrial production plunged at 
an annual rate of 8 percent in the fourth 
quarter of 1990, the Federal Reserve 
Board reported. In December, produc- 
tion was off 0.6 percent after falling 1 .8 
percent in November. For the year, out- 
put dropped 1 .4 percent from the 1989 
level. The central bank also said the 
operating rate of the nation’s factories, 
mines and utilities fell 0.6 of a point to 

80.4 percent in December — the lowest 
level since April 1987. Overall factory 
output slipped 0.9 percent in December, 
the third consecutive drop. Durable 
goods production was hit the hardest, 
with declines of 1 .2 percent in October, 

2.4 percent in November and 1.5 per- 
cent in December. 

• Retail sales edged up an anemic 
3.8 percent last year, the slowest pace 
since the 3-percent rise in the 1982 
recession, the Commerce Department 
said. Sales in December fell 0.4 percent 
from November as retailers were socked 
with a dismal Christmas shopping 
season that usually provides about one- 
half of their annual profits. 


Inflation rate 
at 9-year high 
in ’90 — 6.1% 

I nflation in 1990 put its harshest bite 
on workers in nine years as the 
government’s consumer price index for 
urban wage earners shot up 6. 1 percent. 

In the preceding three years, the cost 
of living increased an average of 4.5 
percent annually, the Bureau of Labor 
Statistics reported. 

Exploding petroleum prices — 
touched off by the Persian Gulf 
crisis — fueled the calamity, including 
hikes of 36.7 percent at the gas pumps 
and 28.7 percent for heating oil. 

Overall energy costs in the CPI-W 
advanced 19.2 percent over the year, 
compared with 5.2 percent in 1989, 
BLS reported. Natural gas and electri- 
city rates rose only 1.4 percent last 
year to lower the overall increase in the 
index’s energy component. 

Inflation took its sharpest upturn in 
August, September and October before 
retail price increases slowed in 
November and December when the 
CPI-W advanced 0.3 percent. 

The cost of medical care continued to 
climb during 1990, rising 9.1 percent, 
compared with 8.3 percent in 1989, and 
remained as one of the fastest increas- 
ing components in the BLS index. In the 
final quarter of the year, health care 
costs were rising at an annual rate of 
9.8 percent. 

In a separate report, BLS said real 
average weekly earnings increased 0.9 
percent in December, but were down 
1.6 percent over the year because pay 
gains did not keep pace with the higher 
prices. Workers are even worse off 
over the decade, AFL-CIO economist 
Anne Draper pointed out, with real 
weekly pay last month 5.4 percent 
below that of December 1980. 

Gulf war clouds 
economic picture 

H ostilities in the Middle East cloud 
the outlook for the U.S. economy, 
which slipped into recession well before 
the Jan. 15 United Nations deadline for 
Iraq to pull out of Kuwait, AFL-CIO 
chief economist Rudy Oswald said. 

Forecasts of a mild and brief reces- 
sion “may be too upbeat,” Oswald 
warned. 

He noted that the consensus projec- 
tion among economic forecasters now 
is that the total output of goods and 
services will fall by 0. 1 percent in 1991 
from last year’s feeble level. And some 
forecasters in the group foresee a worse 
recession with gross national product 
declining by more than 1 percent. 

“Such a down year is quite possible 
in view of announced layoffs, the many 
areas of weakness in the economy, in- 
cluding weak real estate and banking 
sectors, and highly leveraged com- 
panies with heavy debt service obliga- 
tions,” Oswald said. 

“The economy is much weaker and 
more vulnerable to a deep and long 
recession than is widely recognized at 
this time. To counter the recession, 
direct government action is needed to 
alleviate the sufferings of the 
unemployed and to turn the economy 
around.” 





AFL-CIO staff additions 
to boost communications 



T he AFL-CIO has bolstered its head- 
quarters communications program 
with several recent staff additions to the 
Legislative Department, the Depart- 
ment of Information and the Labor In- 
stitute of Public Affairs. 

The Legislative Department will have 
a full-time congressional news media 
representative for the first time. 

David Saltz, 38, joins the AFL-CIO 
as the primary media representative on 
legislative issues. He was previously 
managing editor of the Mine Workers 
Journal and also worked on media rela- 
tions and other writing for the UMWA. 
A member of the Newspaper Guild, 
Saltz graduated from Washington 
University in St. Louis with a degree 
in history in 1977 and worked for 
several news organizations, including 
The Greenville (Miss.) Delta Demo- 
crat-Times and Jack Anderson’s syn- 
dicated column. 

James B. Parks has joined the 
Department of Information as an assis- 
tant editor of the AFL-CIO News. 
Parks, 41, was an assistant metro editor 
at the Cincinnati Enquirer and the 
Baltimore Sun. A native of Asheville, 
N.C., he has a bachelor’s degree from 
the University of North Carolina and is 
a former alternate board member of the 
National Association of Black Journal- 
ists. 

The Department of Information also 
has hired two media relations special- 
ists, Colleen M. O’Neill and Muriel H. 
Cooper and one staff writer, Sharolyn 
A. Rosier, all of whom will contribute 
to the AFL-CIO News and media cam- 
paigns. 

O’Neill, 28, has a bachelor’s degree 
from University of North Carolina and 
a master’s degree in political science 
from American University. She worked 
for the North Carolina Democratic Par- 
ty during the 1984 election and was a 


copy editor at the Raleigh (N.C.) News 
and Observer. O’Neill will concentrate 
on the health care reform campaign for 
the AFL-CIO. 

Cooper, 32, has a bachelor’s degree 
in broadcast journalism from Howard 
University and a master’s in public rela- 
tions management from American 
University. She worked as both a 
newspaper and television reporter in 
Macon, Ga., and is a member of the 
Newspaper Guild. 

Rosier, 24, also earned her jour- 
nalism degree from Howard Universi- 
ty before becoming a legislative assis- 
tant to U.S. Sen. Wyche Fowler (D- 
Ga.). A native of Augusta, Ga., Rosier 
will write for the AFL-CIO News as 
well as handle media inquiries. 

Additions at LIPA include Richard 
Foster, the assistant director of the in- 
stitute, Deborah Sedillo Dugan, senior 
coordinator for media and marketing, 
and Pauline Steinhorn, supervising 
producer. 

Foster, 40, joined LIPA last 
September from Gannett Television’s 
Washington bureau, where he was 
assignment manager and producer. He 
worked in television news in Atlanta, 
Baltimore and Miami before coming to 
Washington. 

Dugan, 31, who was public affairs 
director at WTTG-TV in Washington 
and a staff member on the Mondale- 
Ferraro campaign, joined LIPA last 
summer and was instrumental in plan- 
ning and distributing the federation’s 
health care reform television adver- 
tisements in the fall. 

Steinhorn, 38, joined LIPA in 
November after working as a producer, 
director and editor of Public Broad- 
casting System documentaries and 
children’s programs. Her credits in- 
clude editing for PBS’s MacNeil/Lehr 
“Newshour.” 


TS 


AFL-CIO Vice President Susan 
Bianchi-Sand, president of the Flight 
Attendants, has been elected to a one- 
year term as an at-large member of the 
board of the National Committee on 
Pay Equity. The NCPE, founded in 
1979, is a national coalition that works 
to eliminate sex- and race-based wage 
discrimination and to achieve pay 
equity. 

Members of the Marine Engineers 
licensed division elected Gordon M. 
Ward as chairman in secret ballot elec- 
tion. Also elected were Joel E. Bern as 
vice chairman and three directors, 
Mark Austin, Nick Hajdu, and Alex 
Shandrowsky. MEBA President Gene 
DeFries congratulated the newly 
elected division officials, and said, “I 
look forward to working with you as 
you take your place as the newest 
members of our union’s leadership 
team.” 

AFL-CIO Vice President William 
Wynn, president of the Food and Com- 
mercial Workers, will be the deputy 
marshall at the Martin Luther King Jr. 
Holiday Parade in Atlanta Monday, 
Jan. 21 . This is the Sixth Annual Parade 
sponsored by the King Holiday Com- 
mission. 

President John J. Barry of the Elec- 
trical Workers has been appointed to the 
city management advisory committee 
by Washington Mayor Sharon Pratt 
Dixon. The committee will advise 
Dixon on management policies and ef- 
ficiency. Its primary task is to help pin- 
point government excesses and offer 
solutions to streamline city operations. 


Dan Dolan, former president of the 
Communications Workers Local 7400 
and a member of the Nebraska AFL- 
CIO executive board, has been named 
the state’s Commissioner of Labor by 
the new governor, Ben Nelson. Nelson 
also named Fernando “Butch” Lecu- 
ona III, a special assistant with 
Operating Engineers Local 571, to be 
deputy commissioner. 

Arnold Cantor has retired from the 
AFL-CIO headquarters staff after 15 
years as assistant director of economic 
research. He joined the department in 
1968 as an economist. In the 1950s, 
Cantor had been research director for 
the Upholsterers and later was an 
economist at the U.S. Labor Depart- 
ment, Commerce Department and the 
federation’s Industrial Union Depart- 
ment. He was a member of the News- 
paper Guild. 

Don Judge has been elected ex- 
ecutive secretary of the Montana AFL- 
CIO, replacing Jim Murry, who 
resigned after 25 years with the state 
federation. Judge, 42, who had been the 
state federation’s political director and 
lobbyist, will serve out Murry’s term 
until elections are held at the August 
convention. Murry, 55, will direct a 
newly created national basic skills 
upgrading program for steelworkers 
whose jobs are being transformed by 
technology. 

Bren Leiss has joined the AFL-CIO 
Department of Organization and Field 
Services as a staff representative in the 
office of state government liaison. 
Leiss, 48, has been with the federation 
for 18 years, most recently with the 
Department of Information. She will 
oversee the production of the State Ties 
newsletter, among other duties. Also 
joining the state government liaison of- 
fice is Maria G. Hernandez, who served 
on the staffs of Rep. Esteban E. Torres 
(D-Calif.) and former Rep. Robert 
Garcia (D-N.Y.). Hernandez, 35, also 
worked for the National Democratic 
Committee. 



Convention Calendar 


AFL-CIO and international affiliates, state central bodies and fraternal 


ORGANIZATION 

Woodworkers 

Louisiana 

Arizona 

Plate Printers 

Metal Polishers 

Novelty & Production 

Arkansas 

Flint Glass Workers 
Grain Millers 

Longshoremen & Warehousemen 

Pattern Makers 

Musicians 

Michigan 

Utility Workers 

Newspaper Guild 

Teamsters 

CWA 

TCU 

Virginia 

Railroad Signalman 
TV & Radio Artists 
School Administrators 
Iron Workers 
Boilermakers 
Plumbers & Pipefitters 
OCAW 

Locomotive Engineers 
Iowa 
Texas 
Wyoming 
Sheet Metal 


DATE 

March 4-6 
March 18-20 
May 1-3 
May 6-12 
May 18-24 
May 20-23 
June 2-5 
June 3-15 
June 3-5 
June 3-7 
June 10-14 
June 17-20 
June 19-21 
June 21 -July 2 
June 24-28 
June 24-28 
June 24-26 
July 14-19 
July 18-20 
July 22-26 
July 25-28 
July 31 -Aug. 4 
Aug. 5-9 
Aug. 11-18 
Aug. 12-16 
Aug. 12-16 
Aug. 19-23 
Aug. 20-22 
Aug. 21-24 
Aug. 23-24 
Aug. 26-30 
Aug. 26-30 


Steelworkers 

Allied Industrial Workers 

United Transportation Union 

Laborers 

Vermont 

Washington 

North Dakota 

Rhode Island 

Minnesota 

Nebraska 

Oregon 

Kansas 

Delaware 

Carpenters 

Electrical Workers 

North Carolina 

Alabama 

West Virginia 

New Hampshire 

Tennessee 

Train Dispatchers 

Flight Attendants 

Maine 

Oklahoma 


Pittsburgh 

St. Louis 

Honolulu 

Las Vegas 

Rutland 

Everett 

Jamestown 

Providence 

Minneapolis 

Grand Island 

Portland 

Topeka 

Rehoboth Beach 

Atlantic City, N.J, 

St. Louis 

Charlotte 

Birmingham 

Charleston 

Conway 

Knoxville 

Las Vegas 

Honolulu 

Rockport 

Oklahoma City 


Reno, Nev. 
Baton Rouge 
Tucson 

Lake George, N.Y. 
Las Vegas 
Orlando, Fla. 
Hot Springs 
Hollywood, Fla. 
Las Vegas 
Seattle 
Las Vegas 
Las Vegas 
Detroit 

Hollywood, Fla. 

Montreal 

Orlando, Fla. 

San Francisco 

San Francisco 

Norfolk 

Las Vegas 

Washington 

San Francisco 

Las Vegas 

Las Vegas 

Las Vegas 

Denver 

Cleveland 

Waterloo 

Austin 

Casper 

Montreal 

Anaheim, Calif. 


Meetings 


Feb. 18-22 
March 20-21 
May 1-2 
May 3-6 
May 13-17 
Nov. 4-7 


AFL-CIO Executive Council 
IUD Legislative Conference 
Secretary-Treasurers Conf. 
Union-Industries Show 
AFL-CIO Lawyers Conf. 
AFL-CIO Convention 


Bal Harbour, Fla. 

Washington 

Minneapolis 

Minneapolis 

San Francisco 

Detroit 


Workers 
Government Employees 




Daily News 
unions press 
boycott drive 



Milwaukee Labor Press 

Bruce Colburn, president of ATU Local 998 and head of leads the call for justice for Greyhound strikers at a 
the Milwaukee central body's solidarity committee, rally outside Milwaukee's federal building. 

Unionists rally at NLRB hearing on Greyhound 


Continued from Page 2 

the nine unions went out on strike Oct. 
25 after working six months without a 
contract. 

Theodore Kheel, a legal adviser to the 
strikers, said the management an- 
nouncement on selling or closing down 
“shows the labor movement can with- 
stand an attack as gross” as the Daily 
News’ effort to destroy the unions. But, 
Kheel said, the announcement was not 
good news for the 2,300 workers. 

Several issues must be settled before 
any sale can take place, Kheel said. 
First is deciding who will assume the 
shutdown liabilities, which he estimated 
at $150 million. These include 
severance pay and unfunded pensions. 

Second is determining the status of 
several Daily News lawsuits against the 
striking unions, including one that 
charges Kheel conspired to coerce the 
paper into selling. 

The News also must establish what 
it has to sell, particularly since the paper 
has few advertisers and very little 
circulation. 

Meanwhile, a Printing Trades Coun- 
cil committee is continuing to make 
plans to pressure the Tribune Co. into 
settling the strike. And the striking 
unions continue to meet separately with 
the News management and federal 
mediators. 

The New York Times reported that 
the unions had agreed to drop its request 
that 800 replacement workers be let go, 
provided that all striking workers return 
to work. 

In other actions, the striking unions 
set up a 900 number to help support the 
strike. Callers can hear the unions’ side 
of the story and learn how to help the 
strike by calling 900/740-4777. 

Contributions to the strike fund 
should go to the Daily News Boycott 
Office, 218 West 40th Street, Room 
204, New York, N.Y. 10018. 


Milwaukee 

U nion members rallied outside the 
Reuss Federal Plaza at the start of 
a National Labor Relations Board hear- 
ing on a complaint of unfair labor prac- 
tices against Greyhound Lines Inc. 

The NLRB complaint charges that 
Greyhound violated federal law in 
bargaining and illegally fired 
Amalgamated Transit Union members 
because of their union activities. 

With strains of “scabs out, union in” 
and “Solidarity Forever,” a crowd of 
100 ATU members and union sup- 
porters showed their support for the 
9,300 Greyhound strikers, who have 
been walking picket lines since 
March 2. 

Administrative Law Judge Robert 
Giannasi must determine whether 
Greyhound violated the law when it 
unilaterally declared an impasse in 
bargaining and imposed its so-called 
final offer, as the NLRB general 
counsel outlined in a complaint. 

The complaint also states that 
Greyhound illegally fired strikers, 


coerced and threatened employees, and 
refused to provide ATU with informa- 
tion. 

The NLRB complaint also is seeking 
an order requiring Greyhound to rehire 
strikers who were victims of the bus 
line’s illegal practices and to award 
back pay. Greyhound, which filed for 
federal bankruptcy protection in June, 
has hired about 3,000 strikebreakers. 

ATU estimated that the back pay 
owed exceeds $90 million, with Grey- 
hound’s liability increasing monthly. 
While not admitting any wrongdoing, 
Greyhound has called for any back pay 
award to be limited to $40 million. 

After reviewing the facts, Giannasi 
will issue a ruling and make a recom- 
mendation to the full board. That deci- 
sion then can be appealed through the 
federal appeals court, an action that 
could take several years to resolve. 

ATU noted that the Greyhound com- 
plaint is one of the largest unfair labor 
practice cases considered by the board 
in recent years and one that could have 
far-reaching effects on company at- 


tempts to hire strikebreakers as perma- 
nent replacements. 

At the rally, Greyhound workers 
were joined by members of the Brewery 
Workers, Steelworkers, Office and Pro- 
fessional Employees, Communications 
Workers, UAW, the Carpenters, the 
Operating Engineers, the Ladies’ Gar- 
ment Workers and other unions, as well 
as the Milwaukee AFL-CIO. The 
demonstration gained public approval 
as well, as passing motorists honked 
their horns in support. 

The evening prior to the opening of 
the hearing, union members gathered at 
the Milwaukee AFL-CIO headquarters. 
They heard from union members locked 
in similar disputes with employers — 
workers who had been replaced at In- 
ternational Paper, Cudahy and Eastern 
Airlines. 

The crowd called for legislation to 
ban the permanent replacement of 
strikers and held a moment of silence 
for Robert Waterhouse, the California 
ATU member who was crushed on the 
picket line by a scab-driven bus. 




UI reform , jobs plans 
sought for recession 

Congress should act to help workers 
and their families who are suffering 
under a flawed unemployment compen- 
sation system and a deepening reces- 
sion, the AFL-CIO said. 



Key labor measures 
top Congress's agenda 

The 102nd Congress began its session 
by assigning top priority to health care, 
civil rights, family and medical leave 
and Hatch Act reform. 



CIWA helps IAM 
gain major unit 

With the help of the California Im- 
migrant Workers Association, the 
Machinists win a big organizing victory 
at a Los Angeles firm that manufactures 
auto wheels. 



Rail unions hopeful 
after panel's report 

A presidential emergency board issues 
recommendations to end a three-year 
dispute between railroad workers in 1 1 
unions and 56 rail transport companies. 



AFL-CIO grades 
101st Congress 

The AFL-CIO ’s 1990 voting record 
compiles votes by members of the 101st 
Congress on labor and policy issues im- 
portant to working Americans. 



Calendar lists 
1991 conventions 

The AFL-CIO and its affiliated unions 
and state central bodies announce their 
scheduled conventions and conferences 
for the coming year. 



No one is authorized The AFL-CIO NEWS (ISSN 001-1185) is published every two weeks. 

Second Class postage paid at Washington, D.C. Subscriptions $ 1 0 per 
year. POSTMASTER: Address changes to Room 209, 815 16th Street, 
N.W., Washington, D.C. 20006. 


1 / 21/91 






Labor scorns 
U.S.-Mexico 
trade accord 



Bill Burke/Page One Photography 

Sen. Edward M. Kennedy examines the transcript of the Kirkland speaks at a Capitol Hill news conference. At 
AFL-CIO health care hearings while President Lane right is Rep. Henry Waxman. 

Health care campaign reaches Hill 

AFL-CIO presents evidence of America's deplorable ’ system 


By Colleen M. O’Neill 

T he AFL-CIO reported to Capitol Hill 
on its campaign for national health 
care reform as President Lane Kirkland 
presented Congress with the findings of 
the federation’s eight regional hearings. 

Kirkland, characterizing the state of 
America’s health care as “deplorable,” 
urged fundamental reform of the system 
during a Jan. 29 news conference at- 
tended by Sens. Edward M. Kennedy 
(D-Mass.) and Donald W. Riegle Jr. 
(D-Mich.) and Rep. Henry Waxman 
(D-Calif.). 

“What we found — and what the 
hearing record shows — is a growing 


problem that is no longer exclusive to 
the fringes of our society,” Kirkland 
told the lawmakers. “It’s now hitting 
at the solid, working middle class — 
the backbone of the country — people 
who do their level best to pay their bills 
and meet their obligations.” 

The AFL-CIO heard from 94 wit- 
nesses at hearings last fall in Provi- 
dence, R.I.; Chicago; San Francisco; 
Louisville, Ky.; Detroit; New Bruns- 
wick, N.J.; Birmingham, Ala., and 
Austin, Texas. They included victims 
of the system, health care professionals, 
elected officials, union members and in- 
surance industry representatives. 


In his remarks, Kennedy called the 
488-page transcript from those hearings 
“must reading for every member of 
Congress,” and thanked the AFL-CIO 
for the work in documenting the health 
care crisis. 

“This document is powerful for all 
workers — Americans are just a pink 
slip away from no insurance,” he said. 

Kennedy noted that “this is the year 
for action. Labor, business, hospitals 
and physicians and consumers are 
mobilized as never before, and it is time 
for Congress to act.” He pledged that 
the 102nd Congress would be known 
Continued on Page 12 


By Mike Hall 

T he AFL-CIO has placed containment 
of a potentially disastrous U.S.- 
Mexico free trade agreement high on 
labor’s agenda for the 102nd Congress. 

In one of the first battles of the new 
session, the federation will seek to get 
the trade agreement off the “fast 
track,” a procedure that avoids a 
thorough congressional debate. Senate 
hearings are scheduled Feb. 6. 

The AFL-CIO legislative agenda con- 
tains a broad range of workplace, fam- 
ily, social and trade issues. Many of the 
issues, such as striker replacement, 
Hatch Act reform, family and medical 
leave and civil rights are carryovers 
from the last session. 

Broad-ranging agenda 

New concerns, besides the U.S.- 
Mexico free trade proposal, include 
health care legislation, major OSHA 
reform, an anti-recession program and 
reauthorization of the nation’s highway 
and mass transit program. (See list, 
Page 3). 

A free trade agreement with Mexico 
would allow complete access for 
Mexican-made products to enter the 
United States. These items are made by 
Mexican workers, most making less 
than $1 per hour. If these low- wage 
products flood the American market- 
place, thousands of U.S. workers could 
lose their jobs. 

In addition, free trade could allow 
Mexican contractors to bid on 
American construction projects and 
allow them to use Mexican crews, 
which would throw thousands of U.S. 
construction workers out of an already 
slumping industry. 

The fast track authority, created 
under the 1988 Trade Act, means the 
administration can negotiate any deal it 
wants, draft the specific legislation and 
leave Congress with only a simple yes 
Continued on Page 3 


Deregulation blamed for disintegrating airline industry 


“Today, major air carriers are dis- 
integrating and the administration is 
looking for foreign saviors to fix an in- 


nation’s oldest carriers, including Pan 
American World Airways and Trans 
World Airlines, are scrambling for 


9 


A chronicle of mismanagement 

Pages 8-9 


By Candice Johnson 

B lame for the current financial crisis 
in the U.S. airline industry should 
be laid squarely on the full-scale de- 
regulation of airlines in 1978, said 
Richard Kilroy, president of the AFL- 
CIO Transportation Trades Depart- 
ment. 

Kilroy criticized attempts by the Bush 
administration to blame labor and fuel 
costs for the current turmoil in the in- 
dustry, and said an administration pro- 
posal to increase foreign investment in 
the U.S. industry would not work. 


dustry crisis whose roots lie in the failed 
experiment of airline deregulation,” he 
said. 

The January shutdown of Eastern 
Airlines was just the latest jolt to the 
now not-so-friendly skies. Some of the 


cash, while the fate of regional and 
smaller lines also is up in the air. 

Many airlines — including TWA, 
US Air, Hawaiian, Midway, America 
West and Northwest — are struggling 
under, in some cases, billions of dollars 


of debt undertaken during the wave of 
leveraged buyouts in the 1980s. 

The Bush administration has pro- 
posed increasing foreign ownership of 
U.S. airlines from the current 25 per- 
cent to 49 percent, but Kilroy said the 
plan would not bail out the industry. In- 
stead, the administration should re- 
assess the failed policies of airline 
deregulation, he said. 

Since deregulation, the airline in- 
dustry has experienced 5 1 mergers and 
more than 150 bankruptcy filings, with 
Continued on Page 8 





Kheel exploring possible 
Daily News ESOP buyout 



Steve Miller/Miller Photography 


Soviet trade unionists join a picket line at the Daily News behind Barry Lip- 
ton, president of the New York City Newspaper Guild. The Soviets were 
on a 30-day tour of the United States. 


By James B. Parks 

W ith prospects for a negotiated set- 
tlement appearing no better, the 
unions striking the New York Daily 
News are exploring possible ways of 
buying the newspaper through an 
employees stock ownership plan. 

The News’ parent Tribune Co. has 
agreed to recognize Theodore Kheel, an 
unpaid adviser to the unions, as a 
potential buyer “on behalf of an 
employee stock ownership plan now be- 
ing formed. ’ ’ Kheel said he was notified 
of the development by officials of 
Lazard Freres, the investment group 
advising the News on possible sales. 

This would allow Kheel to receive 
confidential financial information about 
the company’s assets and liabilities. 
Kheel has agreed to keep the informa- 
tion secret and to resign as an adviser 
to the unions to pursue the buyout. 

“My only interest is in saving the 
Daily News for the people of the city 
and the workers,’’ said Kheel, who will 
not accept any fees for his work. 

About 2,300 News employees from 
nine unions went out on strike Oct. 25 
after working six months without a con- 
tract. Last month, the parties got back 
to discussions with the aid of federal 
mediators with no immediate success 
and News publisher James Hoge subse- 
quently announced the paper would 

Steelworkers, 

By James B. Parks 

N egotiations between the Steel- 
workers and USX Corp., the na- 
tion’s largest steelmaker, continued past 
the strike deadline late last week after 
the union agreed to a short contract 
extension. 

The USWA extended by 24 hours the 
midnight Jan. 31 strike deadline because 
of some progress on economic issues 
and concern over the possible restruc- 
turing of the company, said union 
spokesman Dick Fontana. 

The prospects for settlement were not 
clear, but Andrew “Lefty” Palm, the 
union’s chief negotiator, said “there is 
still a long way to go.” 

Steelworkers President Lynn 
Williams had said a brief extension 
would make sense if substantial progress 
is made at the bargaining table. Details 
of the negotiations were not divulged 
because of a news blackout. 

Williams dismissed as a “ploy” the 
company’s request for a 90-day exten- 
sion of the current four-year contract, 
reached after a six-month lockout that 
began in 1986. 


close or be sold unless a settlement was 
reached. 

Under a stock ownership plan, the 
employees would own part of die paper, 
similar to the 20 percent stake 
negotiated with the New York Post last 
summer. 

The paper might be operated under 
a joint venture with the Post, using the 
same facilities and services, but with an 
independent editorial and news staff, 
Kheel said. 

No deal yet 

Kheel said he has talked with Post 
publisher Peter Kalikow and British 
publisher Robert Maxwell and both 
have expressed an interest in hearing 
what he has to say. But he emphasized 
that while the lines of communication 
are open, there is no deal. 

The unions consider April 3 the “D- 
Day” by which the News must close or 
sell, Kheel said. That assumes a 14-day 
extension of the 60-day notice required 
by law of possible closing. 

The unions still will try to settle with 
the News or any new owners, Kheel 
said. The key issues that must be set- 
tled are the contract conditions on the 
table when the strike began, the status 
of replacement workers, settlement of 
management lawsuits against the 
unions, and shutdown liabilities. 


The company wants to avert the pos- 
sibility that a work stoppage would be 
ruled a lockout, as happened in 1986, 
Williams said. The 1986-87 USX lock- 
out was the first project of the AFL- 
CIO’s then new strategic approaches 
method — which Williams later was 
named to head. 

The contract covers approximately 
20,000 USX steel and mining workers 
in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, 
Minnesota, Alabama and California. 
Talks resumed Jan. 7 after early at- 
tempts to reach a contract failed in 
November. 

The USWA is seeking a “pattern 
plus” contract, Palm said, which would 
entail the same wages and benefits as 
other major steelmakers. 

The union wants to restore cuts taken 
during the steel industry downturn in the 
early 1980s. The other major steel- 
makers have already accepted the pat- 
tern increases in contracts signed since 
1989. 

The average USX worker makes 
$10.84 an hour plus benefits. Workers 
are seeking about $2.30 more per hour. 


In the continuing negotiations under 
the auspices of federal mediators, the 
Mailers were presented with proposals 
“just as bad as their original proposal, 
if not worse,’’ said George McDonald, 
who heads both the Mailers and the 
Allied Printing Trades Council, the 
striking unions’ umbrella organization. 

McDonald said the Mailers proposed 
a wage freeze and a 25 -percent cut in 
mailroom staff, but the News 
negotiators rejected the offer. 

Negotiations also were scheduled last 
week between the company and the 
Newspaper Guild, Electrical Workers, 
Paper Handlers and the Machinists. 


About $1.30 of that raise would restore 
pay concessions. 

The union also is seeking guarantees 
that would protect pensions, insurance 
and other employee interests if USX 
restructures its US Steel division. 

The company’s board of directors, 
hours before the original strike deadline, 
voted to issue a new class of stock for 
its steel division, a move that paves the 
way for USX to pull out of the steel 
business and concentrate on its more 
profitable energy operations. 

The board’s decision did not surprise 
the union, Fontana said, only its timing. 
“It certainly gives us something more 
to think about,” he said. 

The board’s vote is part of a pattern 
towards selling the steel division. Last 
November, while negotiations were 
under way, the board decided to transfer 
the division’s assets and liabilities to a 
wholly owned subsidiary. 

Meanwhile, about 300 local union 
presidents attending the Basic Steel In- 
dustry Conference pledged to consider 
a boycott of USX’s Marathon service 
stations if a strike occurs. 


Meanwhile, the unions will continue 
their boycott of the News and keep 
pressuring the Tribune Co. to settle. 

Twelve unions are sponsoring an 
ongoing paid advertising campaign in 
several New York newspapers calling 
on the News’ owners to “settle or sell” 
the paper. 

The striking workers will receive a 
boost this week when leaders of the 
Printing Trades Council, New York 
State AFL-CIO and the New York City 
AFL-CIO hold a rally in Chicago with 
members of the Chicago AFL-CIO and 
the Tribune Co. unions to support the 
strike. 

BLE and ATDA 
agree to merge 

Cleveland 

T he Brotherhood of Locomotive En- 
gineers and the American Train 
Dispatchers have voted overwhelmingly 
to merge their unions. 

BLE members voted for merger by 
a 98 percent margin, with ATDA 
members supporting affiliation by an 84 
percent vote. BLE has 51,000 mem- 
bers, including 28,000 rail employees 
and engineers, while the ATDA 
represents 2,200 railroad dispatchers. 

Merger of the two unions will be 
completed by 1996, said BLE President 
Larry D. McFather, noting that pro- 
posed changes in constitutions should 
be completed this year, following the 
unions’ separate conventions. The move 
will strengthen both dispatchers and 
engineers in collective bargaining, he 
said. 

ATDA President Robert J. Irvin said 
both unions will benefit under the 
merger, adding that the two crafts are 
essential to “making the nation’s rail- 
roads go.” 


USX talk past strike deadline 


B Director of Information: Rex Hardesty 

Editor: Michael Byrne 

News Editor: John R. Oravec 

Assistant Editors: Arlee C. Green, 

Candice Johnson, James B. Parks 

Staff Writers: Muriel H. Cooper, Mike Hall, 
Colleen M. O’Neill, Sharolyn A. Rosier 

Graphics /layout: Stan Hitt 


AFL-CIO Headquarters: 815 Sixteenth St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20006 
Telephone: (202) 637-5010 


Vol. 36, No. 3 



MONDAY, FEBRUARY 4, 1991 







The AFL-CIO News (ISSN-00I-1 185) is issued every two weeks at 815 Sixteenth St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 
The AFL-CIO does not accept paid advertising in any of its official publications. No one is authorized to solicit 
advertising for any publications in the name of the AFL-CIO. 


Official Publication 
of the 

American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations 


Lane Kirkland, president 
Thomas R. Donahue, secretary-treasurer 

EXECUTIVE COUNCIL 


Albert Shanker 
William H. Wynn 
Joyce D. Miller 
Richard I. Kilroy 
William H. By water 
John T. Joyce 
Robert A. Georgine 
Jay Mazur 
John J. Barry 
Susan Bianchi-Sand 
John N. Sturdivant 


Edward T. Hanley 
John DeConcini 
John J. Sweeney 
Vincent R. Sombrotto 
Marvin J. Boede 
Lynn R. Williams 
Milan Stone 
Lenore Miller 
Sigurd Lucassen 
Moe Biller 
Richard L. Trumka 


Angelo Fosco 
Wayne E. Glenn 
James E. Hatfield 
Gerald W. McEntee 
Owen Bieber 
Morton Bahr 
Gene Upshaw 
Jack Sheinkman 
William J. McCarthy 
George J. Kourpias 
Frank Hanley 





LEGISLfflON 




Priorities for Congress: 


Continued from Page 1 

or no vote and no amendments allowed. 
However, the fast-track authority runs 
out June 1 and the administration must 
ask for an extension by March 1 . Then 
either house has until June 1 to disap- 
prove the extension. 

The administration has announced its 
intention to seek a two-year extension 
of the fast-track authority, for both the 
U.S. -Mexico free trade negotiations 
and for further negotiations to complete 
the Uruguay Round of the General 
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, which 
broke down in December. 

Fast-track fight 

Meanwhile, the AFL-CIO has writ- 
ten to both the Senate Committee on 
Finance, where hearings are set to begin 
Feb. 6, and to the House Ways and 
Means Committee, urging that they 
disapprove President Bush’s request to 
negotiate under fast-track authority. 

The process also could be short-cir- 
cuited through a vote to revoke fast- 
track authority, which essentially is 
merely a rule-making exercise in both 
the House and the Senate. It can be 
changed at any time with a vote to 
change the rules. 

During the last session of Congress 
in November, 37 senators co-sponsored 
legislation that would remove the ex- 
isting fast-track authority. It would only 
take the vote of 51 senators to kill it. 

As the legislative maneuvering gets 
under way, the AFL-CIO is pointing to 
current U.S. -Mexico trade patterns as 
indicative of the kind of impact a free 
trade agreement with Mexico would 
have. The current maquiladora, or 
“twin plant’’ program, which now 
employs close to half a million Mexican 
workers in 1,800 plants along the 
border, has cost U.S. jobs, damaged the 
environment on both sides of the border 
and exploited workers in Mexico (see 
stories, Pages 6-7). 

A free trade agreement with Mexico 
also could eliminate existing trade pro- 
tections for U.S. industries such as 


steel, textile and apparel and certain 
agricultural products. And it could en- 
courage Japanese and other foreign 
companies to set up shop in Mexico to 
secure even more access to the U.S. 
market, perhaps as transshipment points 
for their goods. 

Saving, creating jobs 

While the proposed U.S. -Mexico free 
trade agreement poses a serious threat 
to American jobs, the reauthorization 
of the nation’s highway and mass tran- 
sit program would maintain existing 
jobs, while creating additional ones. 

The reauthorization for the program, 
which began in 1956, would include 
funding for completion of the interstate 
system and its maintenance and repair, 
along with urban mass transit systems. 
It would also cover any other highway 
or transportation-related projects ap- 
proved by Congress. 

It is expected that the reauthorization 
will cover either a two- or five-year 
period. Estimates show that if the pro- 
gram is reauthorized for two years, 
some 300,000 jobs could be created and 
700,000 jobs would be created under a 
five-year reauthorization. 

AFL-CIO lobbyists also will take the 
case for worker safety to Congress, em- 
phasizing the need for overall reform 
of the Occupational Safety and Health 
Act, and for specific construction safe- 
ty measures. 

Safety reform needed 

The OSH A is now 21 years old and 
the law is in need of overhaul to reflect 
changes in the workplace as well as ex- 
perience with the law. The overhaul is 
needed to follow up on gains workers 
have made in recent years on the right- 
to-know about toxic chemicals and 
stronger standards on certain hazards. 

Hazards such as lead exposure in the 
construction industry and exposure to 
many other chemicals remain unregu- 
lated. There are fewer OSH A inspec- 
tors today than in 1980 and only a hand- 
ful of dangerous workplaces are in- 


jobs, safety 

spected each year. OSH A regulations 
do not cover millions of workers. 

The reform legislation also should set 
stronger health and safety standards and 
seek tougher enforcement procedures 
and penalties. It should also establish 
worker health and safety committees, 
which would have the right to act con- 
cerning unsafe and dangerous practices. 

Last year, Congress held hearings on 
construction safety legislation and that 
will be reintroduced later this year. It 
will call for a separate construction 
safety office within OSHA, make con- 
tractor health and safety programs man- 
datory on construction sites and require 
construction safety specialists to 
monitor the programs. 

Bills reintroduced 

Labor’s supporters in the House acted 
quickly to reintroduce major programs 
backed by the AFL-CIO and adopted by 
Congress last year, but vetoed by Bush. 

House sponsors said they hope to pass 
a civil rights bill as quickly as possible, 
to restore legal remedies to victims of 
workplace discrimination that were 
severely restricted under recent 
Supreme Court rulings. 

A family and medical leave bill, 
which would allow working parents to 
take up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave on 
the birth or adoption of a child, or for 
the worker’s or a family member’s 
serious illness, has been re-introduced 
in both the House and Senate. 

With the reintroduction of a Hatch 
Act reform bill in the House, labor is 
pressing Congress to allow the nation’s 
3 million federal and postal workers 
some opportunity to exercise the 
political rights Americans enjoy. 

Bills banning the use of permanent 
replacement workers during an 
economic strike have been reintroduced 
in both chambers, and labor is continu- 
ing its campaign to press Congress to 
correct the contradictions in the law that 
give workers the right to strike yet 
allow their jobs to be permenently taken 
away for exercising that right. 


102nd Congress 

Labor’s Agenda 

The AFL-CIO ’s legislative 
agenda, determined by the 
Executive Council’s Legislative 
Priorities Committee, is 
non-exclusive and not in order of 
priority. It may be changed 
during the course of the 102nd 
Congress as events warrant. 

Airline Labor Protections 
Anti-Recession Program 
Asbestos Removal 
Black Lung Reform 
Budget 
Buy America 

Campaign Finance Reform 
Cargo Preference 
Civil Rights 
Construction Safety 
Davis-Bacon Reform 
Drug Lab Certification 
Education/Skilled Training 
Energy 

Family and Medical Leave 
FEHBP Overhaul 
Fish Inspection 
Fringe Benefits 

• Education 

• Legal 

Hatch Act Reform 
Health Care 
Highway/Mass Transit 
Minimum Wage 
NLR A Amendments 

• Security Guards 

• University Professors 

• Performing Arts 

Public Employees’ Collective 
Bargaining 

Nuclear Waste/Toxic Waste 

OSHA Reform 

Pension Reform 

Railroad Shortline LPPs 

Revenue Foregone 

Strikers Replacement 

Student Aid/Loans 

Tax Modification/Section 936 

Telephone/Workplace Monitoring 

Trade 

• Mexico Free Trade 
•GATT 

• Voluntary Restraints 

• Textile and Apparel 

• GSP Reform 

Unemployment Insurance 
Universal Voter Registration 


Free trade plan raises alarm on child labor abuses in Mexico 


M exican children, already forced at 
an early age to work, may bear a 
heavier burden of work under the pro- 
posed U.S. -Mexico free trade agree- 
ment, it was reported at a Capitol Hill 
forum. 

Although Mexican law sets its 
minimum working age at 14 years, 11.5 
percent of all children aged 10-14 are 
working in Mexico today, according to 
statistics compiled by the labor-backed 
Child Labor Coalition. In addition, 10 
million of that country’s children aged 
6 to 15 are self-employed — selling 
chewing gum, washing windshields, 
cleaning shoes and delivering 
packages — the group said. 

Many children now are employed by 
maquiladora plants operated by U.S. 
corporations, said AFL-CIO economist 
Mark Anderson, who warned that a 
U.S. -Mexico free trade agreement, 
essentially extending the maquiladora 
concept to all of Mexico, would open 
up new avenues for abuse. 

Today, some 1,800 maquiladora 
plants, nearly 90 percent of them owned 
by U.S. corporations, employ 500,000 


Mexican workers to assemble products 
for the U.S. market, including con- 
sumer electronics, autos and parts, and 
textiles and apparel. 

Maquiladora workers earn about 50 
cents an hour, less than half the average 
wage in Mexico, and more than 60 per- 
cent of maquiladora workers are young 
women, Anderson said. The workers 
and their families live in shanties 
without running water or electricity and 
far from schools, hospitals and other 
amenities, he said, and wells have been 
polluted by toxics from the plants. 

Anderson said a free trade agreement 
with Mexico, rather than promoting 
Mexico’s economic development as its 
proponents claim, would only intensify 
the flight of U.S. capital and an unfair 
competition between U.S. and Mexican 
workers. 

Labor organizers are collaborating 
with Mexican laborers in the ma- 
quiladora plants, so that workers will 
not be pitted against one another, said 
Shelley Herochik, assistant education 
director of the Ladies’ Garment 
Workers. 


U.S. -Mexican free trade not only 
would open the gateway to more loss 
of jobs in this country, but would lead 
to further exploitation of workers in 
Mexico, especially the children, 
Herochik said. 

“We can’t control child labor in the 
United States, because the federal 
government has thrown its hands up in 
the air,” Herochik said. In Mexico, 
where tools of enforcement are even 
less stringent, child labor at U.S.- 
owned plants would go unchecked, she 
said. 

The Child Labor Coalition estimates 
that 1 .5 million of the Mexican children 
aged 6-15 are living on the streets, 
abandoned and often addicted to drugs. 
Half of Mexican children drop out of 
primary school, and only 10 percent 
receive a secondary school education, 
the group said. 

It is virtually impossible to count the 
numbers of working children in the 
United States or Mexico, said Linda 
Golodner, executive director of the Na- 
tional Consumers League. Much of 
child labor is uncountable, performed 


at home or illegally for organizations. 

Noting that while Mexican workers 
are paid much less than American 
workers, many of Mexico’s children 
work unpaid, Golodner said. Some 
work with pesticides have already pro- 
ven to have severe effects on bone 
development, she said, and “opening 
the borders will make the situation 
worse.” 

Rep. Marcy Kaptur (D-Ohio) told the 
crowd of some 350 forum participants 
that she and other members of Congress 
“will only support a trade agreement 
that raises the Mexican standard of liv- 
ing toward the U.S. standard of living, 
rather than lowering the U.S. standard 
of living toward the Mexican stan- 
dard.” 

The forum sponsors included the Na- 
tional Wildlife Federation, National 
Toxics Campaign, National Consumers 
League, Child Labor Coalition, Fair 
Trade Campaign, Institute for Policy 
Studies and United Methodist Board of 
Church and Society along with the 
AFL-CIO and three of its affiliated 
unions. —Press Associates 




(MON* 


■IHI WKKKKM I I I I ■■■■ 

OSHA enforcement better in unionized workplaces 


By Arlee C. Green 

S afer workplaces can officially join 
wages and benefits as areas in which 
union members top nonunion workers. 
Two studies have confirmed what 
millions of unionized workers in 
manufacturing and construction already 
knew, or at least suspected. 

The studies, by David Weil of Boston 
University’s School of Management, 
found union workplaces in those two in- 
dustries are more likely than nonunion 
establishments to receive health and 
safety inspections — and those inspec- 
tions are more intense and result in 
higher fines or shorter abatement 
periods. Both studies are based on an 
analysis of the Occupational Safety and 
Health Administration’s enforcement 
activity during 1985. 

“The studies demonstrate that unions 
play a key role in safety and health in 
making sure the OSHA law works to its 
fullest to protect workers on the job,” 
said AFL-CIO Safety Director Peg 
Seminar io. “Unfortunately, it shows 
that nonunion workers have little or no 
protection and can’t depend upon the 
government to protect their safety and 
health on the job.” 

The studies credit union health and 
safety training, contract language bar- 


ring employer retaliation against 
workers exercising OSHA rights, union 
pressure on the agency for the increased 
involvement of union members in the 
OSHA process, and union members’ 
higher level of hazard awareness. 

“Union impact on enforcement ac- 
tivities will be most pronounced where 
they are best organized — in larger 
workplaces” where they are likely to 
have the number of people to create, 
train and maintain effective safety and 
health committees, Weil said. 

This finding underscores one aspect 
of the AFL-CIO ’s push for legislative 
reform of the nation’s job safety law — 
mandatory labor-management safety 
committees. 

Weil stressed that because of the 
positive effects of unions in the 
workplace, “implementation of OSHA 
therefore seems highly dependent upon 
the presence of a union in the work- 
place.” Employees’ exercise of their 
OSHA rights is critical to achieving the 
quality of enforcement envisioned 
under OSHA, he said. “If workers do 
not become ‘partners’ in this regulatory 
process, the chances for OSHA success 
seem dim indeed.” 

Underscoring the contrast in one 
study, Weil concluded, “A de facto 


‘two-tiered’ system of regulation has 
emerged in the construction industry. 
For the union sector, OSHA represents 
a real force in ensuring the enactment 
of safety and health standards, par- 
ticularly in larger sites. In contrast, for 
the nonunion worker, OSHA has be- 
come the ‘toothless tiger’ commonly 
cited by its critics.” 

Both the manufacturing and construc- 
tion studies found that unions substan- 
tially raise the probability of receiving 
a complaint inspection, an effect that 
grows with the size of the establishment 
or worksite. 

In manufacturing, unionized 
workplaces with more than 500 
employees face the probability of a 
complaint inspection 8.5 times greater 
than nonunion establishments. 

For unionized construction, the pro- 
bability of a complaint inspection is 
more than three times higher than for 
nonunion. Weil found too that the pro- 
bability of a programmed inspection for 
union worksites is three times grater 
than for nonunion. 

Union workers or their represen- 
tatives are more likely to accompany an 
OSHA inspector during a workplace 
tour, an action that Weil said increases 
the intensity of the inspection. 


Employees exercise their “walk- 
around” rights in 69.8 percent of union 
OSHA inspections compared to just 3.7 
percent for nonunion manufacturing 
workplaces with 500 or more workers. 
Similar results were found for all sizes 
of construction employers, ranging 
from 34.2 to 47.6 percent for union 
workers, compared to 2.3 to 4.6 per- 
cent for nonunion. 

Worker involvement in the OSHA in- 
spection lengthens the time of an inspec- 
tion, intensifying the inspector’s focus 
on prevailing conditions in the 
workplace. This, in turn, leads to more 
citations, Weil found. 

In manufacturing, union involvement 
led to significantly higher penalties and, 
in construction, led to shorter abatement 
periods. 

Specifically, fines in unionized 
workplaces are higher by anywhere 
from $18.05 per violation (for firms 
with 100-249 employees) to $67.48 per 
violation (for companies with more than 
500 employees) than those paid by com- 
parable nonunion establishments. The 
magnitude of these union effects can be 
appreciated, Weil said, by noting that 
“the average manufacturing establish- 
ment paid only $34 per violation in 
OSHA penalties in 1985.” 


Court upholds overtime pay 
for county fire battalion chiefs 


T he Supreme Court has let stand a 
lower court decision that requires 
Kern County, Calif. , to pay back over- 
time to its 28 fire battalion chiefs. 

The decision “reinforces the gen- 
erally accepted viewpoint that the over- 
time and minimum wage protections of 
the Fair Labor Standards Act are prop- 
erly applied to state and local govern- 
ment employees,” said Fire Fighters 
President Alfred K. Whitehead. 

Congress has amended the law to 
allow governments to substitute com- 
pensatory time off for overtime pay for 
many workers. 

The court declined to review a deci- 
sion by the 9th Circuit U.S. Court of 
Appeals that FLSA overtime provisions 
applied to the county’s 7,000 
employees. 

In so doing, the high court also re- 
jected a move to reconsider its land- 
mark 1985 decision, in Garcia vs. San 


Antonio Metropolitan Mass Transit 
Authority, that overtime and minimum 
wage provisions apply to public 
employees. 

Almost all the Kern County chiefs are 
scheduled to work 144 hours during an 
18-day period. The county classified the 
chiefs as executives, which barred them 
from time-and-a-half pay for working 
more than 136 hours in that period. 

The appeals court ruled the chiefs 
were not executives, because they are 
not salaried workers under the law. 

The chiefs are subject to deductions 
in pay for missing less than a full day’s 
work, the court said, while executives 
do not punch a time clock. 

Several jurisdictions, including Los 
Angeles County, said the ruling could 
cost billions of dollars if it was applied 
nationwide. But Whitehead said the 
decision was based “on a very narrow 
ground.” 



Elizabeth Wilson/Georgia AFL-CIO 

Flush with victory in landing union recognition and a contract at Delta Pride 
Catfish Inc., members of Food and Commercial Workers Local 1529 march 
in Atlanta's Martin Luther King Jr. birthday celebration. UFCW President 
William H. Wynn was deputy marshal of the parade. 


Machinists sue defense firms for violating 60-day layoff notice 


By Arlee C. Green 

T he Machinists are suing General 
Dynamics Corp. and McDonnell 
Douglas Corp. to recover back pay and 
benefits for 3,200 I AM members who 
were laid off without proper notice. 

The workers were laid off after the 
U.S. Department of Navy canceled its 
A- 12 stealth bomber contract. 

The IAM suit, filed in the U.S. 
District Court for the Eastern District 
of Missouri, charges the dismissals 
violate the Worker Adjustment and 
Retraining Notification Act by not pro- 
viding the required 60-day advance 
notice. 

The suit was filed by the IAM and 
District Councils 837 and 776, seeking 
back pay and benefits for a 60-day 


period, plus interest and court costs. 

“The contractors had no basis for 
breaking federal law by refusing to pro- 
vide 60 days’ notice of the layoffs,” 
declared IAM President George J. 
Kourpias. “The ‘prior notice’ law was 
designed to protect workers in exactly 
this type of situation. We intend for the 
contractors to obey the law.” 

Kourpias stressed that the contractors 
knew months ago that the A- 12 pro- 
gram was in deep trouble. “Secretary 
(of Defense Richard) Cheney publicly 
warned on Dec. 14 that he might cancel 
the A- 12, and the problems afflicting 
the program were widely publicized by 
the press for most of last year,” Kour- 
pias said. 

In January 1988, General Dynamics 


and McDonnell Douglas were selected 
to work jointly on the A- 12 program to 
design and build an advance attack jet 
using sophisticated ‘ ‘ stealth ’ ’ tech- 
nology. According to the IAM, Pen- 
tagon records show that by July 1988, 
the contractors knew the project, which 
operated under a fixed-price contract, 
was running behind schedule and above 
cost. 

By October 1989, the IAM said, Pen- 
tagon analysts were warning that work 
was $500 million over budget and two 
years behind schedule. 

Last June, the companies jointly 
notified the Navy that the program was 
$1.4 billion over budget and one year 
behind schedule. Recent Pentagon 
estimates cost overruns on the $4.8 


billion development program may ex- 
ceed $2.72 billion. 

The contractors’ handling of the A-12 
program is being investigated by the 
Securities and Exchange Commission, 
the U.S. Attorney’s Office, Congress 
and the Pentagon. 

Both firms received notification of the 
A-12 cancellation on Jan. 7, 1991. One 
day later, General Dynamics dismissed 
1 ,200 workers at its Fort Worth, Texas, 
division. IAM District Council 776 
represents the employees, who were 
terminated. 

Likewise, on the same day, McDon- 
nell Douglas laid off 2,000 of its pro- 
duction and maintenance employees 
who had been working on the A-12 pro- 
gram at its St. Louis plant. 




Desert Storm affects rail unions’ strike plan 


By Arlee C. Green 

T he 11 unions representing workers 
on the nation’s major railroads, 
dissatisfied with a Presidential 
Emergency Board’s recommendations 
for reaching a national contract, are 
counting down to the Feb. 15 deadline 
when they will be free to initiate strikes. 

Most agree, however, they will not 
take action while Operation Desert 
Storm continues. 

The unions, representing 235,000 
workers, have bargained for three years 
with the National Railway Labor Con- 
ference on a new national contract. The 
conference, which represents 98 rail- 
road firms, has sought an eight-year 
wage freeze and crippling work rule 
changes. 

Richard I. Kilroy, president of the 
Transportation Communications Union, 


said the next step is “self-help, that is, 
we must strike the railroad industry if 
we are to secure a new national agree- 
ment. Of course, we are sensitive to the 
war in the Persian Gulf and that will 
certainly be taken into consideration at 
the appropriate time.” 

United Transportation Union Presi- 
dent Fred Hardin said his union will not 
“initiate a strike while the military 
situation remains unresolved.” 

Electrical Workers Vice President Pat 
McEntee said that the Gulf War will 
“certainly influence what our decision 
will be.” He warned, however, that if 
carriers proceed to institute severe work 
rule changes, “our members will have 
no choice but to go out. The strike vote 
we took passed by the highest per- 
centage ever.” 

The Locomotive Engineers said it is 


not planning an offensive strike action 
upon the expiration of the cooling off 
period. 

“Our plan is to support our nation’s 
and the allied forces’ efforts by staying 
on the job,” the union said. “Without 
management’s respect for our decision 
not to strike, any moratorium is mean- 
ingless. They must resist locking out or 
unilaterally implementing substandard 
wages and work rules.” 

The Railroad Signalmen’s executive 
council, which unanimously voted to 
authorize a nationwide strike, indicated 
the union, in support of the troops in 
the Gulf War, would postpone any 
strike action for up to 90 days during 
continuing hostilities. 

TCU prepared a special newsletter 
for its leadership calling the emergency 
board report “unacceptable.” Kilroy, 


who met with NRLC representatives, 
reported on that meeting that “in less 
than two hours, it was clear that not on- 
ly was the railroads’ position impossi- 
ble for us to agree on, but their inter- 
pretation of the key issues was even 
worse than the emergency board report 
itself.” 

The Railway Labor Executives’ 
Association’s health and welfare com- 
mittee, on which most of the unions are 
represented, will meet Feb. 6 to review 
the emergency board’s recommenda- 
tions on health and welfare. 

The rail unions bargaining for a na- 
tional master contract include: TCU and 
its Carmen division, Train Dispatchers, 
BLE, BMWE, Railroad Signalmen, 
Boilermakres, IBEW, Firemen and 
Oilers, Sheet Metal Workers, and the 
UTU. 


Workplace casualty figures 
will be recorded by OSHA 



By Arlee C. Green 

T he Occupational Safety and Health 
Administration’s new Office of 
Recordkeeping and Data Analysis has 
assumed responsibility for setting the 
requirements and guidelines for record- 
ing occupational injuries and illnesses, 
duties previously handled by the Bureau 
of Labor Statistics. 

The transfer of responsibilities oc- 
curred on Jan. 1 as outlined in a 
memorandum of understanding reach- 
ed between the two agencies last July. 

AFL-CIO safety director Peg 
Seminario said the federation is glad to 
see that after 20 years, OSHA has come 
to realize it needs data to run its pro- 
grams more effectively. Hopefully, she 
said, with the creation of the new of- 
fice, data will be collected by the agen- 
cy to improve its enforcement and stan- 
dard setting duties. 

Organized labor has long maintained 
that employers severely underreported 
both injuries and illnesses on the OSHA 
logs. During the mid-1980s, OSHA 
stepped up its enforcement of record- 
keeping requirements, imposing large 
fines on corporations that systematically 
underreported. 

A new study, published in the 
January issue of the American Journal 
of Public Health, found that data com- 
piled by BLS “significantly 
underestimated” the incidence of 
workplace injuries and illnesses. The 
University of California study centered 
on 1984 health clinic records for 10 
semiconductor manufacturing sites. 

Of 416 cases, 101 met OSHA report- 
ing criteria, the study said. Only 60 per- 
cent of those cases were reported on the 


companies’ OSHA 200 logs. If the 60 
percent figure is representative of other 
industries, the study said, then the in- 
cidence of on-the-job injuries and ill- 
nesses may be nearly 70 percent higher 
than reported. 

Further, only 44 percent of occupa- 
tional illnesses were recorded, sug- 
gesting the incidence of such illnesses 
may be 130 percent higher than 
reported, the study said. 

Acting Labor Secretary Roderick 
DeArment announced the transfer, say- 
ing it will give OSHA firsthand know- 
ledge of health hazard statistics so the 
agency can direct its resources in the 
most effective manner. “Accurate data 
on injuries and illnesses are essential to 
workplace safety and health pro- 
grams,” he said. 

Under the agreement, BLS will con- 
tinue to conduct a national statistical 
survey of occupational injuries and ill- 
nesses based on data from OSHA 
records. Its annual survey is based on 
data from OSHA logs of occupational 
injuries and illnesses. 

The new OSHA office will define the 
types of cases that employers must enter 
on the OSHA logs, and provide record- 
keeping guidance to employers and 
others involved in recordkeeping. 

Guidelines that were published by the 
BLS will remain in effect until the new 
OSHA office produces revised guide- 
lines that it expects to finish later this 
year. 

Recordkeeping criteria for 
cumulative trauma disorders and noise- 
induced hearing loss are currently be- 
ing prepared and will be available in the 
near future, OSHA said. 


Inbrief 


OCAW seeks halt 
to runaway plants 

T he Oil, Chemical and Atomic Work- 
ers have launched a campaign to 
remove the runaway shop aspects of 
Section 936 of the Internal Revenue 
Code, which now encourages U.S. cor- 
porations to move their operations to 
Puerto Rico. 

Section 936 currently exempts Puer- 
to Rican profits from aft U.S. corporate 
income taxes. It also includes tax and 
development incentives for companies 
to move to Puerto Rico. 

“Our union is not opposed to com- 
panies expanding in Puerto Rico,” said 
Richard Leonard, OCAW’s director of 
special projects, “but when it comes to 
destroying existing jobs and ripping off 
taxpayers, we’ve got to draw the line. 

“America’s rustbelt is littered with 
the remains of plants that have shifted 
production . . . The American labor 
movement is gearing up to do battle 
with this longstanding injustice,” 
Leonard said. 

The AFL-CIO has placed modifica- 
tion of Section 936 on its 1991 
legislative agenda. (See list, page 3) 
OCAW has filed suit to prevent the 
shutdown of a Whitehall-Robbins phar- 
maceutical plant in Elkhart, Ind., with 
775 employees and the shifting of the 
work to a plant in Puerto Rico. 


Illinois groups agree 
to avoid fundraisers 

O rganized labor in Illinois has forged 
an agreement with state business 
organizations to avoid political fund- 
raisers held by individual lawmakers 
during April, May and June 1991, the 
closing months of the General 
Assembly’s annual spring session. 

Illinois State AFL-CIO President 
Richard Walsh and Illinois Manufactur- 
ing Association President Arthur R. 
Gottschalk said they are pleased with 
the initial reaction to the proposal and 
confident that more groups will join 
their efforts. 

The policy statement maintains “no 
legislator or lobbying group need be 
placed in a position where the receipt 
or gift of a contribution must be ex- 
plained at a later date in relation to con- 
temporaneous action on a particular bill 
of importance to that lobbying group. ’ ’ 
Walsh noted that more than 40 
groups, including most major unions 
and business groups most involved in 
the Illinois legislative process, have 
joined in this effort. 

“There certainly seems to be a con- 
sensus that appearances of impropriety 
are inevitable when political contribu- 
tions are made to individual legislators 
within hours of important votes being 
cast as expressed in the policy state- 
ment,” Walsh said. 

1991 convention reset 
for Detroit Nov. 11-14 

The 1991 AFL-CIO Convention will 
be held at the Westin Renaissance Hotel 
in Detroit Nov. 11-14. 

The convention was originally sched- 
uled for Nov. 4-7. 

enforcement 


Rules covering disabled will hinge on 


By James B. Parks 

T he test of the effectiveness of the 
Bush administration’s proposed 
regulations for implementing the 
American with Disabilities Act of 1990 
will be in its enforcement, according to 
the AFL-CIO ’s Department of Civil 
Rights. 

The administration released the first 
in a series of regulations required by the 
act last month. The new rules set archi- 
tectural standards for physical access 
for the disabled, including workers. 

The most-anticipated rules will come 
later this month when the Equal 
Employment Opportunity Commission 
issues proposed regulations on employ- 
ment of the disabled. 

Those guidelines will specify the 
steps employers must take to ensure 
they are not discriminating against 


qualified job applicants with a 
disability. 

The Justice Department also this 
month will issue regulations to protect 
the disabled against discrimination in 
public accommodations. 

The proposed rules on physical ac- 
cess were published in the Jan. 22, 
1991, Federal Register. They require 
all but the smallest businesses to pro- 
vide access to the disabled. 

The bill was the “most important 
piece of civil rights legislation since the 
Civil Rights Bill of 1964 because it 
brings the estimated 43 million 
Americans with disabilities into the 
mainstream,” said AFL-CIO Civil 
Rights Director Richard Womack. 

The architectural regulations “are a 
big step in ensuring equal opportunity 
for those persons covered by the bill,” 


he said. ‘ The test will be in the enforce- 
ment.” 

“These are sensible technical regula- 
tions that should not cost much in new 
construction or alterations. Many can 
be carved out in existing buildings 
without great expense,” he said. 

The rules were released by the Archi- 
tectural and Transportation Barriers 
Compliance Board, an independent fed- 
eral agency, which will review public 
comments on the rules and issue a final 
version on Jan. 26, 1992. 

The rules only apply to new construc- 
tion or renovation after Jan. 1, 1992. 
The law applies to companies with 25 
or more employees, but that number 
drops to 15 in 1995. 

The employment and public accom- 
modations provisions would go into ef- 
fect in July 1992. 


The physical access rules include re- 
quirements for convenient heights of 
work surfaces for people who must sit 
or are in wheelchairs. 

Also, automatic elevators would have 
to meet standards regarding the length 
of time that the elevator doors should 
stay open to accommodate people who 
must use wheelchairs, walkers or 
crutches. 

Audible and visible signals are re- 
quired to allow vision and hearing im- 
paired persons to be able to call the 
elevators and to know when a call has 
been answered. 

The rules call for a certain number 
of telephones be equipped with volume 
controls and telecommunication devices 
that allow the hearing impaired to type 
messages back and forth over a phone 
line. 







Tale of two plants 

AT&T maquiladora project exploits 
workers on both sides of the border 


This report is excerpted from a two-part series by Dave 
Kent of the Communications Workers, which appeared in 
the CWA News. The series won the ILCA ’s 1990 Max 
Steinbock award for best labor reporting. 


By Dave Kent 

T his is a tale of two plants — one in Radford, Va., and 
the other 3, 000 miles away in Matamoros, Mexico, just 
across the Rio Grande River from Brownsville, Texas. 
Until December 1990, workers in both plants made elec- 
tronic components, such as transformers, inductors and 
rectifiers, for AT&T Microelectronics. 

Starting in 1980, people came from the hills and valleys 
around Radford to get a job in the brand-spanking-new 
AT&T factory. Appropriately enough, the facility was 
called the New River Valley Works. At the time, it seemed 
like a golden river of opportunity, they said. 

And, for the first four or five years, their dreams were 
realized. 

The people of the southwestern Virginia community 
went through a union organizing campaign, finally win- 
ning the Communications Workers as their bargaining 
agent. They signed up as members of CWA Local 2261 . 
They were proud to be about the only workers in or 
around Radford with a union to represent them. They were 
the envy of their friends. 

Employment just kept growing, through the roof. The 
workforce soared from ground zero in 1980 to 2,400 by 
1984. 

Many quit other jobs, although they were making bet- 
ter money, just to get on the AT&T payroll. They just 
knew that, over the long haul, they’d make out better at 
the AT&T plant. 

Others went from earning the minimum wage to jobs 
that paid $7, $8 or even $9 an hour. They went from lit- 
tle or no credit to getting loans for cars, homes and plots 
of land. 

From dream to nightmare 

Things started to go sour on July 19, 1985. That’s when 
management announced that 157 workers would be laid 
off, effective the next week. 

“Our customer requirements are softening,’’ an AT&T 
spokeswoman told the local newspaper, The Southwest 
Times, at the time the layoffs were announced. The 
spokeswoman, “was unable to say whether this meant 
AT&T was expecting fewer orders, smaller orders, or 
a combination of both. It’s complex, she said.” 
Complex or not, Bill Burton, then president of CWA 
Local 2261, said the first layoff announcement hit him 
like a thundering semi-truck. “It came as a total surprise. 
Not long before, they had been hiring as many as 30 new 
employees a day,” Burton recalls. 

Three months later, on Oct. 7, 1985, 205 more layoffs 
were announced. This time, AT&T said, the layoffs were 
caused by “a softening in the computer and microelec- 
tronics industry. We have to adjust the production level 
to reflect trends in the industry.” 

On Nov. 4, 1985, the third layoff of the year was an- 
nounced, 262 workers, bringing the total for 1985 to 624 
layoffs. Employment was down to 1,841. 

CWA Local 2261 executive board members told the 
newspaper that they had been told by management that 
no further layoffs were expected. Still, the layoffs con- 
tinued: another 154 workers in October of 1986, 96 more 
in January of 1987 and another 146 workers in November, 
1988. And, each time, a management spokesperson told 
the local newspaper that the layoffs were due to “a decline 
in demand for our products.” 

Shipping work to Mexico 

What management didn’t tell the workers or the 
newspapers was that the work was being shipped to an 
AT&T maquiladora (twin plant) operation in Matamoros. 
By 1989, only 876 hourly workers were still on the payroll 


at the New River Valley plant, and by the end of 1990, 
the plant was closed. 

Throughout the layoff process, management in Radford 
talked only about a downturn in business and not the up- 
turn in AT&T’s profits by moving the work to Mexico. 
They did not discuss the $8 or $9 an hour wages, plus 
benefits, that workers make in Radford, compared to the 
90 cents an hour with no benefits that workers make in 
Matamoros. 

Workers at the New River Valley plant took pride in 
themselves and their jobs. They designed the codes that 
were being shipped away: “We get them up and running 
and then they take them to Mexico.” Management even 
videotaped the work and sent the videotapes to Matamoros 
as training films. 

Luckily, many of the Radford workers had a safety net. 
Patricia and Mark Witt, for example, were laid off 
together Nov. 25, 1988, and took advantage of career 
counseling and training opportunities offered by the CWA- 
AT&T Alliance for Employee Growth and Development. 
They attended the New River Community College under 
the program negotiated by CWA in the 1986 contract. 

Harry Carver, 30, secretary-treasurer of Local 2261, 
got a job as western state coordinator of Doug Wilder’s 
successful campaign for governor. But his layoff from the 
New River Plant left him bitter at AT&T. 

“They gave us 30 days’ notice of the layoff — not out 
of the kindness of their heart but because they were re- 
quired to,” he said. 

Jobs no boon to workers 

Meanwhile, the plant in Matamoros continued to 
blossom. A 50,000-square-foot manufacturing facility 
employing 600 workers opened in 1987, and an even 
larger plant opened nearby in June 1989. 

But, while the workers in Radford were making about 
$8 to $9 an hour, buying homes and cars and trying to 
live the American dream, the workers in Mexico are paid 
less than $1 an hour, and their only benefit is a health 
plan under the Mexican national system. They live in 
poverty, in neighborhoods called “colonias,” often 
without running water, electricity or sewage facilities. 

Socorro Leos lives in a concrete block home with an 
outdoor privy in a colonia with her husband, Javier, and 
their two daughters, aged three and seven. They have no 
electricity and use butane gas for cooking. They consider 
the gas too expensive for heating. 

Socorro is grateful, however, that the family now has 
a water spigot within a few yards of the house. Previous- 
ly, she and her neighbors shared a common faucet a half- 
block away. 

Socorro quit her job with AT&T Microelectronica de 
Mexico in January 1989 for health reasons. Despite work- 
ing with soldering equipment and various chemicals, there 
was no extractor and the fumes caused dizziness, nausea 
and headaches, Socorro says. 

Once, when she complained about feeling ill, her super- 
visor took her to a company nurse and, 30 minutes later, 
she was sent back to work. “They blamed my problem 
on high blood pressure, although I’ve never had a high 
blood pressure problem in my life,” Socorro says. When 
she asked to be transferred to another job, she was told 
nothing else was available. 

Her last AT&T paycheck, dated Dec. 25, 1988, was 
for 96,000 pesos (about $40 U.S.) for 42 hours of work. 

Information hard to get 

The AT&T workers in Matamoros manufacture power 
rectifiers and transformers that provide the current to run 
computers and electronic switching systems. Many carry 
the job title of “wire handler” — the same jobs the U.S. 
workers performed in Radford. Getting accurate figures 
from AT&T on current and future employment in Mata- 
moros has been difficult and confusing. 

The CWA News attempted to tour the plants and meet 
with AT&T public relations personnel, but efforts by 


Richard “Toby” Tarver, president of CWA Local 6229 
in Harlingen, Texas, to arrange a tour met with what he 
called a “runaround.” He was bucked from office to of- 
fice, and the people who were said to be able to make 
the arrangement were never available. 

After the CWA News reporter and photographer had 
come and gone, the company did invite other CWA of- 
ficials to visit the facilities. CWA Representative Jack 
Limmroth and Local 6260 President David Amesquita of 
Mesquite, Texas, toured the plants in late April 1989. 

AT&T management told Limmroth and Amesquita that 
600 Mexican workers were on the payroll in 
Matamoros — a figure that jibes with Tarvar’s estimate. 
However, while Tarver and others in his local had heard 
that AT&T employment would soar to over 6,000 wh*»^ 
the large new facility opened in June, AT&T claimed that 
the combined employment in the two plants would be only 
645. 

Limmroth and Amesquita were told that although Mex- 
ican law permits employment of children as young as 14 
years, AT&T only hires youngsters who are 16 and up. 

The company also maintained that it adheres to U.S. 
occupational safety standards in the Matamoros plant, and 
said that it plans to ship 255 drums containing chemical 
waste back to the United States eventually. 

Environmental peril 

In February 1989, however, the AFL-CIO Executive 
Council said many of the maquiladoras “pose a deadly 
threat to those living on both sides of the border as they 

release toxic wastes 
into the air, the water 
and the soil. Further, 
because of the uncon- 
trolled growth of the 
so-called ‘twin plant’ 
program, essential 
infrastructure devel- 
opment of housing 
sewage systems, 
water supplies and 
roads and bridges has 
not kept pace and is 
dangerously inade- 
quate.” 

Leslie Kochan, in a 
report commissioned 
by the AFL-CIO, 
called “The Ma- 
quiladoras and Tox- 
ics: The Hidden 
Costs of Production 
South of the Bor- 
der,” says one 
researcher estimated that 20 million tons of waste are 
generated each year, and that another 100 million tons 
of accumulated waste are improperly stored. 

In the United States, firms that keep waste on their pro- 
perty more than 90 days must obtain waste storage facili- 
ty permits; Mexico has no limit on how long waste can 
be stored. And, Mexico has no standards to protect 
workers from exposure to industrial chemicals in plants, 
although regulations are now being developed. 

Mexican law supposedly requires that if raw chemicals 
or any other hazardous materials are imported for useiTf“~' 
the maquiladoras, the toxic waste that is generated must 
be returned to the country of origin. However, a 19 '66 
survey by El Colegio de la Frontera Norte showed that 
only 20 out of 772 U.S. maquiladora plants along the 
border notified the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 
that they were returning waste to this country — although 
86 percent of the surveyed plants use toxic chemicals. 

Further, the U.S. Customs Service has found many 
cases of hazardous substances being moved at will, 
without permits, in spot checks at border crossing points. 

Imelda Cortinas was 17 when she was one of the first 
workers hired at Matamoros. She lives in a colonia that 
has no water, sewage facilities or electricity and where 
large storage barrels sit near the dirt path that leads past 
the family shelter. Water trucks pass by several times a 
week to fill the barrels. The water is used for drinking, 
washing and cooking. 

The barrels cost about $4 each (half a day’s wages) and 
were used for chemical storage before becoming water 
barrels. Several persons interviewed by the CWA News 
in Matamoros expressed anger and outrage about these 
barrels, saying they feel certain that some have been used 
for toxic waste storage in the past. 



Earl Dotter 


Stream behind colonias is 
dumping ground. 



I 



\ 


Maquiladora has come to mean any plant in the so-called "twin 
plant" system. But literally, the word means "golden mill" and is 
derived from the mill that is central to an agrarian village. Thus, 
the "value-added" in manufacturing evolved from the word for 
the processing of grain into flour in the village mill. 


San Diego 
^Tijuana 


USA 


Ciudad 

JuSrez 


' El Paso 


Comparative labor 
costs in production- 
sharing countries* 

Korea $8.65 

Taiwan 2.95 

Singapore 2.30 

Hong Kong 2.05 

Jamaica 1.25 

Costa Rica 1.05 

Dominican Republic... .95 
Mexico (Maquiladoras) ... .89 


I# Laredo 


Radford, Virginia 

2,400 jobs lost as 
work transferred to 
Matamoros, Mexico 


Border 


Del Rio 

ji 

Ciudad ®\* Ea 9 le Pass 
Acuffa 

Piedras 
Negras 

Nuevo %. McA nen 1 




Laredo 



Reynosa 


,Jl> 1 Brownsville 

’Matamoros 


MEXICO 


r Source: American Friends Service Committee, 1987; map source, CWA News 



Earl Dotter 


Socorro Leos uses common faucet she shared with neighbors a half-block from her colonia home 


Firms strike gold 
south of border 

By Dave Kent 

U.S. businesses have found a pot of gold just 
south of the border, in Old Mexico. Their good for- 
tune is called the Maquiladora (Twin Plant) Pro- 
gram, which gives them a virtual tax-free safe har- 
bor, a pool of cheap labor, and lax regulation on 
the use and dumping of hazardous chemicals. 

In 1989, some 1,500 U.S. firms were operating 
maquiladora plants on the Mexican side of the 2,000- 
mile border that stretches from Brownsville, Texas, 
to San Diego, Calif. They employed an estimated 

370.000 workers — and experts predict that 
employment will grow to more than a million 
workers by 1995 along the border strip. 

Among the major corporations with maquiladoras 
in Mexico are AT&T, Zenith, General Motors and 
a host of parts suppliers to the auto industry. 

Some companies, including the Zenith Electronics 
Corp., have found that by shipping nearly finished 
products back into the United States, they can still 
claim the “Made in the USA” label. 

Richard (Toby) Tarver, president of CWA Local 
6229 in Harlingen, Texas, says, “I’ve lived in south 
Texas 34 years, and I’ve never seen anything like 
the growth they’re experiencing now.” 

Tarver co-chairs the AFL-CIO Twin Plant Task 
Force, created three years ago to track the ma- 
quiladora explosion. 

Although the original concept envisioned true 
“twin plants” on each side of the border, the vast 
number of workers are on the Mexican side of the 
border where wages are cheap, and only “shelter” 
operations are maintained on the U.S. side. 

According to the Brownsville Economic Develop- 
ment Council, AT&T occupies a two-room suite in 
Brownsville at 3543 East 14th Street. A spokesman 
for AT&T said that, in fact, AT&T also utilizes 

15.000 square feet of warehousing space in Browns- 
ville with three full-time employees and one part- 
time worker. 

A new U.S. plant opens in Matamoros nearly 
every week, Tarver says. Matamoros collects no 
taxes from the maquiladoras, so there’s very little 
money to provide city services to the workers. 

When the United States developed the twin plant 
program in the 1960s, the theory was that each plant 
on the Mexican side of the border would have a 
comparable plant on the U.S. side paying good 
wages. 

And, so the theory went, good American jobs 
would eventually bring up wages, benefits and 
working conditions for the Mexican workers. 

With good wages, the incentives for workers to 
sneak across the Rio Grande River would be 
eliminated, stabilizing the population of both na- 
tions. All that changed during the administration of 
Ronald Reagan. 

After the debt crisis and peso collapse in 1982, 
cheap Mexican wages triggered the maquiladora 
explosion. 

The plants employ more than a tenth of Mexico’s 
industrial workforce and in 1988 sent $8 billion 
worth of parts and products back across the border 
into the United States. 

When the materials come back across the border, 
the American company pays taxes only on the 
“value added” in Mexico. U.S. companies pay no 
taxes to the city of Matamoras. 

U.S. employers on the Mexican side, from the 
start, turned to the most vulnerable and cheapest 
workers: young women and girls. Females repre- 
sent two-thirds of the maquiladora labor force, and 
many are teenagers. 

Even by Mexican standards, maquiladora workers 
are exploited, making only half what other industrial 
workers earn in the interior of Mexico. The average 
Mexican manufacturing wage was $1.57 an hour 
including benefits in 1987; the usual maquiladora 
wage including benefits was 89 cents an hour. 







Cooperative 
pact highlights 
URW victory 



Executive Council members join informational pickets at for a fair contract settlement before the Machinists' 
the Miami headquarters of Eastern Airlines in February strike deadline. Members of the Air Line Pilots and 
1989 in hopes of convincing management to negotiate Transport Workers joined the walkout. 


Support solid for Eastern strikers to the end 


W orkers at a second Tennessee 
Bridgestone/Firestone Inc. plant in 
Tennessee are the newest members of 
the Rubber Workers, signing on under 
a cooperative agreement between the 
union and the Japanese-owned tire maker. 

A majority of operating and engineer- 
ing technicians at Bridgestone’s War- 
ren County plant signed representation 
cards supporting the URW. While 
Bridgestone recognized URW Local 
1 155 as the plant’s bargaining unit, the 
local first will structure itself before 
beginning negotiations, the URW said. 

URW President Kenneth Coss said 
the union-company cooperation leading 
to the agreement was “exemplary” and 
“in the best interests of all employees. ’ ’ 
The URW has worked closely with 
Bridgestone since 1983, when the 
tiremaker bought a Firestone facility in 
LaVergne, Tenn. The distrust that 
marked Firestone’s management has 
been replaced by a cooperative at- 
mosphere in which the union is a full 
partner, the URW said. 

While workers at the LaVergne plant 
had to walk the picket line for a month 
in 1979 to win union recognition, and 
again for three more months that same 
year to win a first contract, the URW 
has been working with Bridgestone 
“since before the first spade of dirt was 
dug” at the new plant, the union said. 

The agreement reached between the 
URW and Bridgestone called for full 
cooperation on the development of 
work policies and practices at the War- 
ren County plant, about 70 miles south 
of Nashville. As employees were hired, 
they received information from the 
company and the union concerning the 
plant’s objectives and labor policies. 

Some 150 production workers are 
already on the job, making radial truck 
tires, and 600 are expected to be work- 
ing by 1994 when the plant reaches full 
production capacity, the URW said. 


By Candice Johnson 

T he Machinists ended a nearly 
23-month strike at Eastern Airlines 
on Jan. 24, a week after the carrier shut 
down operations. 

Nearly 8,000 IAM members held 
firm throughout the strike, leafletting, 
walking picket lines and running food 
pantries and strike kitchens through its 
final days. 

IAM strikers received a $100 week- 
ly strike benefit, with a final disburse- 
ment from the AFL-CIO Fairness at 
Eastern fund made to the IAM as of 
Jan. 25. 

AFL-CIO affiliates and union mem- 
bers contributed a total of $1 .89 million 
to the Eastern fund, which was estab- 
lished in April 1989 for emergency 
needs of the striking Machinists, Air 
Line Pilots and Transport Workers 
flight attendants. 

Solidarity was the watchword from 
the beginning of the strike, as AFL-CIO 
union members and allies from civil 


rights, women’s and student groups 
joined fund-raisers and rallies, food 
drives and prayer vigils, in support of 
the 19,000 union members honoring 
picket lines at Eastern. 

Union solidarity 

There were these and countless more 
demonstrations of union solidarity: 

• Community services represen- 
tatives in Michigan and Ohio organized 
food collections and trucked the dona- 
tions to Atlanta. 

• Unionists joined ALPA, IAM and 
TWU members on the national Journey 
for Justice, a month-long trek that 
began in Miami and ended at the steps 
of the U.S. Capitol just before Labor 
Day 1989. 

• Red ribbons, armbands and hats 
worn by unionists demonstrated that 
another “Stand up to Lorenzo” day was 
being observed on picket lines in 
Eastern hub cities. 

With the strike officially ended, the 


IAM and the AFL-CIO Department of 
Community Services will be working 
with union members and their families 
to provide training and job search 
assistance, and in assessing housing, 
food and other needs, said Community 
Services Director Joseph Velasquez and 
Charles Bradford, director of employ- 
ment and training for the IAM. 

Although the Pilots and TWU Local 
553 voted to end their support strikes 
in November 1989, after President 
Bush vetoed legislation to resolve the 
dispute through the appointment of a 
bipartisan commission, ALPA and 
TWU members continued their solidari- 
ty campaign with the IAM. 

The unions pressed their case in the 
bankruptcy court, with the creditors’ 
committee, with trustee Martin Shu- 
grue, with the Bush administration, in 
federal appeals courts and in public 
forums, but were not heard, noted 
ALPA President Randolph Babbitt, a 
former Eastern pilot. 


Federal deregulation steers troubled airlines into tailspin 


Continued from Page 1 

commercial air travel concentrated in 
the hands of just a few carriers, the 
Economic Policy Institute has reported. 

Fifteen independent airlines in opera- 
tion at the beginning of 1986 were 
merged into six major carriers in less 
than two years. 

Deregulation has fulfilled AFL-CIO 
President Lane Kirkland’s prediction 
that the nation would learn why it was 
necessary to regulate that industry in the 
first place. 

The 1977 AFL-CIO convention pre- 
dicted that “small communities, pas- 
sengers and workers will pay the price” 
if deregulation is enacted, which it was 
on Oct. 15, 1978. 

In addition to Eastern’s demise, Pan 
Am and Continental Airlines have filed 
for bankruptcy. TWA, American 
Airlines and USAir have announced 
layoffs and service cutbacks, and 
Braniff and Presidential liquidated 
assets to service billions of dollars of 
debt after filing for bankruptcy. 

“Supporters of deregulation prom- 
ised us unprecedented competition, 
lower prices and benefits for the 
traveler,” Kilroy said. Instead, “we got 
monopolies and price gouging, hun- 
dreds of thousands of lost jobs, deter- 
iorated service, the oldest aircraft fleet 
in the developed world, and powerful 
mega-carriers” that have devoured the 
competition. 


Since the start of war in the Persian 
Gulf, carriers have raised domestic 
ticket prices by 15 percent or more, 
citing increased fuel and security costs. 
But as ticket prices skyrocket, more 
passengers are postponing travel plans. 

Airline balance sheets show that the 
Middle East crisis only added to an 
already critical situation. Analysts 
estimate that the airline industry lost 
more than $2 billion last year. 

In many cases, airlines have overex- 
tended their operations, opening new 
routes to Europe and the Far East, but 
shifting costs for those operations to 
passengers flying U.S. routes, par- 
ticularly those in cities with few carrier 
choices. 

A General Accounting Office study 
found that, 10 years after deregulation, 
a flight from an airport with just one or 
two major carriers cost an average of 
27 percent more than one from an air- 
port served by many airlines. 

Here’s how unions are coping with 
the situation at various airlines: 

• At United, an offer by the three 
unions — Air Line Pilots, Machinists 
and Flight Attendants — to buy the car- 
rier was rejected by management in Oc- 
tober 1990 after earlier winning board 
approval. The unions had offered a 
$201 -per-share, $4.4 billion package, 
but the board claimed the offer did not 
have enough support from banks and 
other investors. 


With that deal off, new contracts with 
all three unions to replace already ex- 
pired agreements must be settled. While 
ALPA and company officials are meet- 
ing with federal mediators, ALPA’s 
United Chairman Frederick Dubinsky 
said the unions may reprise their buyout 
bid once the economy improves, with 
some banks and investors indicating 
their willingness to back an offer. 

United has purchased $22 billion in 
new aircraft and is under pressure from 
financial institutions to settle its labor 
contracts, analysts said. 

• Pan Am was the nation’s seventh 
largest carrier when it filed for bank- 
ruptcy protection last month. 

The Teamsters, ALPA, Flight Engi- 
neers and an unaffiliated flight atten- 
dants union discussed a buyout of the 
carrier with Los Angeles financier Kirk 
Kerkorian in an effort to block sale of 
Pan Am’s U.S. -London routes. But the 
federal bankruptcy court judge ap- 
proved the sale Jan. 10. The sale also 
must be approved by the British and 
U.S. governments. 

The Teamsters, representing 6,800 
passenger service and cargo agents, 
clerical workers and supply clerks, won 
restoration of an 8 percent wage cut IBT 
members accepted in 1988. The new 
contract includes a 26 percent wage in- 
crease over the three-year term — 
through February 1994 — and restores 
cuts in vacation, holiday and sick days 


as well as full seniority and assignment 
rights. 

• At American, members of the 
unaffiliated Allied Pilots Association 
have been trying to negotiate a new con- 
tract since early 1990, when their agree- 
ment expired. Both the pilots union and 
management are meeting with federal 
mediators. 

• TWA is $2.6 billion in debt, due 
to chairman Carl Icahn’s use of junk 
bond financing. The unions have 
charged that Icahn, while continuing to 
demand deep concessions, has used 
TWA resources for his own gain. 

Last year, ALPA, the IAM and the 
independent flight attendants unions 
staved off an Icahn deal with America 
West that the unions feared would be 
used to break them. 

TWA has no fleet replacement plans, 
even though it owns the oldest aircraft 
in the industry. Last month, TWA cut 
its service to Europe and said it would 
lay off 2,500 workers. The carrier is 
pressing the Transportation Department 
to allow the sale of its London routes, 
stressing that it needs the funds to avoid 
“Pan Am’s fate.” 

• Continental, the first victim of 
Frank Lorenzo, filed for bankruptcy 
protection in December 1990, saddled 
by a $2.2 billion debt. While the Pilots 
recently agreed to a wage freeze to save 
the airline, the carrier has sold some 
routes to American and Delta. 




Eastern fails: a chronology 



Ray Crowell/Page One Photography 


Striking Eastern workers rally in Washington in September 1989 at end of their "Journey for Justice." 


December 1983 — In an effort to keep Eastern 
Airlines flying, the Machinists, Air Line Pilots and 
Transport Workers, representing nearly 19,000 
workers, agree to wage cuts of 18 percent in ex- 
change for 25 percent of stock in Eastern. 

January 1986 — Eastern President Frank Bor- 
man seeks another $450 million in concessions, 
unilaterally imposing a 20-percent wage cut and 
work rule changes on TWU flight attendants. 

February — Texas Air Corp. takes over Eastern 
for a bargain-basement price of $606 million. 
Unions, wary of chairman Frank Lorenzo because 
of his union-busting efforts at Continental Airlines 
in 1983, try to block the takeover and put together 
an employee buyout. Despite a better per-share offer 
from the workers’ coalition, stockholders accept 
Lorenzo’s offer of $6.25 in cash and $3.75 in junk 
bonds per share. 

November — A federal appeals court upholds 
Lorenzo’s takeover. 

April 1988 — Despite union workers’ investment 
of nearly $1 billion in Eastern since 1976 — through 
forgone wages and benefits — Lorenzo seeks ad- 
ditional wage concessions from workers of up to 
50 percent. Unions continue to raise concerns about 
safety and service and Federal Aviation Administra- 
tion agrees to a plane-by-plane inspection. 

July — Eastern demands $161 million in 
givebacks from the IAM and $69 million from 
ALP A and announces it will cut service to 14 cities 
and eliminate 4,000 jobs. 

February 1989 — The Machinists request sup- 
port from the AFL-CIO Strategic Approaches Com- 
mittee, which earlier directed labor’s solidarity cam- 
paigns in disputes with USX and the National Foot- 
ball League. 

Feb. 1, 1989 — National Mediation Board ends 
its efforts to mediate dispute between IAM and 
Eastern and sets 30-day cooling-off period. IAM 
accepts NMB offer of binding arbitration but 
Eastern refuses. 

Feb. 24 — The NMB recommends that President 
Bush appoint an emergency board. 

March 3 — President Bush refuses to appoint 
emergency board, becoming first president to ig- 
nore recommendation of his own NMB in an airline 
dispute. 

March 4 — 8,500 IAM members strike Eastern. 
Honoring the picket lines are 3,600 Pilots and 8,000 
Transport Workers flight attendants. 

March 9 — Eastern files for federal bankruptcy 
protection. Judge Burton Lifland calls Eastern “a 
national treasure” and declares he will not tolerate 
delays in reorganization. 

March 11 — AFL-CIO establishes Fairness at 
Eastern fund to aid members of the three unions. 

March 15 — By a 252-167 margin, the House 
approves a bill calling on Bush to appoint an 
emergency board to help resolve the strike. 

April 5 — Denying the union appeal for a trustee, 
Lifland appoints David Shapiro as examiner. 

April 6 — Sale of airline to investment group led 
by former baseball commissioner Peter Ueberroth 
seems likely as unions agree with him on terms. But 
Lorenzo jettisons the deal by changing his agree- 
ment with Ueberroth and refusing to accept a trustee 
during interim period. 

April 12 — U.S. District Judge Edward Davis 
upholds right of Pilots to honor IAM picket lines. 

Mid-April — Lorenzo says Eastern is no longer 
for sale but Shapiro cites four serious bidders and 
Lifland opens Eastern’s books to potential buyers. 

April 26 — A Harris poll shows “a 60-26 per- 
cent majority of the American people say their sym- 
pathy is more with the striking Machinists’ than with 
the management.” 

May — ALPA newspaper ad traces “Texas Con- 
nection” between Lorenzo and Bush Administra- 
tion, noting former Texas Air official Frederick 
McClure, the top White House lobbyist, among 
others. 


Mid-May — Purchase bids submitted by Joseph 
Ritchie and former Piedmont officer William 
Howard. Donald Trump and Air West bid for shut- 
tle only. 

June 1 — Ritchie’s $100 million bid for Eastern 
gains the “unanimous support of Eastern’s unions,” 
including $25 million from the IAM and ALPA and 
an additional $50 million in loan guarantees from 
the AFL-CIO and 13 affiliates. 

June 7 — Trump buys Eastern shuttle. 

June 21 — Eastern petitions bankruptcy court to 
void its contract with ALPA. 

June 29 — Unions press Congress to direct the 
Transportation Department to investigate Texas Air 
Corp.’s stripping of Eastern assets. 

July — Eastern begins limited service. 

July 21 — Court grants Eastern an extension for 
submitting its operating plan. 

July 25 — House aviation subcommittee chair- 
man James Oberstar (D-Minn.) requests that the 
General Accounting Office investigate Eastern 
management practices and evaluate the Ritchie 
offer. 

July 26 — Eastern withdraws request to abrogate 
its agreement with ALPA. 

Aug. 4 — Pilots, Machinists and flight attendants 
begin “Journey for Justice,” starting in Miami and 
scheduled to end on the steps of the U.S. Capitol 
in early September. Along route is a rally with AFL- 
CIO President Lane Kirkland, Secretary-Treasurer 
Thomas R. Donahue and several vice presidents in 
Richmond. 

Aug. 8 — Pilots vote overwhelmingly to continue 
their sympathy strike against Eastern. 

Sept. 12 — Lifland approves sale of Eastern 
assets in Philadelphia to Midway Airlines. 

Sept. 15 — Eastern’s right to exclusivity in pro- 
posing reorganization plan is extended by Lifland. 

Oct. 26 — Senate votes 65-35 to establish a blue- 
ribbon panel to investigate and help end the Eastern 
strike. 

October — House passes bill requiring 
Transportation Secretary to disqualify from airline 
transactions anyone who had filed for bankruptcy 
on two occasions, i.e., Frank Lorenzo. 

November — Arbitrator rules Eastern owes 
ALPA members $65 million in back wages. 

Nov. 7 — On a voice vote, House adopts Senate 
version of bill calling for a blue-ribbon commission 
to investigate practices at Eastern and in the airline 
industry. 

Nov. 21 — Bush vetoes Eastern bill, claiming its 
enactment “would create the expectation of further 
intervention by Congress that would significantly 
disrupt chances for an orderly reorganization by the 
bankruptcy court. This would hinder saving Eastern 
Airlines and the jobs of its employees.” Pilots and 


Transport Workers Local 553 vote to end strike. 

March 1, 1990 — Shapiro finds that Texas Air 
provided Eastern with “less than fair consideration” 
in 12 transactions preceding bankruptcy filing, in- 
cluding excessive fuel charges and the sale of the 
reservation system. Shapiro says appointment of a 
trustee “could so disrupt Eastern’s business and its 
ability to sell tickets as to make its continued viabil- 
ity as an air carrier untenable.” 

March 8 — The House fails to override Bush’s 
veto, falling 20 votes short of the two-thirds ma- 
jority needed. In a March 5 letter to Congress, 
Shapiro argues that the commission would “make 
it impossible for the parties to settle.” 

March — Losing more than $2 million a day, 
Eastern announces it can’t meet the 50-cents-on-the- 
dollar cash payment plan accepted by some mem- 
bers of the unsecured creditors committee — which 
includes ALPA, IAM and Transport Workers as 
well as industry suppliers. 

April 10 — More than a year after Eastern filed 
for bankruptcy, Lifland reverses his stand and 
names Martin Shugrue as trustee. 

June — Negotiations with ALPA stall over 
Eastern’s demand to ignore seniority rights in recall. 
Eastern recalls another 240 TWU attendants — in 
order of seniority — under an agreement reached 
with the union in February. 

July — A federal grand jury issues an indictment 
against Eastern and nine current and former top 
managers for service and recordkeeping violations 
uncovered at two New York airports. 

August — A federal district court judge rules that 
striking union pilots who earlier offered to return 
to work can reclaim the jobs taken by trainees. 
Eastern appeals. Lorenzo bails out of Continental 
Holdings Inc. with a $30 million golden parachute 
from Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS). 

October — The Pension Benefit Guaranty Corp. 
reaches an agreement with Eastern parent Continen- 
tal Holdings Inc. , calling for the company to make 
an immediate $80.5 million pension payment and 
assume responsibility for fully funding the plan, 
now underfunded by more than $700 million. The 
PBGC takes over seven plans covering 51,000 
workers and retirees. Eastern losses since filing for 
bankruptcy protection now exceed $1.6 billion. 

November — Lifland rejects a creditor commit- 
tee request that Eastern be shut down and allows 
another $135 million to be taken from escrow. 

December — Appeals court upholds ruling that 
union pilots who offered to return to work should 
displace trainees, affecting 800 pilots. 

Jan. 18, 1991 — Eastern shuts down after 62 
years in the skies. Unsecured creditors are owed 
about $2 billion, secured creditors, including Boe- 
ing and Airbus, $1.2 billion, and customers hold 
about $82 million in unused tickets. Less than $123 
million remains in escrow. 






Source: Associated Press; Bureau of National Affairs, Inc. 


GNP plunges 
2.1 percent in 
last quarter 

By John R. Oravec 

T he spreading economic slump took a 
turn for the worse in the fourth 
quarter of 1990 as the nation’s output 
of all goods and services skidded at a 
2.1 -percent annual rate. 

The dismal showing in the gross na- 
tional product dragged down economic 
growth to 0.9 percent for the year, the 
weakest annual performance since the 
2.5-percent drop in 1982, when the 
country was in the grips of the Reagan 
recession, according to the Commerce 
Department’s preliminary data. 

A consensus of economic analysts 
points to continued GNP decline in the 
first quarter of 1991, AFL-CIO chief 
economist Rudy Oswald noted. Con- 
sidering the depth and the breadth of the 
downturn, most economists feel the cur- 
rent recession began in the third quarter 
of 1990, Oswald said, “and the worst 
is yet to come. ’ ’ Most analysts don’t ex- 
pect a pickup in the economy until the 
second quarter of the year. 

Even if there is a recovery at the end 
of the tunnel, unemployment rates will 
remain high for a long time, Oswald 
warned. 

Some experts feel the economy would 
have skidded deeper into recession dur- 
ing the last quarter without the military 
buildup for the Persian Gulf war. 

Commerce Department figures 
showed the economy muddled through 
much of 1990, edging up 1.7 percent 
in first quarter, then slowing to 0.4 per- 
cent in the second, struggling to a 
1 .4-percent pickup in the third, before 
plunging 2.1 percent in the final 
quarter. 

The manufacturing sector was hit 
hard in the fourth quarter. Keyed to 
1982 “real’’ dollars, the output of 
durable goods dropped nearly $10 bil- 
lion from the third quarter to $420 
billion and nondurables slipped more 
than $13 billion to $903 billion. Ser- 
vices showed little gain at $1 .35 trillion. 

Business and residential construction 
dropped sharply, particularly in single 
family homes. Business investment in 


T he United States edged closer to 
another $ 100-billion annual foreign 
trade deficit as November’s shortfall in 
exports pushed the 1 1 -month trade gap 
to $94.9 billion, the Commerce Depart- 
ment reported. 

Since early in the Reagan administra- 
tion, when imports pushed the nation’s 
merchandise trade balance into the 
minus column, America has amassed a 
trade deficit of more than $900 billion. 
It has logged deficits of more than $100 
billion each year since 1983. 

The November deficit of $9.7 billion 
was less than October’s $10.9 billion, 
but was 12 percent above 1990’s mon- 
thly average of $8.6 billion. Over the 
month, imports eased $2.6 billion to 
$43.3 billion, while exports declined 
$1.4 billion to $33.6 billion. 

Petroleum imports declined by $900 
million to $6.3 billion as the volume 
dropped by 35 million barrels to 214 


equipment was also down in the fourth 
quarter. 

Consumer demand for goods and ser- 
vices fell 4.2 percent — reflecting the 
failure of paychecks to keep pace with 
inflation — after rising 1.6 percent in 
the third quarter. Real GNP at year-end 
was $4. 148 trillion, up $38 billion over 
the year. Inflation as measured by the 
fixed weight GNP price index rose 4.5 
percent last year, the same as 1989. But 
the consumer price index as measured 
by the Bureau of Labor Statistics 
climbed 6.1 percent last year. 

Leading indicators sluggish 

Meanwhile, the government’s index 
of leading economic indicators inched 
up just 0.1 percent in December after 
five straight months of declines, in- 
cluding drops of 1 .2 percent in October 
and 1.1 percent in November. 

The index, which is designed to 
forecast economic performance six to 
nine months in advance, suggests that 
the current recession may ease in 
several months. 

The Commerce Department said six 
of the index’s 11 components were up 
in December, including higher stock 
prices, a longer average workweek, and 
orders for plants and equipment. The 
department data showed that consumer 
confidence in the economy also rose in 
December, although other studies 
showed consumers expressed serious 
concerns about their economic outlook. 

In other reports: 

• The military buildup for the Per- 


million. The average price per barrel 
was $29.44, compared with $29.04 in 
October. 

The deficit in manufactured goods 
eased to $9. 1 billion in November with 
imports of $33.8 billion and exports of 
$24.7 billion. The October gap was 
$10.4 billion. 

The deficit in manufactured goods for 
the first 11 months of 1990 amounted 
to $85.4 billion, with imports of $358.3 
billion and exports of $272.9 billion. 

AFL-CIO economist Mark A. An- 
derson pointed out that, for each $1 
billion in deficit trade, 25,000 U.S. jobs 
are eliminated. The 1990 surge in un- 
employment — exacerbated by layoffs 
in the manufacturing sector — under- 
lines that dilemma, Anderson said. 

Commerce Secretary Robert Mos- 
bacher painted a rosy outlook in observ- 
ing that “the trade deficit for 1990 is 
estimated to be the lowest since 1983.” 


sian Gulf war and sales of commercial 
aircraft pushed orders for durable goods 
up 4.4 percent in December, although 
the demand for the big ticket manufac- 
tured goods dropped 1 .6 percent for the 
year, the first decline since the 6.4 per- 
cent drop during the recession of 1982. 

Excluding the defense capital goods 
and aircraft, durable goods orders slip- 
ped 3.4 percent in December, mainly 
in autos and parts, the Commerce 
Department said. 

The demand for the factory goods fell 
in six of the last 12 months, including 
a 10.7-percent plunge in November, the 
department reported. The declines in 
orders triggered numerous layoffs of 
factory workers as reflected in earlier 
Labor Department data showing a loss 
of 600,000 manufacturing jobs since 
December 1989. 

• Consumer confidence in the econ- 
omy fell again in January to the lowest 
level in 10 years, according to the Con- 
ference Board, a New York-based pri- 
vate research group. 

The confidence index tumbled to 54 
in January, the lowest level since 1980, 
after dropping to 61.3 in December. 
The index was set at 100 in 1985. 

In its survey of 5,000 households, the 
board found more than one-third of the 
respondents consider business condi- 
tions to be “bad,” and voiced concerns 
about jobs. Just 19 percent expect their 
incomes to rise in the next months. Less 
than 6 percent plan to buy a car in next 
months and even fewer plan to buy a 
home, the survey found. 


He suggested that the Bush administra- 
tion is counting on export growth to 
turn around the recessionary economy 
in 1991. But in mid-1990, Mosbacher 
predicted the trade deficit would tum- 
ble below the $ 100-billion barrier, and 
there is little chance of that happening. 

In trade with major industrialized 
countries, the deficit with Japan re- 
mained the highest — $3.8 billion in 
November, down from $4.5 billion in 
October. For the first 1 1 months of the 
year the shortfall amounted to $37.6 
billion, with imports of $81.8 billion 
and exports of $44.2 billion. 

The deficit with Canada eased a bit 
in November to $1.1 billion and was 
$7.1 billion in the red for the first 11 
months. Imports from Mexico in the 
first 11 months amounted to $27.9 
billion, while U.S. exports totaled 
$26.1 billion for a deficit of $1.8 
billion. 


Public works 
investment 
seen lacking 

By James B. Parks 

T he federal government could combat 
the recession with investment in the 
nation’s infrastructure, creating jobs 
and raising living standards through the 
public works industry, a new study 
reports. 

The study by the Economic Policy In- 
stitute, unveiled during the U.S. Con- 
ference of Mayors’ meeting in Wash- 
ington, found that a major cause of the 
post- 1970 slowdown in productivity 
growth is the 25-year decline in spen- 
ding on public works such as roads, 
bridges, mass transit and airports. 

“Our nation is rotting at its core in 
a physical sense; its public infrastruc- 
ture is in great disrepair’ ’ due to neglect 
at the federal level, said Atlanta Mayor 
Maynard Jackson, chair of Rebuild 
America, a coalition whose aim is to 
restore the nation’s infrastructure. 

Federal disinvestment in public 
works began with Vietnam war spend- 
ing in the 1960s and continued under 
President Reagan’s “new federalism,” 
Jackson said. 

Reagan’s policies switched the finan- 
cial burden onto local governments that 
already are reeling under the burden of 
“homelessness, poverty, crime and 
drugs — problems neglected by the 
federal government,” he said. 

“Now is the time to wake up 
America to the cost of what will hap- 
pen if nothing is done,” Jackson said. 
‘ ‘If ever we needed a big hit to spur the 
economy, now is the time and this is the 
answer.” 

Funds available 

New Bedford, Mass., Mayor John 
Bullard, chairman of the mayors’ 
economic policy committee disputed the 
argument that money is not available for 
infrastructure investment. 

“In the 1980s, the defense budget 
was doubled,” Bullard said. “Regard- 
less of what’s going on now in the Per- 
sian Gulf, that budget can be halved by 
the year 2000’ ’ and the savings used for 
public investment, he said. 

The study, written by David Alan 
Aschauer, former senior economist at 
the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, 
is titled, “Public Investment and Private 
Sector Growth: Economic Benefits of 
Reducing America’s ‘Third Deficit,’ ” 
referring to the public investment 
deficit. The other two are the federal 
budget and trade deficits. 

Aschauer found that if the United 
States had continued spending the same 
share of the gross national product on 
public works as it did in the 1950s and 
1960s, the nation would have had at 
least a 50 percent higher rate of 
productivity. 

Private investment in plants and 
equipment would have been at 3.7 per- 
cent of existing capital stock instead of 
the actual 3.1 percent during 
1970-1988, the study said. 

The Bush administration’s proposed 
spending on infrastructure investment 
is only 43 percent of the level in 1980, 
Aschauer said. “This will be a severe 
drag on our overall economic perfor- 
mance,” he warned. 


Imports tip trade deficit toward $100 billion 






Appeals court backs UFW 
on lettuce boycott lawsuit 


T he Arizona Court of Appeals in 
Phoenix overturned a five-year-old, 
$5. 4-million judgment against the Farm 
Workers that grew out of its decade- 
long boycott of Bruce Church lettuce. 

The case, brought by the California- 
based Bruce Church Inc., had charged 
the UFW with conducting secondary 
boycott activities against grocers in 
Arizona and with intentional in- 
terference with business relations. 
Following a month-long trial in 1985, 
a jury awarded Bruce Church $4.9 
million in compensatory and $500,000 
in punitive damages. 

The appellate court ruled that the trial 
judge improperly applied the Arizona 
Agricultural Employment Relations Act 
to secondary boycott activities that oc- 
curred in California, where they are 
legal. 

The appellate court found, too, that 
“none of the evidence Bruce Church in- 
troduced at the trial of the union’s 
boycott activities in Arizona either 
would support a directed verdict that the 
union had committed a secondary boy- 
cott in violation of Arizona law, or 
would justify instructing the jury 
regarding other unfair labor practices.” 
It remanded for a possible new trial 
the lettuce grower’s claim that the UFW 
intentionally interfered with its business 
relations. The court said the jury must 
be allowed to consider evidence of the 
“alleged legality of the secondary 
boycott activity conducted in Califor- 
nia,” which it had been instructed by 


the judge during the trial to disregard. 

The UFW has been the bargaining 
representative for Bruce Church 
employees since 1977 for workers in 
California and Arizona. After failing to 
bargain a new contract in 1979, the 
union struck Bruce Church and began 
a nationwide boycott of its “Red 
Coach” brand lettuce. Bruce Church is 
also on the AFL-CIO boycott list. 

Meanwhile, UFW’s nationwide boy- 
cott of table grapes and its related cam- 
paign against the toxic pesticides used 
on table grapes has continued to gain 
support. 

Last July, UFW President Cesar 
Chavez called for a boycott of the Vons 
Cos. supermarket chain, which contin- 
ues to sell nonunion table grapes. The 
union’s informational picketing at Vons 
has included a number of celebrities, 
including Esai Morales, Martin Sheen, 
Lou Diamond Phillips, Valerie Harper, 
Julie Carmen and Edward James 
Almos. 

Temporary court injunctions sought 
by the California Agricultural Labor 
Relations Board against the UFW ac- 
tivities were later overturned. Vons is 
now appealing a Superior Court deci- 
sion that overturned a Kern County, 
Calif. , court order banning UFW 
picketing at Vons stores. 

In December 1990, the union and the 
American Civil Liberties Union filed 
suit to overturn a temporary injunction 
Vons Stores Inc. and the state ALRB 
had obtained. 


CUT lawyers study transnationals 


A FL-CIO unions hosted a group of 10 
Brazilian union lawyers who studied 
how their American counterparts deal 
with companies operating in both na- 
tions, and will begin to develop joint 
strategies to benefit Brazilian and 
American employees of the same firms. 

The visit, for 10 days beginning Jan. 
14, was sponsored by the Food and 
Commercial Workers, AFSCME, the 
Electronic Workers, the Clothing and 
Textile Workers and the unaffiliated 
United Electrical Workers. 

“This is the first time that American 
and Brazilian unions have sat down 
together to develop strategies in work- 
ing with American transnationals, 
which increasingly are trying to pit 
workers in both nations against each 


other,” said Stanley Gacek, the 
UFCW’s assistant director for interna- 
tional affairs. 

The Brazilian lawyers represent 
unions affiliated with the CUT, Single 
Central of Workers, considered the 
most agressive and progressive labor 
federation in Brazil. 

“In today’s global economy, unions 
must work more closely together by 
crossing national borders and hurdling 
language and cultural barriers,” Gacek 
said. “The benefits of these 10 days of 
meetings will be seen in the develop- 
ment of cooperative bargaining and 
organizing strategies for the future.” 

The lawyers took part in briefings 
from government and congressional ex- 
perts. 



Dolores Huerta, vice president of the 
Farm Workers, will receive $825,000 
in a settlement approved by the San 
Francisco Police Commission, for in- 
juries inflicted on her by police during 
a rally Sept. 14, 1988. Huerta, 67, and 
other UFW members demonstrated out- 
side Westin’s St. Francis Hotel to pro- 
test then- Vice President George Bush’s 
stand on the union’s nationwide grape 
boycott. Huerta, who suffered six 
broken ribs and a ruptured spleen, 
underwent numerous blood transfu- 
sions. She and six others filed a 
$24-million civil rights suit against the 
police, who had jabbed the demon- 
strators with riot batons. Assistant City 
Attorney George Riley said the Jan. 28 
settlement of Huerta’s claims will not 
affect the suit of the other union mem- 
bers. 


With the help of some influential 
friends, the Hotel Employees and Rest- 
aurant Employees Local 25 won an 
election to represent workers at the 
Republican National Committee’s 
Capitol Hill Club. Local 25 President 
Ron Richardson, restricted to only one 
hour of campaigning the day of the elec- 
tion, got help from Robert Georgine, 
president of the AFL-CIO Building and 
Construction Trades Department and a 
member of the club, to schedule a lun- 
cheon meeting on election day. Attend- 
ing the meeting besides Richardson, 
Georgine and Local 25 Organizing 
Director Cathy Thomas, was D.C. 
Shadow Sen. Jesse L. Jackson, who 
personally greeted prospective union 
members. The workers, 75 percent of 
whom are minorities, voted 34-25 for 
representation by HERE. 


Steve Sprague has been appointed 
secretary -treasurer of the Musicians, 
filling out the term of Kelly L. Castle- 
berry II, who died on Dec. 18. Sprague, 
who has been executive assistant to 
AFM President J. Martin Emerson 
since November 1987, will serve until 
the union’s biennial convention on June 
21 in Las Vegas, when all nine mem- 
bers of the AFM executive board will 
stand for election. A pianist-accord- 



T he Federal Mediation and Concilia- 
tion Service will distribute more than 
$1 million in 1991 grants to support ef- 
forts to establish and operate joint labor- 
management cooperation. Deadline for 
applications for the awards under the 
agency’s annual labor-management 
grants program will be May 1 1 . The 
guidelines for the applications appeared 
in the Federal Register Dec. 10. For ad- 
ditional information call (202) 
653-5320, or write FMCS, 2100 K St., 
N.W., Washington, D.C. 20427. 

Information about military service 
personnel in the Persian Gulf may be 
obtained by calling these numbers: 
800/626-1440 (Army); 800/253-9276 
(Air Force); 800/255-3808 (Navy); 


800/523-2694 (Marines); 800/283-8724 
(Coast Guard), and 202/737-8300 (Red 
Cross). The Navy, Marine and Coast 
Guard numbers are dedicated to im- 
mediate family. The Army, Air Force 
and Red Cross numbers are for general 
use. 

PUBLICATIONS 

States Should Keep Their “Buy 
America” Laws Intact is a pamphlet 
that explains the effect of the federal 
government’s decision to urge state and 
local governments to give up their Buy 
America laws. The pamphlet was pro- 
duced by the AFL-CIO ’s Department 
of Economic Research. Copies are $20 
for 50 and $30 for 100. To order, call 
the AFL-CIO Publications and 
Materials Office, 202/637-5041. 

Short Hours, Short Shift is a 
33-page study by the Economic Policy 
Institute that explains the trend towards 
part-time work and its effect on the 
economy. Copies are $8 from Publica- 
tions Dept., EPI, 1730 Rhode Island 
Avenue, N.W., Suite 200, Washington, 
D.C. 20036. 


Starting Over: A Survival Guide 
for Laid-Off Workers is a pamphlet 
available in English or Spanish for use 
with workers in both pre- and post- 
layoff situations. Contact the Center for 
Working Life at 600 Grand Avenue, 
Suite 305, Oakland, Calif. 94610 or call 
415/893-7343. 

AWARDS 

Nominations are open for the Labor 
Award of the President’s Committee for 
Employment of People with 
Disabilities. The award honors an in- 
ternational union or a union local for 
significant contribution to national, 
state, or community programs which 
enhance employment of people with 
disabilities. To nominate, prepare a 
brief statement (maximum: 3 pages 
typed single spaced) describing the ac- 
tivities of the candidate. Mail nomina- 
tions to the Labor Committee, Presi- 
dent’s Committee on Employment of 
People with Disabilities, 1111 20th 
Street, N.W., Suite 636, Washington, 
D.C. 20036. Entries must be post- 
marked by Feb. 15, 1991. 


ionist, Sprague joined AFM Local 138 
in Brockton, Mass., at age 17 and was 
first elected to local office in 1973. 

Robert Healey, president of the 
Chicago AFL-CIO, has been named to 
the Federal Reserve Bank board in 
Chicago. Healey will be one of three 
non-bankers on the board. He is the 
sixth labor leader named to a Federal 
Reserve Bank or Branch board. Others 
are: John Hodges, Ohio AFL-CIO 
President, in Cleveland; Donald J. Ken- 
nedy, Electrical Workers Local 269 
business manager, in Philadelphia; Pat 
Tomillo Jr., executive vice president of 
the United Teachers of Dade, in Miami; 
Victor Bussie, Louisiana AFL-CIO 
president, in New Orleans, and William 
Wynn, president of the Food and Com- 
mercial Workers, in Baltimore. 
Building and Construction Trades 
President Robert A. Georgine earlier 
completed a six-year term in Richmond. 

Daniel J. Schulder is the new 
legislative director of the National 
Council of Senior Citizens. Schulder, 
55, had been director of public policy 
for the National Council on the Aging 
of Washington. He is a former staff 
member of the Steelworkers’ Depart- 
ment for Older and Retired Workers 
and an organizer for the Food and Com- 
mercial Workers. 

DEATHS 

Timothy J. Twomey, former vice 
president of the Service Employees and 
the San Francisco AFL-CIO, died Jan. 
19 after a two-month struggle against 
cancer. He was 60. 

“The labor movement and the work- 
ing people of San Francisco have lost 
a tireless advocate and a great friend, ’ ’ 
said SEIU President John J. Sweeney. 

Twomey was elected president of 
SEIU Local 250 in 1960, and secretary- 
treasurer in 1964. Under his leadership, 
the union had grown to represent near- 
ly 30,000 hospital and nursing home 
workers. He retired in 1988. 

New Jersey State Sen. Chris 
Jackman, a longtime Democratic 
leader in the state legislature and a vice 
president of the Paper workers, died 
Jan. 28 at University Hospital in 
Newark after a long battle with cancer. 
He was 74. 

Jackman, a member of the Hudson 
County AFL-CIO executive board, was 
elected to the assembly in 1967 and re- 
elected seven times before moving to 
the upper house. He was majority 
leader in 1977 and speaker from 1978 
to 1982. 

Union MasterCard 
cuts annual rate 
to 14.75 percent 

T he annual percentage rate (APR) for 
the Union Privilege MasterCard has 
been cut to 14.75 percent from 15 per- 
cent, the second rate reduction in the 
past year. 

In contrast, the national average APR 
charged for credit cards remains un- 
changed at nearly 19 percent. Unlike 
other credit cards, the Union Privilege 
MasterCard APR is tied to general in- 
terest rates. 

“Most credit card-issuing banks poc- 
ket the savings when the cost of their 
funds drop,” said David Silberman, 
Union Privilege president. “With the 
Union Privilege MasterCard, the sav- 
ings are passed along to union card- 
holders.” 

The 14.75 percent APR is one of the 
lowest rates available for any national 
credit card, Silberman said. The Union 
Privilege MasterCard is now offered by 
72 AFL-CIO affiliated unions. 





Congress gets AFL-CIO health care hearings record 



Bill Burke/Page One Photography 


Members of Congress were presented with hearing transcripts, a videotape 
of television reportage, and a reprint of AFL-CIO News coverage. 


Continued from Page 1 

as the “health insurance Congress.” 

Kirkland pointed out that “medical 
costs which soar upward from 18 to 30 
percent a year are putting basic health 
care beyond the reach of a steadily in- 
creasing number of Americans. As 
many as one in three Americans has 
either inadequate health insurance or 
none at all.” 

Labor is a key health care player, said 
Riegle, who emphasized the great need 
for sweeping reform. He said that in his 
state of Michigan alone “there are 
400,000 children with not a penny of 
health insurance — and that’s not 
right.” 

There are at least 37 million Ameri- 
cans across the country without health 
insurance, and at least 50 million more 
who are underinsured. 

“The case for reform is overwhelm- 
ing,” Waxman said. “It’s a non- 
system; what is there is deteriorating. 
This system is not going to get better 
on its own. 

“We must act because the crisis is 
here for too many Americans and it 
won’t go away until leadership is given 
to solve the problem.” 

Kirkland and the lawmakers also 
noted the increasing support for reform 
of the health care system, especially 
from the business community. 

“Corporations are waking up to the 
need for reform,” Kirkland said, and 
Riegle agreed. “Businesses are knock- 
ing down our doors asking us to do 
something about it,” he said. 

Also delivered to Capitol Hill was a 
videotape that featured witnesses from 


the hearings, putting a human face on 
the tragedy of the nation’s health care 
system, along with a 12-page reprint of 
AFL-CIO News coverage of the hear- 
ings and the complete transcript of the 
hearings. 

The ills of the nation’s health care 
system are reflected in the transcript: 

• A nurse’s aide in Rhode Island 
cannot afford health care premiums and 
family essentials, despite working three 
or four overtime shifts a week. 

• A factory worker in California 
testified that his insurance ran out while 


he was recuperating from an on-the-job 
injury — forcing him to absorb 
numerous uncovered costs. 

• A young mother of three and fac- 
tory worker in Texas said, “For me and 
my family, health care is a privilege we 
can’t afford.” 

• A Kentucky mother of a 17 -year- 
old son who faces death without a liver 
transplant says insurance covered much 
of the expense from his disorder, but 
not the life-saving transplant because 
such surgery is considered “experimen- 
tal.” 


‘ ‘This is the year for 
action. Labor, business, 
hospitals and physicians 
and consumers are 
mobilized as never 
before, and it is time 
for Congress to act. ” 

—Sen. Edward M. Kennedy 


“If they said to me, ‘give us your 
house, your car and everything else you 
own and Johnny can have a new liver,’ 
I’d do it in a heartbeat. But I don’t have 
enough money in my home and posses- 
sions to begin to cover all the expenses 
for the procedure.” 

• A Michigan woman who works in 
a nursing home suffers from high blood 
pressure but cannot afford the pre- 
miums for health insurance covered by 
her employer. But even with that, she 
would not have coverage for prescrip- 
tion drugs, an ongoing need for her 
illness. 

Kirkland told the lawmakers the labor 
federation looks forward to working 
with them to develop and enact legisla- 
tion to ensure that basic health care is 
available to all Americans. 

Senate Majority Leader George 
Mitchell of Maine and House Demo- 
cratic Leader Richard Gephardt of 
Missouri told a congressional hearing 
in January that health care legislation 
is among the highest priorities of the 
current session. 



Labor sets goals 
for 102nd Congress 

The AFL-CIO legislative agenda in- 
cludes an early effort to win full review 
of any U.S. -Mexico trade agreement; 
other goals are the striker replacement 
bill and health care reform. 


Desert Storm affects 
rail strike action 

O Rail unions representing 235,000 
workers are counting down to the Feb. 
15 strike deadline, but most agree they 
will delay action while Operation 
Desert Storm continues. 


INSIDE 

1 Airline failures 

tied to deregulation 

The AFL-CIO Transportation Trades 
Department lays the blame for the U.S. 
airline industry’s current struggle for 
survival on the failed policy of 
deregulation. 



Daily News unions 
review ESOP option 

Striking unions at the New York Daily 
News are exploring an employee stock 
ownership bid for the paper, while 
negotiations continue to yield little 
progress. 



Union membership 
gives safety edge 

Unions play a key role in making 
workplaces safer and in forcing the Oc- 
cupational Safety and Health Ad- 
ministration to do its job, two Boston 
University studies show. 



Economic outlook 
remains bleak 

The GNP puts in its weakest annual per- 
formance since the 1982 recession, with 
manufacturing, construction and con- 
sumer demand all down sharply in the 
fourth quarter. 



The AFL-CIO NEWS (ISSN 001 -1 1 85) is publish'd every two weeks. 
Second Class postage paid at Washington, D.C. Subscriptions $10 per' 
year. POSTMASTER: Address changes to Room 209, 815 16th Street, 
N.W., Washington, D.C. 20006. 


2 / 4/91 


The AFL-CIO does not accept paid advertising in any of its official publications. No one is authorized 
to solicit advertising for any publications in the name of the AFL-CIO. 








Federal legislation to ban permanent 
replacement of strikers would 
restore balance in the collective 
bargaining process. See Pages 6-7. 



VOLUME 36, NUMBER 4 


FEBRUARY 18, 1991 


On home front: Unions reach out to troops, families 


By Candice Johnson 

W ith America at war, unions have 
stepped up in a variety of ways to 
assist the troops and their families. 

The AFL-CIO and the American Red 
Cross are teaming up in “Operation 
Stateside,” a campaign to coordinate 
financial contributions, volunteer pro- 
grams and blood donor activities by 
union members during the Persian Gulf 
crisis. 

In announcing the campaign, AFL- 
CIO President Lane Kirkland said the 
labor movement will support the Red 
Cross efforts to help military families 


By James B. Parks 

T he New York Daily News and its 
striking unions agreed on former 
Labor Secretary W.J. Usery Jr. as a 
mediator in the four-month-old dispute, 
while the AFL-CIO intensified pressure 
on the News by announcing an ex- 
panded corporate campaign against the 
tabloid’s parent Tribune Co. 

Representatives of the nine striking 
unions and News management were ex- 
pected to meet Feb. 15 with Usery, 
whose mediation was instrumental in 
resolving the 1989 strike by the Mine 
Workers against Pittston Coal Group. 
Usery, a former Machinists official, 
was director of the Federal Mediation 
and Conciliation Service before being 
named secretary of labor by President 
Ford. 

The first meeting was to include two 
representatives from each striking 
union, union adviser Theodore Kheel, 


stay in touch, monitor the conditions of 
American POWs, assist refugees and 
provide aid to families who have lost 
their primary financial support. 

State and local AFL-CIOs are en- 
couraging union members and affiliates 
to contribute their time and talents to the 
effort. Community Services represen- 
tatives, in conjunction with the Red 
Cross and United Way, are coor- 
dinating many volunteer activities and 
expanded blood donor drives, said 
AFL-CIO Vice President Vincent R. 
Sombrotto, who heads the federation’s 
Community Services Committee. 


and three Daily News officials (pub- 
lisher James Hoge, Robert Ballow of 
the Nashville law firm of King and 
Ballow, and Edward Gold, the com- 
pany’s director of labor relations), said 
George McDonald, president of the 
Allied Printing Trades Council, which 
represents the striking unions. 

This would be the first time all the 
parties to the strike have met in the 
same room. “I insisted that we meet 
collectively,” McDonald said. “Other- 
wise there was no way we could begin 
to heal the wounds. This has been a bit- 
ter 10 months.” 

The News management has consis- 
tently refused to meet with the unions 
as a group. McDonald said the “only 
thing he could see” that caused the 
company to change its mind and nego- 
tiate was the continuing pressure by the 
unions on the News’ circulation and 
advertising. 


Union members who wish to con- 
tribute to the effort can send their con- 
tributions, payable to Gulf Crisis Fund, 
to Operation Stateside, American Red 
Cross, 17th and D Streets, N.W., 
Washington, D.C., 20006. 

Maritime unions continue to call all 
members, including retirees, to crew 
merchant ships carrying supplies to the 
Persian Gulf. Twenty more ships were 
activated in January, adding to the 47 
already in service. 

The Longshoremen, meanwhile, an- 
nounced that the union is sending 
dockworkers from throughout its ter- 


McDonald said he was optimistic 
about Usery ’s role. “You’ve got to 
keep trying. Maybe Usery has the key” 
to unlock the strike, he said. 

The two sides met separately with 
Usery in Washington earlier this month. 
McDonald and the leaders of three other 
striking unions met with him on Feb. 
4. Hoge and Tribune Co. president 
Charles T. Brumback met with him on 
Feb. 6. 

About 2,300 Daily News workers 
went out on strike Oct. 25 after work- 
ing nearly seven months without a 
contract. 

The Daily News has demanded up to 
$70 million in givebacks, including the 
elimination of guraranteed staffing 
levels. It also has demanded a 
“management rights clause” that would 
allow the company to set hours, wages 
and work conditions — and has flatly 
Continued on Page 2 


ritory to North Carolina to speed the 
flow of military cargo through Wilm- 
ington and Sunny Point. And, in a let- 
ter to Defense Secretary Richard 
Cheney, ILA President John Bowers 
said union members would be available 
to assist unloading efforts at Saudi Ara- 
bian ports. 

In addition, more than 1,000 
Teamsters’ flight attendants from 
Northwest Airlines have volunteered to 
serve on jets carrying U.S. troops, sup- 
plies and mail to Saudi Arabia. 

The Teamsters also are the moving 
Continued on Page 12 

Breakthrough 
pact forged by 
Steelworkers 

By James B. Parks 

T he Steelworkers hammered out a ten- 
tative contract with USX Corp. that 
protects workers if the company is sold. 

“We have real breakthroughs in the 
corporate protection area that the com- 
pany said we would never get,” said 
Andrew “Lefty” Palm, the USWA’s 
lead negotiator. 

In a major breakthrough, the union 
won guaranteed lifetime health and pen- 
sion benefits for senior workers — 
even if the plants they work in are sold. 

Final language for the tentative ac- 
cord will be addressed first by local 
presidents representing USX workers. 
The agreement then goes to the USWA 
executive board for approval before be- 
ing submitted to the membership for 
mail-ballot ratification. The process is 
expected to be completed next month, 
the union said. 

The contract covers 17,300 workers 
at USX facilities in Pennsylvania, Illi- 
nois, Indiana, Alabama and Minne- 
sota. 

The three-year pact meets, and in 
some areas exceeds, contracts reached 
with other major steel producers. 

The union, concerned that USX 
would restructure its U.S. Steel divi- 
sion, won language protecting workers 
and retirees in joint ventures, spinoffs 
and asset sales. 

USX directors announced, just hours 
before the old contract expired Jan. 3 1 , 
that they planned to issue new common 
stock for the steel division, a move that 
opened the way for USX to pull out of 
the steel business and concentrate on its 
more profitable energy operations. 

The contract gives the union the right 
to review any proposed buyout of the 
steel division and the right to make a 
competing offer, said Bernard Kleiman, 
the union’s chief legal counsel. 

Continued on Page 8 



Johann Rosenberger 

Nearly 2,000 unionists rally in front of Tribune Co. head- porate campaign, targeting other Tribune media pro- 
quarters in Chicago as the AFL-CIO expanded its cor- perties, in support of the Daily News strikers. 

Usery mediating Daily News dispute 










Johann Rosenberger 


Robert Healey, president of the Chicago AFL-CIO, addresses some 2,000 
trade unionists in front of the Tribune Co. headquarters. 


Unions expand 
News campaign 
to Tribune Co. 

Continued from Page 1 

refused to bargain on those issues. 

Hoge announced Jan. 16 that the 
paper would close or be sold unless the 
strike was settled. The unions and 
management had met separately with 
federal mediators without success. 

Meanwhile, the AFL-CIO has broad- 
ened its campaign in support of the Dai- 
ly News strikers. 

“We will undertake a series of cir- 
culation and advertiser-related activities 
at the national level similar to the ones 
we are using so successfully in New 
York,” said James J. Norton, president 
of the Graphic Communications Union, 
speaking for the AFL-CIO at a Chicago 
press conference. 

In New York, support for the strikers 
has led to a drop in the Daily News cir- 
culation from a pre-strike level of 1 . 1 
million to 300,000. More than 75 per- 
cent of New York outlets have refused 
to sell the paper, Norton said, and only 
20 of the newspaper’s original 750 
display advertisers remain. 

The Daily News lost $69.3 million in 
the last quarter of 1990, contributing to 
a 99-percent drop in the Tribune Co. ’s 
operating profit, company officials said 
earlier this month. The News lost 
$114.5 million in 1990, compared with 
a loss of only $2.2 million in 1989. 

Since the Tribune Co. properties 
reach millions of union homes, Norton 
said, “we intend to assure that these 
households and the public are aware of 
the Tribune Co.’s anti-union, anti- 
community and anti-worker campaign 
at the Daily News.” 

At the press conference, McDonald 
cited a Feb. 6 National Labor Relations 
Board complaint that the Daily News 
locked out workers Oct. 25 as a pretext 


to permanently replacing them. The 
complaint also said the strike was caus- 
ed and prolonged by management’s un- 
fair labor practices. 

“This shows that the Tribune Co. is 
an outlaw company as we have been 
saying all along,” McDonald said. 

“Management decided to break the 
law,” said Robert Healey, president of 
the Chicago AFL-CIO. “In every ob- 
jective forum where our case has been 
heard, it has been found guilty.” 

The unions involved in the strike 
stand ready to settle, McDonald said. 
“We don’t intend to be professional 
pickets,” he said. “These are our jobs; 
we want them back.” 

“We know how to reach a settlement. 
The company is not seeking a legitimate 
settlement or to bargain in this 
dispute,” Norton said. 

The expanded campaign is a response 
to what some union leaders called the 
Tribune Co.’s war against organized 
labor. “The Tribune has declared 
economic war,” Healey said. 

“Charlie Brumback and Stanton 
Cook (the Tribune Co. chairman) will 
get their checks and their golden 
parachutes. But they have declared war 
on labor . . . there are some innocent vic- 
tims. The difference is we care and they 


don’t,” said Charles Dale, president of 
the Newspaper Guild. 

The Daily News strike affects work- 
ers in every area, said George Poulin, 
vice president of the Machinists. “This 
fight is their fight. What happened in 
New York could happen to them.” 

The striking workers received a ma- 
jor boost when more than 2,000 march- 
ers circled the Tribune Co.’s Chicago 
headquarters and heard speaker after 
speaker decry the company’s refusal to 
negotiate. 

Rich Walsh, president of the Illinois 
AFL-CIO, said unionists across the 
country have drawn the line with the 
Tribune Co. and that line says “No 
More Scabs.” 

Author Studs Terkel agreed: “This 
is a line the Tribune never expected and 
the Tribune is going to hear our 
voices.” 

Striking driver Paddy McDonald told 
the crowd the Tribune Co. is “as un- 
American as you can get.” 

He struck a responsive chord when 
he said the company management, if it 
could, would change the famous quote 
on the Statue of Liberty to “Give me 
your tired, your poor, your huddled 
masses . . . and we will keep them that 
way.” 


Job agencies 
get warning 
on scab group 

S tate employment agencies in the 
Labor Department’s Atlanta region 
have been notified that Securex Co. 
should not use the federally funded job 
referral program to hire scabs for the 
New York Daily News. 

In response to a complaint by the 
AFL-CIO, officials found that the Ten- 
nessee Department of Employment Se- 
curity previously had made some 60 
referrals to Securex and that 22 were 
hired. 

Tennessee officials found all 22 were 
placed in jobs in the state and they had 
no evidence the referred workers were 
being used to break strikes, said Roberts 
T. Jones, U.S. assistant secretary of 
labor for employment and training, in 
a letter to Rudy Oswald, director of the 
AFL-CIO Department of Economic Re- 
search. 

The Atlanta regional office, which 
oversees the Tennessee agencies, has 
contacted all the states in the region to 
alert them to closely scrutinize any 
Securex job orders. 

If Securex places another order, 
Jones said, the Tennessee agency will 
“clearly explain to them that. . .in ac- 
cordance with federal regulations,” the 
department will not refer workers on 
“any order relative to their use as 
strike-breakers or in any capacity 
related to the New York Daily News or 
other strike situation.” 

Securex is a London, Ky., firm hired 
by the New York Daily News to pro- 
vide replacement drivers and security 
guards during the strike against the 
paper. The company recruited the scabs 
through newspaper ads from around 
military bases in the South where local 
economies were hard hit by the deploy- 
ment of troops to the Persian Gulf. 


Unionists to rally on anniversary of Greyhound strike 


By Candice Johnson 

T rade unionists will mark the one-year 
anniversary of the strike at 
Greyhound Lines Inc. at rallies in six 
cities on the first weekend in March. 

The rallies will be held in Atlanta, 
Milwaukee, Dallas, Denver, Syracuse, 
N.Y., and Portland, Ore., with union 
members pledging that “we will not 
forget” and demonstrating their 
solidarity with Amalgamated Transit 
Union strikers who want a fair settle- 
ment in the dispute. 

More than 9,000 ATU members set 
up picket lines at Greyhound depots and 
ticket offices on March 2, 1990, pro- 
testing the bus line’s demands for 


unlimited contracting out, benefit cuts 
for newly hired workers and a salary 
package that would cut drivers’ pay by 
as much as $7,000 a year. 

Since the strike began, members of 
AFL-CIO affiliates — mobilized 
through the federation’s Strategic Ap- 
proaches Committee — have walked 
picket lines, leafleted bus terminals, 
organized petition drives and urged 
passengers not to ride Greyhound. 

Unionists at the March events also 
will be stressing the need for legislation 
banning permanent replacement of 
strikers. 

Last May, after proposing to cut 
4,500 jobs and further slash wages, 


Greyhound ended many routes and 
schedules, seeking to operate remain- 
ing routes with scabs it hired. 
Numerous accidents caused by strike- 
breakers have occurred, including the 
tragic death of driver Robert Water- 
house, who was killed by a scab driv- 
ing out of the Redding, Calif., terminal. 

ATU members had offered an uncon- 
ditional return to work on May 22, but 
were told by company officials that 
fewer than 50 jobs were available. 

The bus line then filed for federal 
bankruptcy protection in June, saddled 
by enormous debt created by its 1987 
purchase by chairman Fred Currey, and 
the highly leveraged takeover of 


Trail ways Lines Inc. a year later. 

Unfair labor practice charges issued 
by the National Labor Relations Board 
general counsel were heard by an 
NLRB administrative law judge in 
Milwaukee last month, but a recom- 
mendation has not been issued. 

The general counsel’s complaint 
charged that Greyhound violated federal 
law in bargaining by declaring an im- 
passe and imposing its so-called final 
offer. The bus line also illegally fired 
ATU members, the complaint stated. 

The judge’s recommendation to the 
full board can be appealed through the 
federal appeals court, an action that 
could take several years to resolve. 


Director of Information: Rex Hardesty 

Editor: Michael Byrne 

News Editor: John R. Oravec 

Assistant Editors: Arlee C. Green, 

Candice Johnson, James B. Parks 

Staff Writers: Muriel H. Cooper, Mike Hall, 
Colleen M. O’Neill, Sharolyn A. Rosier 

Graphics /layout: Stan Hitt 

AFL-CIO Headquarters: 815 Sixteenth St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20006 
Telephone: (202) 637-5010 

Vol. 36, No. 4 MONDAY, FEBRUARY 18, 1991 





The AFL-CIO News (ISSN-001-1 185) is issued every two weeks at 815 Sixteenth St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 
The AFL-CIO does not accept paid advertising in any of its official publications. No one is authorized to solicit 
advertising for any publications in the name of the AFL-CIO. 


Official Publication 
of the 

American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations 

Lane Kirkland, president 
Thomas R. Donahue, secretary-treasurer 

EXECUTIVE COUNCIL 


Albert Shanker 
William H. Wynn 
Joyce D. Miller 
Richard I. Kilroy 
William H. By water 
John T. Joyce 
Robert A. Georgine 
Jay Mazur 
John J. Barry 
Susan Bianchi-Sand 
John N. Sturdivant 


Edward T. Hanley 
John DeConcini 
John J. Sweeney 
Vincent R. Sombrotto 
Marvin J. Boede 
Lynn R. Williams 
Milan Stone 
Lenore Miller 
Sigurd Lucassen 
Moe Biller 
Richard L. Trumka 


Angelo Fosco 
Wayne E. Glenn 
James E. Hatfield 
Gerald W. McEntee 
Owen Bieber 
Morton Bahr 
Gene Upshaw 
Jack Sheinkman 
William J. McCarthy 
George J. Kourpias 
Frank Hanley 





mmm 


Labor cites Mexico trade pact peril 



Bill Burke/Page One Photography 

AFL-CIO Secretary-Treasurer Thomas R. Donahue, flanked by federation 
economist Mark Anderson and Legislative Director Robert M. McGlotten, 
testifies on U.S. -Mexico free trade proposal. 



By Mike Hall 

A free trade agreement between the 
United States and Mexico would 
send tens of thousands of American jobs 
south of the border and exploit millions 
of Mexican workers already mired in 
poverty, AFL-CIO Secretary Treasurer 
Thomas R. Donahue told the Senate 
Finance Committee Feb. 6. 

The agreement would be “an 
economic and social disaster” for 
workers and communities on both sides 
of the border, he said. 

Calling the administration’s plans 
“ill-conceived and ill-advised,” 
Donahue urged the committee members 
to reject fast-track authority for a U.S. - 
Mexico Free Trade Agreement. 

Fast-track negotiations mean the ad- 
ministration can negotiate any deal 
whatsoever, draft the specific legisla- 
tion and Congress would be allowed 
only a simple yes or no vote, with no 
amendments. This process would deny 
Congress a chance to address issues of 
serious concern to American workers 
or correct any inequities in the trade 
deal. 

However, existing fast-track authori- 
ty runs out June 1 . The administration 
must ask for an extension by March 1 
and has indicated that it will. Then 
either house has until June 1 to disap- 
prove the extension. Without explicit 
disapproval by either house, the exten- 
sion will be automatically continued and 
the administration would have two 
years to complete the pact. 

“A free trade agreement would have 
serious and far-reaching consequences 
for the two countries and, in particular, 
for workers in both countries,” Dona- 
hue said. “Such an initiative requires 
full and open debate to identify its ef- 
fect on economic growth, wages, in- 
come distribution and quality of life in 
both countries. The administration, in 
seeking fast-track authority wishes to 
stifle that debate.” 

Sen. Donald Riegle (D-Mich.) 
agreed. “Manufacturing jobs are going 
to slide away,” he said, noting that 
average hourly wage in the United 
States is $10.57, compared to about 57 
cents in Mexico. 

Donahue testified that tens of 
thousands of American workers in com- 
panies such as Westinghouse, AT&T, 
Electrolux, Farah, GM, Ford and 
Chrysler already have seen their jobs 


A coalition of 60 labor, environmen- 
tal and religious groups is seeking 
to promote social responsibility among 
U.S. corporations operating so-called 
maquiladora plants in Mexico. 

The Coalition for Justice in the Ma- 
quiladoras, in news conferences held in 
Washington, New York and El Paso, 
Texas, charged the maquiladoras with 
worker exploitation, inadequate work- 
place health and safety and environmen- 
tal damage. 

The coalition has proposed a Ma- 
quiladora Standards of Conduct, which 
would establish ethical practices for 
corporations and, thus, end the chronic 
problems created by the maquiladora 
industry. 

“We want to send a message,” said 
Sister Susan Mika of the coalition. 


disappear across the border because of 
the lowered tariffs established by the so- 
called maquiladora program. 

“Beyond actual experience, common 
sense tells us that a free trade agreement 
with Mexico, a country where wages 
are less than one-tenth of those in the 
United States, is bound to impact 
severely on U.S. employment and in- 
come,” he said. 

“Why should firms invest in the 
United States if they can move a hun- 
dred yards across the Rio Grande River 
and dramatically reduce their labor 
costs?” Donahue asked. “At minimum, 
such an agreement would have a signifi- 
cant downward effect on U.S. wage 
levels, as domestic companies sought to 
cut costs in order to compete with 60 
cent-an-hour labor.” 

Maquiladora menace 

Those wages are even low by Mex- 
ican standards. Donahue noted that the 
maquiladora program on the U.S.- 
Mexico border has resulted in new pro- 
duction facilities but no improvement in 
quality of life for the workers who staff 
those plants. 

In Juarez, thousands “live with no 
running water, electricity or sewers. 
Workers in many plants are forced to 
live in dormitories, or in shacks made 
of packing materials from the factories. 
Their drinking water is contained in 
large 50-gallon drums that used to con- 
tain toxic materials. Schools, parks and 
hospitals remain unbuilt,” he said. 

Not only does Mexico offer a vast 


“Moral behavior knows no borders. 
What would be wrong in the United 
States is wrong in Mexico, too. We 
look forward to delivering these (stan- 
dards) to the corporate boardrooms of 
the Fortune 500 companies and asking 
shareholders to address these concerns 
at annual meetings.” 

The coalition also released prelim- 
inary studies showing that major U.S. 
corporations are responsible for 
widespread illegal dumping of toxic 
chemicals in sewers and waterways in 
Mexico. 

“An important goal of the coalition 
is to pressure U.S. legislators to incor- 
porate the standards of conduct in any 
trade negotiations with the Mexican 
government,” Sister Mika said. 

AFL-CIO Secretary-Treasurer 


pool of low-wage labor, its en- 
vironmental regulations and enforce- 
ment do not match tough U.S. stan- 
dards. The Wall Street Journal reported 
that the growth of the maquiladora pro- 
gram, “is helping turn much of the 
(Mexico/U.S.) border area into a sink 
hole of abysmal living conditions and 
environmental degradation.” 

Sen. John Breaux (D-La.) said many 
chemical companies in his state are in- 
vesting in new and costiy gear to com- 
ply with last year’s Clean Air Act. 

“If you’re an owner of a manufac- 
turing plant, why not build your plant 
in Mexico? The cost of locating that 
plant in Louisiana would be higher,” 
he said. 

Donahue compared a U.S. -Mexico 
free trade agreement with drawing a cir- 
cle around the city of Houston, and “in- 
side that circle U.S. minimum wage or 
child labor laws wouldn’t apply, oc- 
cupational health and safety regulations 
need not be observed, workers’ com- 
pensation and unemployment insurance 
need not be paid and environmental pro- 
tection laws could be ignored.” 

The administration has insisted that 
a trade pact would open a vast Mexican 
market of 85 million consumers for 
American products. 

‘ ‘Given die extreme poverty of Mex- 
ico, there are only about 10 million who 
are in the position to buy much of 
anything at all,” Donahue said. “The 
other 75 million are merely trying to 
survive, and provide themselves and 
their families with food and shelter.” 


Thomas R. Donahue, speaking at the 
press conference in Washington, said 
the federation has joined the coalition 
for two reasons: U.S. workers and 
Mexican workers. 

“These companies want to turn the 
terrible poverty of Mexico to their ad- 
vantage, and they like the fact that there 
is little restraint on their rapacity when 
they go south of the border,” Donahue 
said. 

John O’Conner of the National Tox- 
ics Campaign, who said his group will 
have final test results on maquiladora 
materials in 60 days, noted that 
preliminary data indicate “the highest 
level of toxic contamination that we 
have ever found. . . .They are turning 
the border into a two thousand mile- 
long Love Canal.” 




Capitol Digest 


T he deregulation of the airline in- 
dustry is a failure by any yardstick 
used to measure it, airline unions told 
the House Aviation Subcommittee. 

The Air Line Pilots, Machinists and 
Flight Attendants branded as absolutely 
false charges by the industry and 
Transportation Secretary William Skin- 
ner that labor costs were the key reason 
behind the industry’s economic 
troubles. 

ALPA President Randy Babbitt noted 
that pilots and other workers at many 
airlines had agreed to wage and other 
concessions, but that such worker 
sacrifices had not stopped the rush of 
mergers, acquisitions and bankruptcies 
in the industry. 

The unions warned the committee 
that foreign ownership of U.S. airlines 
and access to the American air market, 
proposed by the administration, would 
harm more than help the airlines. Most 
foreign carriers are either government- 
owned or subsidized, and “with deter- 
mination and deep pockets could even- 
tually replace U.S. carriers through a 
prolonged period of predatory pricing, ’ ’ 
said David Borer, AFA director of col- 
lective bargaining. 

Elsewhere on Capitol Hill: 
Permanent replacements — House 
and Senate support for anti- 
strikebreaker legislation has grown. As 
of Feb. 8, 191 House members and 27 
Senators have agreed to cosponsor the 
bills (H.R. 5 and S. 55), which would 
ban the use of permanent replacement 
workers during an economic strike. 
Hearings on the legislation are expected 
to get under way this spring (See Pages 
6 and 7). 

Timber — Legislation to ban timber 
harvesting on huge tracts of public land 
in the Pacific Northwest could cost as 
many as 110,000 jobs, said Carpenters 
President Sigurd Lucassen. The bill, 
H.R. 842, sponsored by Rep. Jim Jontz 
(D-Ind.), fails to consider the thousands 
of acres already set aside for the spot- 
ted owl and old growth forests, said 
Mike Draper of the union’s Western 
Council of Industrial Workers. He also 
cited the “chilling effect” it would have 
on area already in the middle of a full- 
blown recession. 

Committees — Rep. William D. 
Ford (D-Mich.) is the new chairman of 
the House Education and Labor Com- 
mittee. Ford has served in Congress 
since 1964 and previously served on the 
health and safety and labor/management 
subcommittees. Rep. Pat Williams (D- 
Mont.) takes over the labor/manage- 
ment subcommittee, which has jurisdic- 
tion over the anti-strikebreaker legisla- 
tion. Rep. Joe Gaydos (D-Pa.) remains 
chairman of the health and safety sub- 
committee, as does Rep. Austin Mur- 
phy (D-Pa.) at the labor standards sub- 
committee. In the Senate, Edward M. 
Kennedy (D-Mass.) remains chairman 
of the Senate Labor and Human Re- 
sources Committee and Sen. Howard 
Metzenbaum (D-Ohio) remains chair- 
man of the labor subcommittee. 


Coalition seeks Mr play by maquiladora firms 







Bush budget plan squeezes workers, families 


By Mike Hall 

P resident Bush’s proposed budget 
continues the federal fiscal trend of 
squeezing and eliminating programs for 
the nation’s health, housing and educa- 
tion needs, the AFL-CIO charged. 

The $1.45 trillion budget predicts a 
deficit of about $280 billion for the 
fiscal year, but does not take into ac- 
count the cost of the war in the Persian 
Gulf, the price tag of the savings and 
loan bailout or any anti-recession pro- 
grams that may be needed if the reces- 
sion lasts longer than administration 
projections. 

“There is no recognition of the suf- 
fering that the recession is imposing on 
workers and their families,” the AFL- 
CIO said in a statement on the budget 
proposal. 

The Bush budget received a luke- 
warm reception on Capitol Hill. But 
few experts predict this budget debate 
will be as rancorous and drawn out as 
last year’s. The budget deficit agree- 
ment from last fall changed the rules on 
the budget process, setting spending 
caps for domestic, defense and foreign 
spending without allowing a shift in 
spending from one category to another. 

Most of the budget battle will focus 
on spending priorities, the large cuts in 
certain social and economic programs 
and the possibility of another fight over 
a capital gains tax cut. 

Rep. Leon Panetta (D-Calif.), chair- 


man of the House Budget Committee, 
predicted “a big debate between 
Democrats and Republicans over what 
those priorities should be. The ad- 
ministration has emphasized the wrong 
priorities. They basically repeat a list 
of the same things that go back to 
Reagan.” 

The president’s budget proposes to 
eliminate some 238 federal programs 
and reduce funding for another 109 pro- 
grams. In addition, many education and 
child care programs would be allocated 
funds which do not, or just barely, keep 
pace with inflation. 

For example the budget adds an ex- 
tra $100 million for Head Start, but $86 
million of that is needed to keep pace 
with inflation. While the administration 
bragged about its $6.2 billion request 
for remedial education programs, that 
figure actually falls some $68 million 
short of matching inflation. 

No extended UI benefits 

The AFL-CIO noted as well that the 
budget proposal makes no provision for 
extended unemployment insurance for 
people who have exhausted their 
benefits. 

“These workers and their families 
need extended UI benefits to help them 
through the personal crisis of long-term 
unemployment,” said William J. 
Cunningham, an AFL-CIO legislative 
representative, in testimony before the 


House Human Resources Subcommittee. 

Some 2.3 million unemployed 
workers exhausted their unemployment 
benefits (26 weeks) in 1990, almost one 
third of the workers who were forced 
to take advantage of the program, 
Cunningham noted. 

He said the current formula, which 
can trigger an extra 13-weeks of 
benefits, is “very slow and inadequate 
triggering on during a recession and ex- 
cessively fast” in shutting off during the 
recovery from a recession. 

The president’s proposed budget also 
calls for a $25 billion cut in Medicare 
over five years. The program, which 
serves some 35 million elderly and 
disabled Americans, was targeted for 
some $60 billion in cuts during last 
year’s budget debate. But the final 
agreement lowered the cuts by about 
$17 billion. 

The AFL-CIO criticized the proposed 
cuts of Medicare reimbursements to 
health care providers and hospitals, 
noting that current funding covers on- 
ly 45 percent of seniors total health care 
expenses. 

“These cuts inevitably would be 
passed on to the nation’s elderly and 
other health consumers,” the federation 
said. 

Among other problems for workers 
and unions, the proposed budget would: 

• Extend the Medicare payroll tax 
to several million state and government 


employees, even though Congress has 
rejected that proposal several times. 

• Cut the capital gains tax rate, 
which would mostly benefit people 
making more than $200,000 per year. 

• Eliminate federal funding for any 
new public housing construction. 

• Eliminate Trade Adjustment 
Assistance, which provides benefits for 
workers who lose their jobs due to un- 
fair foreign competition. 

• Eliminate the non-profit postal 
subsidy. 

• Reduce and restrict the operating 
assistance for mass transit. 

New rules limit options 

While Democrats and Republicans 
will fight over budget priorities, they do 
agree on one thing: last year’s deficit 
reduction agreement allows less room 
to maneuver. 

Any new programs, and increases in 
existing ones, are now on a “pay-as- 
you-go” basis, which means either new 
revenue must be found or the money 
must be taken from another program in 
the same category. During the budget 
debate, for example, Congress cannot 
shift defense money to domestic 
programs. 

“So there isn’t an awful lot of room 
for doing anything dramatic,” Panetta 
said, “You can shift a few chairs 
around and that’s probably what you’ll 
see on the domestic side.” 


States, cities 
target workers 
for budget cuts 



New York state employees march outside the Capitol to protest a proposed 


By Sharolyn Rosier 

P ublic employees, preparing to nego- 
tiate new contracts this spring and 
summer, are facing budget-pinching 
government proposals that include 
furloughs, wage freezes, layoffs and 
reduced pay. 

Union workers seeking new collec- 
tive bargaining agreements in New 
York, for example, have been greeted 
by the largest proposed spending cuts 
in the state’s history. Democratic Gov. 
Mario Cuomo ’s proposal includes 
layoffs of up to 18,000 state employees 
by the year 1992 and unpaid furloughs 
for five days during 1991. 

New York union workers aimed 
angry barbs at Cuomo Feb. 5 in an 
Albany rally to seek help from the state 
legislature to soften the blow. 

Joe McDermott, president of the 
Civil Service Employee Associa- 
tion/ AFSCME, said the rally is just the 
first step in a unified union effort to pre- 
vent layoffs. 

During the opening of the legis- 
lature’s joint budget hearings Feb. 11, 
Rand Condell, president of the 
60,000-member Public Employees 
Federation/ AFSCME, said workers are 
unfairly bearing the burden of a 
statewide financial mess. 

State and city officials blame the 
federal government for their fiscal 
chaos. They point out that revenue pro- 
vided by the federal government for 
cities, for example, has decreased from 
17.7 percent of city budgets in 1980 to 
6.4 percent in 1990. The National Con- 
ference of Mayors found that 34 of 50 
major cities it surveyed have reduced 
staff over the past decade. 

In an effort to prevent layoffs for 
3,500 New York City aides and teach- 
ers, the United Federation of 
Teachers/ AFT approved a plan to loan 
the city $40 million from their own 
paychecks. The funds would be paid 


back during the years of 1995 and 1996, 
said Paul Berczeller, a UFT spokes- 
person. 

The UFT is the first group of city 
workers to accept a wage deferral since 
the fiscal crisis of the late 1970s. 

Mayor David Dinkins said talks with 
unions representing other city workers 
will continue but cautioned, “I can’t 
promise that there won’t be layoffs of 
other city workers.” 

Dinkins added that Cuomo ’s pro- 
posals “would cripple our ability to 
provide even the most basic of serv- 
ices.” 

The state, which faces a $6 billion 
deficit for the next fiscal year, is deny- 
ing New York City about $400 million 
in state aid. 

Facing similar problems, Michigan’s 
newly elected governor, Republican 
John Engler, has proposed sweeping 
changes, including the elimination of 
7,000 jobs, as well as across-the-board 
cuts to most programs. 

More than 1,500 state workers and 
advocates for the homeless, arts, single 
parents, low-income families and men- 
tal health patients gathered in the Lan- 
sing Civic Center Jan. 30 to protest 
Engler ’s proposal. 


Frank Garrison, president of the 
Michigan AFL-CIO, said Engler wants 
to tamper with the basic conceptions of 
what government is supposed to do, and 
accused the administration of inflating 
the budget crisis to serve its political 
ends. 

In Pennsylvania, Gov. Robert Casey 
(D) shelved a plan to defer one week’s 
worth of salary for union-protected 
employees because it would violate the 
collective bargaining agreements. 

However, Casey has notified 650 
management employees that their jobs 
are being terminated. In addition, about 
10,303 state management employees 
must take a 10 percent cut out of their 
paychecks for a period of 10 weeks. 

Democratic Gov. Bruce Sundlun of 
Rhode Island plans to furlough state 
workers one day every two-week pay 
period. The furlough plan will run 
March through June 30, slashing 
workers’ overall earnings. 

“Unions can do little to stop the state 
from starting the furlough program but 
can file grievances once it begins,” said 
George Nee, executive director of the 
Rhode Island AFL-CIO. He added the 
furlough plan in Rhode Island is com- 
plex because it affects about 20 unions. 


Sherry Holbrook 

cut of 18,000 jobs. 

Sundlun has yet to conclude meetings 
with union leaders on another compo- 
nent of the plan which calls for laying 
off about 600 government workers. 

Rhode Island’s neighboring state, 
Massachusetts, is facing similar prob- 
lems. Departing from one part of his 
campaign platform, Republican Gov. 
William Weld said he will furlough 
state employees for 10 days and 
eliminate 6,000 jobs. 

California and Florida state employ- 
ees are covered by contracts expiring 
or reopening on June 30. However, 
unions will be dealing with new state 
administrations in both states. 

California’s Gov. Pete Wilson (R) 
has not proposed layoffs but he has 
stated that there will be wage freezes. 

On the other hand, Gov. Lawton 
Chiles (D) of Florida has proposed the 
elimination of some 6,000 jobs. 

AFSCME Vice President Blonde Jor- 
dan said the union will have the oppor- 
tunity to review and comment on all 
proposed eliminations before the gover- 
nor signs off on them. The union’s con- 
cern, however, also extends to the use 
of temporary employees and consul- 
tants, as well as the increase in manage- 
ment positions over the years, she said. 


-r 




Unions assail asbestos regulation 

New proposal still leaves workers unprotected , labor says 


By Arlee C. Green 

T housands of workers have been dealt 
death sentences from little-regulated 
on-the-job exposures to asbestos over 
the past two decades, and the latest pro- 
posal by the Occupational Safety and 
Health Administration still would put 
workers at risk, unions charged. 

The AFL-CIO and a dozen affiliates 
told an OSHA hearing panel of their 
deep concern that the agency’s proposal 
again focuses on permissible exposures 
levels (PEL) and action levels to trig- 
ger protections for workers exposed to 
a substance that is deadly at all 
concentrations. 

This focus, unions said, does not pro- 
tect workers from asbestosis, lung 
cancer and mesothelioma. 

Peg Seminario, director of the AFL- 
CIO Department of Health and Safety, 
recalled that OSHA has acted only in 
response to a petition or a court order 
in past attempts to regulate asbestos 
exposures. The latest change was in 
1986, when OSHA set a limit of 

200,000 fibers of asbestos per cubic 
meter of air, despite evidence showing 
a lower limit was feasible for the ma- 
jority of workers. 

AFL-CIO Building and Construction 
Trades Department Safety Director 
James Lapping pointed out the BCTD’s 
challenge to the 1986 revision resulted 
in a federal court order that OSHA con- 
sider setting a stronger standard. 

Since that ruling in 1988, Lapping 
said, “OSHA’s institutional foot- 
dragging” has cost workers’ lives. 
Those officials “who have caused these 
delays . . . are responsible for the 
premature deaths, the cancers and the 
other agonizing diseases and the func- 
tional impairments which predictably 
will occur,” he said. 

Dr. Philip Landrigan of the Mount 
Sinai School of Medicine predicted that, 
by the year 2000, some 300,000 to 

500,000 premature deaths will result 
from on-the-job exposures to asbestos 
prior to 1980. 

Jack Keane, vice president of the 
30,000-member Asbestos Workers, 
said that more than half his union’s 
members “have died from, or are dy- 
ing of, cancer from asbestos exposure. ” 
Charging that construction workers 
are dying from asbestos exposure in far 


By Arlee C. Green 

T he AFL-CIO criticized the Occupa- 
tional Safety and Health Administra- 
tion ’s proposed rule revision for buta- 
diene, testifying that the agency is 
merely attempting to codify existing 
worker exposure levels to the car- 
cinogen under current industry practice. 

OSHA is seeking to reduce permissi- 
ble exposures to 2 parts of butadiene per 
million parts of air (ppm) over a time- 
weighted average 8-hour workday 
(TWA) and to set the short-term ex- 
posure limit (STEL) at 10 ppm. The 
current permissible exposure limit 
(PEL) is 1 ,000 ppm, far in excess of the 
exposure levels being measured by 
industry. 

“The AFL-CIO believes industry can 
go beyond the 2 ppm TWA and the 10 
ppm STEL and control butadiene ex- 
posures to lower levels,” said Diane 
Factor, a federation industrial hygienist 
in testimony before an OSHA hearing 
panel. 

To do this, however, OSHA “must 
conduct an analysis that attempts to 
show feasibility below 2 ppm and not 
stop at the industry acceptable levels,” 
she said. 


greater numbers than the general popu- 
lation, Keane said, “This evidence 
gives OSHA no choice but to regulate 
asbestos as the dangerous, lethal sub- 
stance that it is, and to recognize that 
there is no acceptable level of exposure 
to asbestos.” 

To strengthen the standard, Semi- 
nario said, it is imperative that OSHA 
require all buildings be inspected for 
asbestos “if we are to stem the tide of 
the asbestos disease epidemic from 
overtaking yet another generation of 
asbestos-exposed workers.” The pres- 
ence of asbestos in a building must be 
documented by inspection and the in- 
formation conveyed to workers. 

AFSCME President Gerald W. 
McEntee underscored the importance of 
requiring building inspections and 


“This evidence gives 
OSHA no choice but to 
regulate asbestos as the 
dangerous, lethal sub- 
stance that it is, and to 
recognize that there is no 
acceptable level of ex- 
posure to asbestos. ” 

—Jack Keane, vice president 
Asbestos Workers 


worker notification, calling its omission 
from OSHA’s proposal “a fatal flaw.” 
Currently workers don’t know when 
they are being exposed to asbestos, he 
said. “They are living — and dying — 
in ignorance.” 

Service Employees Safety Director 
Bill Borwegen cited an Environmental 
Protection Agency estimate that at least 

730,000 public and commercial build- 
ings nationwide contain friable 
asbestos, which can flake off and 
become airborne. 

“There is no legitimate reason how 
we, as a society, can continue to justify 
not giving workers the right to know 
about the presence of the most deadly 
of occupational carcinogens,” Bor- 
wegen said. 

Worker protections, Borwegen said, 


Butadiene, a gas commonly used in 
making synthetic rubber, is not only a 
carcinogen, but a developmental toxin 
and a possible reproductive hazard, ac- 
cording to the National Institute for Oc- 
cupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). 

“It appears OSHA is simply attemp- 
ting to codify what are in fact existing 
exposure levels of 2 ppm, and give in- 
dustry a regulation they can live with, 
without requiring them to lower ex- 
posures to safer levels,” Factor said. 

She pointed out that the Clean Air Act 
of 1990 covers butadiene and will re- 
quire industry to reduce its toxic emis- 
sions through the installation and use of 
best available control technology. 

OSHA is required to set standards 
that are “technology forcing,” en- 
couraging engineering to cut toxic ex- 
posures to the lowest possible level, 
Factor said. Yet, in its proposed revi- 
sion, OSHA says current data indicate 
it is infeasible for employers to achieve 
compliance at 1 ppm “since available 
technology that is already in place could 
not achieve the PEL of 1 ppm.” 
Factor underscored NIOSH’s 
criticism of a feasibility analysis the 
JACA Corp. performed for OSHA, 


must be based on “work tasks that 
disturb asbestos, not on an arbitrary 
permissible exposure limit that OSHA 
admits is not sufficiently protective of 
workers.” 

Seminario said that while the AFL- 
CIO supports the proposal to cut the 
PEL to 100,000 fibers, it believes con- 
trol measures for asbestos should be 
triggered by the asbestos work itself and 
not a PEL or action level. 

She said OSHA has taken a step in 
that direction through establishment of 
regulated areas for all removal, demoli- 
tion, maintenance and renovation work 
under the construction standard, and re- 
quirement for negative pressure 
enclosures except for small-scale, short- 
duration jobs. 

But the agency should go further and 
require control measures such as 
respirators, housekeeping, showers and 
environmental monitoring whenever 
this kind of asbestos work is done, she 
said. 

Dr. Franklin Mirer, the UAW’s 
director of safety and health, said the 
greatest danger, in terms of his 
members, is presented by “so-called in- 
cidental contact” with insulation con- 
taining asbestos during maintenance and 
repair activities. He charged that the 
proposed revision does not deal with 
this problem in an “efficient or effec- 
tive manner and must be revised.” 

Most union representatives called for 
stronger training requirements for 
workers involved in building main- 
tenance, repair or construction. 

Among those testifying were Lynn 
MacDonald, special assistant to the 
president of the Sheet Metal Workers; 
Frank Burkhardt, the Painters’ director 
of safety and health; Scott Schneider of 
the Occupational Health Foundation; 
Joe A. Adam, chair of the BCTD safety 
and health committee and safety direc- 
tor for the Plumbers and Pipe Fitters; 
John Bamhard, the Roofers’ safety and 
health director; A. Bennett Hill Jr., 
Operating Engineers safety and health 
director; Edward Gorman, executive 
director of Carpenters National Safety 
and Health Fund; Bill Bergfeld of the 
Laborers’-AGC Training Trust in Pom- 
fret, Conn. , and Jim Frederick of the 
SMW National Trust Fund training pro- 
gram. 


calling the analysis “seriously flawed.” 
By relying on the analysis, she said, 
OSHA has “systematically underesti- 
mated available (engineering) controls 
and overestimated exposure level vari- 
ation and the control technologies 
already being implemented by in- 
dustry.” 

At the proposed exposure limit of 2 
ppm, Factor said, OSHA estimates the 
risk of cancer is 5 per 1 ,000 employees 
for 45 years’ exposure. Although the 
risk is lower for 1 ppm, it is still above 
the acceptable risk level of 1 per 1 ,000 
workers. 

The AFL-CIO, the Building and Con- 
struction Trades Department, Rubber 
Workers, Chemical Workers and the 
Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers had 
petitioned OSHA for an emergency 
standard in January 1984. OSHA 
denied the petition in March 1984. 

Less than a year later, it was reported 
that a two-year study of the toxic effects 
of butadiene on mice had to be canceled 
because three-fourths of the exposed 
mice had died of tumors only one year 
into the study. The mice were exposed 
at 625 ppm — well below the current 
exposure limit of 1,000 ppm. 



Lynn M. Martin 


Lynn Martin 
is confirmed 
for Labor post 

L ynn M. Martin, a George Bush 
loyalist who served in the House for 
10 years, was unanimously confirmed 
by the Senate as secretary of labor. 

The Republican from Illinois is ex- 
pected to be sworn in Feb. 22 to suc- 
ceed Elizabeth Dole, who resigned last 
fall to head the American Red Cross. 

“We look forward to working with 
the new secretary of labor,” the AFL- 
CIO said. Martin is expected to meet 
with the Executive Council during its 
meeting in Bal Harbour, Fla., Feb. 
18-22. 

During her decade on Capitol Hill, 
Martin compiled a COPE voting record 
on key worker issues of 29 percent 
“right” — 43 for and 109 against. 

Although voicing concern about Mar- 
tin’s voting record while representing 
her congressional district, the AFL-CIO 
did not oppose her confirmation. 

Bush nominated Martin, who is 51, 
after she was decisively defeated in the 
November election in an attempt to 
unseat Illinois incumbent Democratic 
Sen. Paul Simon. 

Rail lines agree 
on union plan to 
extend deadline 

A fter a week of discussions, the na- 
tion’s major rail carriers finally 
agreed to a union proposal to extend the 
current cooling off period for 60 days 
beyond the Feb. 15 deadline. 

The agreement would avoid the threat 
of a shutdown of the railroads during 
“this critical stage of the Persian Gulf 
crisis,” said Richard I. Kilroy, chair- 
man of the Cooperating Railway Labor 
Organizations. 

“Rail labor is hopeful that good faith 
bargaining will take place during the 
60-day extension. The choice is up to 
the railroads,” Kilroy said. 

The rail coalition will reassess its 
position as the April 17 deadline ap- 
proaches, based on the circumstances 
that exist at that time, he said. 

Under the Railway Labor Act, self 
help can include a strike by the unions 
or imposition of new wages and work 
rules by the carriers. 

The rail unions, which represent 
235,000 workers, include TCU and its 
Carmen division, Train Dispatchers, 
Locomotive Engineers, Maintenance of 
Way Employees, Railroad Signalmen, 
Boilermakers, Electrical Workers, 
Firemen and Oilers, Sheet Metal 
Workers, and the United Transportation 
Union. 


Butadiene proposal seen appeasing industry 





Labor gears up for 
campaign to ban 
permanent replacement of 
strikers and to restore 
balance to the collective 
bargaining process. 


“The notion that 
somehow you can 
recognize a fundamental 
difference between the 
decision by an employer 
to fire a striker and the 
decision by an employer 
to permanently replace ’ 
a striker just defies logic. 
It's pure double-talk to 
say that although a 
worker can't be 
discharged for striking, 
the worker can be 
permanently replaced 
This distinction may have 
some meaning to lawyers, 
but all the ordinary 
worker knows is that he 
or she is not going back 
to work with the struck 
employer in the 
foreseeable future 

— Thomas R. Donahue 
AFL-CIO Secretary-Treasurer 


By Muriel H. Cooper 

A 1 Price said he could see it coming. Land was being 
cleared. Barbed wire fences were installed. Windows 
were boarded up. And contract negotiations between 
Steelworkers Local 5668 and Ravenswood Aluminum 
Corp. (RAC) were going nowhere. 

‘ ‘I knew when I saw the guards what was happening, ’ ’ 
recalls Price. “But what can you do? There were 15 
tractor-trailers filled with replacement workers and the 
midnight shift was being told to leave . . . there was no 
work for them.” 

Price, a 21-year veteran with the Ravenswood, W.Va., 
aluminum company, described the Nov. 1, 1990, lockout 
as an insult. The union had tried to negotiate, even offer- 
ing to extend the deadline and continue working under 
the old contract, but management pulled all of the pro- 
posals off the table and left. 

Price was one of 1 ,700 Steelworkers locked out by RAC 
that day, and one of a growing number of union members 
who have been “permanently” replaced by management 
fiat. In many cases, as with Ravenswood and the conflicts 
at Greyhound and the New York Daily News, manage- 
ment plotted bargaining strategies around permanent 
replacement workers. 

Tilting the table 

This new management strategy tilts the bargaining table 
heavily in management’s favor, according to Price. “You 
can’t negotiate if the company can hire permanent replace- 
ments,” he said. 

The issue of fairness in collective bargaining underlies 
the AFL-CIO campaign to enact legislation to ban the use 
of permanent replacement workers in economic strikes. 
Such legislation has been introduced in the House and 
Senate, and the federation has placed passage of these bills 
high on its legislative agenda. 

Pushing the legislative effort will be a three-member 
steering committee appointed by AFL-CIO President Lane 
Kirkland: Secretary-Treasurer Thomas R. Donahue, who 
will chair the committee, Industrial Union Department 
President Howard Samuel and Legislative Director Robert 
M. McGlotten. Samuel and the IUD did much of the 
spadework in the 101st Congress, when earlier bills were 
introduced. 

Grassroots union campaign 

The steering committee will involve various depart- 
ments in a grassroots campaign and a vigorous lobbying 
effort. Activities will include informational mailings to 
labor organizations, union members and allied community 
groups in selected congressional districts where support 
for the legislation is most needed. 

Union members will be encouraged, through mailings 







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A hired gun from Vance Security photographs pickets a 


and participation with Legislative Action Committees, to 
press their congressional representatives to support the 
banning of permanent replacement of strikers. 

Support already is building in the House, where Rep. 
William Clay (D-Mo.) has introduced legislation co- 
sponsored by 191 representatives. “The practice of using 
permanent replacement workers must end now and^ 
forever,” Clay declared. 

Clay’s bill, H.R. 5, would amend the Railway Labor 
Act and the National Labor Relations Act to prohibit the^ 
hiring of permanent replacements during economic strikes 
and bar discrimination against striking workers once the 
labor dispute has ended. It also would make it illegal to 
offer preferential benefits to strikers who cross picket 
lines. 

The Senate bill, S. 55, was introduced by Sen. Howard 
M. Metzenbaum (D-Ohio). Hearings should begin in early 
spring, with the House bill likely to be taken up first. 

The call for change to restore the balance in collective 
bargaining already has borne fruit in some state legis- 
latures and local assemblies. The California legislature 
passed a bill calling for Congress to amend the NLRA 
and immediately reinstate all workers discharged for par- 
ticipating in union activities. The Boston City Council also 
has enacted an ordinance to ban permanent replacement 
workers if the public safety is threatened. 

St. Louis Mayor Vincent C. Schoemehl has signed a 
city law to require employers seeking to replace striking 
workers to advertise that fact and to have replacement 
workers sign affidavits attesting to knowledge of that? 




fs at Ravenswood Aluminum Corp., where 1,700 Steelworkers were locked out and "permanently" replaced. 


Labor's case for 
H.R. 5 and S. 55 

H.R. 5 and S. 55, now pending in Congress, 
would prohibit the use of “permanent replace- 
ment” workers in a labor dispute and would 
bar employers from offering preferential 
benefits to strikebreakers who cross the picket 
line to return to work. 

In the past 10 years, employers increasingly 
have sought to evade their collective bargaining 
obligations by exploiting a loophole in our na- 
tion’s labor laws that permits employer 
discrimination against strikers. 

Under the judicial Mackay doctrine, while it 
is unlawful for employers to discharge 
employees for engaging in a lawful economic 
strike, it is lawful for the employer to “per- 
manently replace” these employees. 

Because the distinction between “discharge” 
and “permanent replacement” is meaningless 
from the standpoint of the strikers who have 
lost their jobs, the Mackay doctrine makes a 
mockery of the law’s promise to workers that 
they have a right to engage in a lawful 
economic strike free from employer retaliation. 

Nonetheless, in the recent decision of TWA 
vs. Independent Federation of Flight Attendants, 
the Supreme Court further eroded workers’ 
rights by ruling that employers can offer 
preferential treatment to “junior” strikers who 
cross the picket line and return to work. 

Under current conditions, the Mackay doc- 
trine threatens the institution of collective 
bargaining itself. In recent years, employers 
such as Eastern and Continental Airlines, 
Greyhound and the New York Daily News have 
come to see collective bargaining not as a 
means of negotiating current wages and working 
conditions, but as a means of ridding 
themselves of their unionized workforces 
through the recruitment of a new workforce of 
‘ ‘permanent ’ ’ replacements . 

Congress never intended that our labor laws 
would give employers the ability to undermine 
our system of collective bargaining. 


status. The city rejected a stronger ordinance that would 
have banned replacement workers when additional police 
force was needed. 

Meanwhile, labor groups are lobbying state legislatures 
in Pennsylvania, Indiana, Oregon, Montana, Alabama and 
Minnesota for bills aimed at the practice of permanent 
replacements. 

^Federal law prohibits the firing of strikers, but permits 
“permanently replacing” them, under a 1938 Supreme 
Cpurt ruling in Mackay Radio and Telegraph vs. the Na- 
tional Labor Relations Board. But employers seldom used 
the ruling until the 1980s. 

In testimony before congressional committees last year, 
Donahue questioned the anomaly in the law that allows 
“permanent” replacement workers while banning the fir- 
ing of strikers. 

Fired or replaced 

“The notion that somehow you can recognize a fund- 
amental difference between the decision by an employer 
to fire a striker and the decision by an employer to ‘per- 
manently replace’ a striker just defies logic,” Donahue 
said. “It’s pure double-talk to say that although a worker 
can’t be discharged for striking, the worker can be ‘per- 
manently replaced.’ 

“This distinction may have some meaning to lawyers, 
but all the ordinary worker knows is that he or she is not 
going back to work with the struck employer in the 
foreseeable future,” Donahue said. 

J*ox the workers at Ravenswood, being replaced is the 


ultimate indignity. “I’m not planning on sitting by and 
let someone come by and take my job, ’ ’ Price said. ‘ ‘We 
have put our lives into that plant.” 

For his stand, Price is paying a heavy price. Since be- 
ing locked out, he has no health insurance and is now fac- 
ing at least $10,000 in medical expenses for his wife’s 
illness. 

“She has been in the hospital for 10 days and it’s costing 
almost $1,000 a day,” he said. “I’m 48 years old. My 
daughter has one year in college and we thought we could 
sit back. I will be paying this debt the rest of my life.” 

The National Labor Relations Board has issued a for- 
mal complaint against the company for using strikebreaker 
security forces (Vance Security, notorious for its activity 
during the Mine Workers’ strike against Pittston) to in- 
terfere with picketing activity, and the Steelworkers have 
sought to expand those charges because of RAC’s con- 
tinued refusal to bargain in good faith. 

Adding salt to its labor wound, RAC recently an- 
nounced a scholarship program for the children or grand- 
children of replacement workers. Longtime workers such 
as Price would not be eligible. 

Steelworkers President Lynn Williams, Local 5668 
President Dan Stidham and other union officials met with 
members of Congress Feb. 7 to discuss the situation at 
Ravenswood and to urge passage of striker replacement 
legislation. 

Such legislation, the labor leaders said, would take away 
the bludgeon that management increasingly is holding over 
the heads of its workers. The management tactic, used 


at Ravenswood, Greyhound, the Daily News and other 
worksites, seriously affects workers’ right to strike and 
distorts the collective bargaining process. 

The strike at the New York Daily News started Oct. 
25, 1990, long after the March 31 contract expiration, 
as 2,300 members of nine unions sought to foil manage- 
ment’s attempt to force a strike. They were aware of the 
company’s $24 million strike preparation plan, which in- 
cluded an alternative printing facility, ringed with security 
guards, and recruitment of “permanent replacements,” 
who were waiting in the wings. 

Old Tribune tactics 

The Daily News workers also had the advantage of 
watching what the newspaper’s parent company, the 
Tribune Co., had done in 1985 at the Chicago Tribune 
when it also sought to break its unions. The company still 
faces possible back-pay liabilities for unfair labor prac- 
tice charges in that dispute. 

The NLRB also has issued a complaint of unfair labor 
practices against the Daily News, charging the company 
illegally locked out its workers during a printing plant in- 
cident that precipitated a walkout and then, within hours, 
bused in replacement workers. 

If employers believe the permanent replacement tactic 
will weaken workers’ resolve for unions, they are dead 
wrong, Price said. “This lockout has brought people 
closer together. The union has been assisting us on house 
notes, car notes and anything we need. This outfit is not 
going to break our union,” he said. 



USX pact includes lifetime pension, health guarantees 


Continued from Page 1 

“It’s the only labor agreement I’ve 
ever heard of that has this kind of right, 
and it’s obviously something that we’re 
going to be moving forward with on a 
pattern basis” with other major steel 
companies, Kleiman said. 

The contract also strengthens existing 
language covering successor owner- 
ship. “A buyer has to either accept our 
agreement or negotiate with us about 
another agreement,” Kleiman said. 

Other highlights of the contract in- 
clude immediate restoration of past 
wage sacrifices, which average about 
$1 an hour, along with an immediate 
raise of 50 cents an hour — plus 

N.J. health 
reform plan 
advances 

L egislation to revamp the way New 
Jersey pays for indigent health care 
is slowly making its way through the 
state’s general assembly. 

The state AFL-CIO supports many of 
the reforms in the bill, including a pro- 
posal for an 1 1 percent payroll tax per 
worker to fund indigent care, said New 
Jersey AFL-CIO President Charles 
Marciante. 

An omnibus measure incorporating 
many reforms had passed through the 
Health and Human Services, Labor and 
Insurance committees as of Feb. 11 and 
was on its way to the Appropriations 
Committee, Marciante said. 

Marciante co-chaired the Governor’s 
Health Care Reform Commission that 
last fall released a series of recommen- 
dations for changing the way New 
Jersey funds health care. Chief among 
these recommendations was to abolish 
the Uncompensated Care Trust Fund 
and replace it with the payroll tax. 

Although the Senate passed a 
measure in December to extend the 
UCTF three months after the Dec. 31, 
1990, expiration date, it died after the 
assembly failed to consider it. 

Marciante said the state federation 
supports the payroll tax instead of the 
trust fund. In 1990, the UCTF added 
a 19 percent surtax to the bills of those 
patients covered by insurance, with the 
resulting funds going to pay for the care 
of those uninsured and underinsured. 

That surtax was scheduled to rise to 
24.8 percent in 1991. 

The New Jersey AFL-CIO, along 
with Blue Cross/Blue Shield of New 
Jersey and four unions, filed suit Nov. 
20 to eliminate the trust fund. 

That suit was put on hold in late 
December. It may be reinstituted pend- 
ing legislation. 

In the meantime, the absence of any 
funding mechanism means that any bills 
for care incurred after Dec. 31, 1990, 
have not been paid, Marciante said. 
They will not be paid until there is a 
plan in place, he said. 


S ix UAW locals reached a settlement 
that ended an 1 1 -month-old strike by 
more than 700 workers against 
Teledyne Industries’ plants in five 
cities, the National Labor Relations 
Board announced. 

The accord requires Teledyne to 
resume bargaining with the local 
unions, fire all the replacement workers 
it had hired and recall UAW members 
as jobs become available. The settle- 
ment also resolved all pending unfair 


another $1 an hour over the next two 
years. The base rate now is about $11 
an hour before incentive pay. 

The contract also includes a $750 
bonus if it is ratified and a $2,500 cost- 
of-living bonus spread over three years. 
The members have the option of ac- 
cepting the COLA bonus in the new 
steel division stock. 

The union won a profit-sharing plan 
and a guaranteed $l,500-per-month 
minimum pension payment for 30-and- 
out pensions. Other retirement benefits 
include increases in pension payments 
to present retirees and surviving 
spouses. 

USX agreed to join other companies 


T he Broadcast Employees and Techni- 
cians ratified a new master contract 
for 12 units at the National Broadcasting 
Co. that provides 2,300 workers with 
a retroactive pay increase and a buy-out 
provision. 

The agreement, which runs through 
March 31, 1994, replaces a three-year 
accord that expired last March 31. In 
1987, NABET struck the network, 
which is owned by General Electric 
Co., for 17 weeks. 

The new contract raises wages retro- 
actively to Jan. 5, 1991, by 3 percent. 
Future increases will be 3 percent next 
Aug. 14 and 4 percent on Aug. 19, 
1993, with a 5 -percent lump-sum bonus 
on Aug. 15, 1992, based on the prior 
year’s wages. 

Under the master agreement, NBC 
agreed to offer workers buyouts before 
it lays off any regular employees. If in- 
sufficient numbers of members accept 
buyouts, then NBC may only lay off up 
to 4 percent of the NABET members 
at each location — New York, 


labor practice charges filed by each 
side, the NLRB said. 

The UAW locals’ contracts with 
Teledyne expired June 24, 1989. After 
months of bargaining, Teledyne con- 
tinued to insist on harsh cutbacks and 
announced it would unilaterally cut 
health benefits for the nearly 4,400 
retirees. 

On Feb. 15, 1990, the workers struck 
at plants in Milwaukee, Mobile, Ala., 
Toledo, Ohio, Neosha, Mo., and Mus- 


in subsidizing USWA’s career develop- 
ment program, which trains and retrains 
Steelworkers. The company also will 
pay penalties for overtime work in ex- 
cess of 56 hours per week, with the 
money going to the career development 
program. 

The union and USX also agreed to 
settle the backlog of grievances by hir- 
ing independent arbitrators to screen 
and expedite the cases. 

The union and company will jointly 
study the needed capital investment and 
possible employee stock ownership plan 
at USX’s South Works in Chicago. 

The union also regained jurisdiction 
of clerical jobs and an increase of 15 


Washington, Chicago and Los 
Angeles — for a two-year period. That 
protection ends on Aug. 15, 1992. 

The NABET members had twice 
turned down NBC offers before the 
company imposed its final offer last 
Aug. 15. In balloting on the new master 
agreement, eight of the 12 local units 
voted approval, with the vote from all 
units being 853-342 in favor. 

NBC and the union met again on local 
issues for the four units that had rejected 
the package — operations directors, 
couriers, and mail messengers/dupli- 
cating section in Chicago and air con- 
ditioning technicians in New York. 

The three Chicago units ratified a 
modified proposal and on Feb. 8, the 
NABET-NBC/GE Negotiating Com- 
mittee approved the agreement, 
authorizing NABET President James P. 
Nolan to put it into effect the following 
day. 

Talks are continuing to reach an ac- 
cord for the roughly 20 members in the 
New York unit, NABET said. 


kegon, Mich. The company used scabs 
at several sites. 

As part of the settlement agreement, 
Teledyne will provide special early 
retirement for 121 workers who have 
at least 10 years’ service and are age 
50 and up, the union said. 

Teledyne dropped its plan to slash 
retiree health benefits but die UAW said 
a lawsuit filed on the retiree health 
benefit issue remains in effect and was 
not part of the settlement. 


cents per hour in the clerical service 
bonus. 

Finally, the contract contains a 
“Desert Storm” clause that protects for 
up to a year the wages and family health 
benefits of any USWA member called 
up for military service in the Persian 
Gulf. 

The contract was negotiated follow- 
ing marathon sessions that included two 
24-hour extensions of the strike 
deadline. 

Meanwhile, the union reported gain- 
ing a “tentative understanding” for a 
three-year contract covering 2,600 
members at the USS-Kobe Steel -Co. 
plant in Lorain, Ohio. 

SIU, MEBA2 
sign accord 
on cable ships 

T he Seafarers and District 2 of the 
Marine Engineers signed a five-year 
accord with American Telephone and 
Telegraph Co. to assure staffing of U.S. 
crews on AT&T cable ships. 

The agreement covers manning 
levels, pay, benefits and working con- 
ditions on four cable-laying ships in the 
AT&T fleet. Prior contracts with 
AT&T subsidiary Transoceanic Cable 
Co. covered two vessels, Long Lines 
and Charles L. Brown. The new agree- 
ment extends to the recently launched 
Global Link and the Global Sentinel, 
which is due to be launched this spring. 

During negotiations last December, 
the SIU and MEBA District 2 raised 
concerns that AT&T was steering 
toward the possibility of putting the new 
cable ships under foreign-flag registry 
on the argument of cost-savings. 

In reaching the settlement, the com- 
pany said it could maintain a com- 
petitive edge in the world market and 
continue to staff crews represented by 
U.S. maritime unions as it had for the 
past 30 years. 

SIU President Michael Sacco and 
MEBA District 2 President Raymond 
T. McKay praised the company for 
agreeing to the settlement that will bring 
a net increase in jobs with the addition 
of the cable-laying vessels. 

Flight Attendants 
set election date 

Charlotte, N.C. 

T he Flight Attendants board of direc- 
tors set national officer elections for 
June 12 and adopted a constitutional 
change establishing run-off procedures 
to be used when no one candidate 
receives a majority of votes cast on the 
first ballot. 

AFA President Susan Bianchi-Sand 
and other national officers will serve 
until the June elections. The 1990 board 
meeting had adjourned without electing 
new officers in November after 
Bianchi-Sand finished short of a 
majority. 

Officers now are elected by the 
board, but the AFA has been review- 
ing the possibility of direct membership 
election. The board established the 
AFA Direct Election Committee, which 
will issue recommendations at the Oc- 
tober board meeting. Direct election by 
the membership was endorsed by the 
AFA’s executive board last November. 

The board of directors — the AFA’s 
highest governing body — comprises 
nearly 50 local council presidents 
representing every AFA domicile, or 
home base, at 18 airlines. 


UAW pact is end of line for Teledyne scabs 



David Walters/ACTWU 

Unionists walk an informational picket line outside the Fort Lauderdale (Fla.) 
Sun-Sentinel, a sister paper of the New York Daily News. Leading the 
march are Clothing and Textile Workers President Jack Sheinkman, left, 
and Edgar Romney, executive vice president of the Ladies' Garment 
Workers. Daily News workers have been on strike since Oct. 25. 



NABET ratifies NBC contract; 
gains retroactive pay raises 




New immigration law 
protects jobs, wages 



Steve Miller/Miller Photography 

Members of the Ladies' Garment Workers and Frontlash leaflet the Toy 
Manufacturers of America annual toy fair in New York City. The unionists 
were discouraging toy buyers from purchasing toys made in China because 
of that country's abuses of human rights and child labor. 

Unions want OPIC aid halted 
over Korean rights offenses 


By James B. Parks 

T he 1990 Immigration Act will help 
unions protect members’ jobs, wages 
and working conditions by tightening 
the rules on bringing in temporary 
foreign workers and by setting caps on 
the numbers of certain workers allowed 
to enter the country. 

Participants in a Jan. 28 AFL-CIO 
conference on immigration were told 
the bill, the most comprehensive revi- 
sion of the legal immigration system 
since 1965, strengthens the “labor cer- 
tification” procedures employers must 
use to bring in some types of temporary 
alien workers. 

Those procedures will continue the 
requirement that employers seek U.S. 
workers first and offer wages and work- 
ing conditions to the alien workers that 
assure they will not be exploited and 
that their employment won’t take away 
current jobs. 

The new law adds the stipulation that 
an employer who requests a labor cer- 
tification will have to notify the bargain- 
ing representative upon making the 
application. 

One of the most abused temporary 
visa categories as far as labor is con- 
cerned has been the H-1B visa for per- 
sons of “distinguished merit and abili- 
ty.” The Immigration and Naturaliza- 
tion Service, in practice, has issued the 
visa to professionals and other people 
who do not fit the category. 

The' new law narrows this category 
and sets specific limits on the number 
of persons who can be admitted with 
this kind of visa. 

If an employer of H-1B aliens does 
not pay the required wages, meet the re- 


By Muriel H. Cooper 

N ew Jersey Gov. James Florio has 
ordered the New Jersey Turnpike 
Authority to terminate its contract with 
Shell Oil Co. , a longtime boycott target 
of the AFL-CIO because of its treat- 
ment of black miners in South Africa. 

UAW President Owen Bieber, co- 
chair of the AFL-CIO Boycott Shell 
Committee, joined the governor for the 
announcement. The committee, co- 
chaired by Bieber and Mine Workers 
President Richard Trumka, coordinated 
a yearlong lobbying effort to convince 
New Jersey to terminate the Shell 
contract. 

The AFL-CIO Executive Council’s 
1986 call for the boycott cited Royal 
Dutch Shell’s firing of 86 black South 
African members of the National Union 
of Mineworkers at the Reitspruit mine. 
The statement noted the boycott call of 
the International Confederation of Free 
Trade Unions and said the action was 
against Shell, not the individual mer- 
chants selling Shell products. 

“Shell has made great profits by tak- 
ing advantage of the cheap wages of 
apartheid,” Trumka said. 


Orlando, Fla. 

M ickey Mouse, Donald Duck and 
other characters and performers 
portrayed by members of Actors’ Equi- 
ty won a three-year agreement with 
Walt Disney World Co. 

The contract covering the 400 per- 
formers — who include dancers, 
singers, comedians, gymnasts and 
others — increases salaries by 4 percent 


quired working conditions, or hire the 
aliens for certain specific occupation, 
the union can challenge that action. 

A challenge may occur if the 
employer attempts to bring in aliens as 
scabs or does not give proper notice of 
the intention to bring in aliens. 

If found guilty of a violation, the 
employer could be barred for at least 
a year from bringing in aliens and also 
could face a fine. 

The new law substantially strengthens 
the 1986 Immigration Reform and Con- 
trol Act, which prohibits employers 
from discriminating against authorized 
workers based on their national origin 
or lack of citizenship. 

One of the most important changes in 
that law increases the monetary 
penalties for discrimination, bringing 
them up to the same level as fines for 
employer sanctions. 

The law also now bans employers 
from intimidating, threatening, coerc- 
ing or retaliating against a person who 
files a complaint or helps in a case 
under the anti-discrimination law. 

The 1990 law eliminates the require- 
ment that an alien file a form indicating 
plans to apply for citizenship before the 
alien could file a complaint. 

Under the bill, employers cannot ask 
a new hire to provide more or different 
documents than the law requires to 
prove authority to work. They also can- 
not refuse to accept documents that ap- 
pear to be genuine. 

The bill extends for a year the period 
of time during which a temporary resi- 
dent can apply for permanent status. 

Most of the provisions in the bill take 
effect on Oct. 1. 


Florio, declaring that “New Jersey 
can’t do business with such a com- 
pany,” noted that many international 
organizations have heeded the union 
call to boycott Shell. 

In a January letter to the chairman of 
the Turnpike Authority, Florio said 
New Jersey law requires that the state’s 
pension and annuity funds be withdrawn 
from banks or other financial institu- 
tions that provide loans to South Africa, 
and that the state not invest in stocks or 
securities of those companies who do 
business in or with South Africa. 

“In light of this state policy and my 
personal beliefs, I am inclined to oppose 
any action which would permit an ex- 
tension of the current contract,” Florio 
said. 

The Turnpike Authority signed an ex- 
clusive five-year contract with Shell Oil 
Company in 1987. The contract con- 
tained an option to renew for an addi- 
tional five years if the option was exer- 
cised prior to April 1 of this year. 
Florio ’s action means that Shell’s ex- 
clusive right to operate all 13 service 
areas along the turnpike would expire 
April 1, 1992. 


in each contract year and adds incre- 
mental bonuses for lead performers. 

The agreement also improves job 
safety, requires that schedules be set 
two weeks in advance and calls for 
management to provide appropriate 
costumes and footwear. 

The Disney performers voted to join 
Equity in a National Labor Relations 
Board election in November 1989. 


By John R. Oravec 

S outh Korea’s mass jailing of trade 
unionists and its escalating worker 
and human rights abuses are grounds 
enough for the Overseas Private Invest- 
ment Corp. to terminate assistance pro- 
grams for firms operating under the 
oppressive regime of President Roh, the 
AFL-CIO said. 

To continue Korea’s eligibility for 
U.S. assistance does more than extend 
certain benefits, the federation told 
OPIC chief Fred Seder. “It puts the 
blessing of the U.S. government on 
policies and practices that violate 
human rights.” 

OPIC, a quasi-government agency 
established by Congress in 1969, in- 
sures and finances private U.S. invest- 
ment in developing countries and pro- 
motes foreign trade programs. 

Not only has the Roh regime failed 
to make progress in internationally 
recognized standards on worker rights, 
but it has threatened to crack down 
further on Korean unions, the federa- 
tion pointed out. 

Korea’s labor minister recently issued 
a public warning that the government 
will adopt sterner measures in 1991, in- 
cluding labor law revisions to give the 
government more power against unions 
in labor disputes, AFL-CIO Economic 
Research Director Rudy Oswald said. 

The federation brief reinforces a peti- 
tion the UAW filed last fall that cited 
the unjust jailing of 50 union leaders 
before the imprisonment of more than 
500 protesting workers last June. 

“To our knowledge, no other coun- 
try in the world has jailed more 
unionists than Korea,” the UAW peti- 
tion said. “The continuing government 
offensive against unions has increased 
this number in recent months. These ar- 
rests are, in most instances, the result 
of government repression of the right 
to freedom of association and to 
organize and bargain collectively.” 
The repression cited by the UAW 
refuted OPIC’s 1988 claims that the 
Korean government “is making slow 
but steady progress” on worker rights 
issues. 

The UAW pointed out that a 1990 
State Department report described the 


legal framework for labor-management 
relations in Korea “as the same as it 
was under the dictatorship of General 
Chun.” 

The State Department report noted 
that government intervention in labor 
disputes escalated sharply in 1990. 
“The most dramatic example,” the 
UAW said, “was the land, air and 
water assault on striking Hyundai 
Heavy Industries workers and their sup- 
porters from other Hyundai operations 
in the area. In the wake of the military 
operation, more than 700 workers were 
arrested.” 

The UAW petition said that the 
government crackdown on Korean 
unions has impeded its ability to repre- 
sent the economic interests of members 
as well as to improve working 
conditions. 

“The staggering growth of workplace 
deaths cannot be separated from the 
repression of Korean unions,” the peti- 
tion declared. 

Chile reinstated 

Meanwhile, the White House an- 
nounced that Chile, Paraguay and the 
Central African Republic were 
reinstated as beneficiaries in the 
Generalized System of Preferences 
(GSP) for duty-free access to U.S. 
markets on certain goods. 

The AFL-CIO endorsed the return of 
Chile to the GSP program, but opposed 
the return of Paraguay and the Central 
African Republic because of continued 
repression of trade union rights. 

Chile lost the GSP privileges in 1987 
for rights abuses under the Pinochet dic- 
tatorship. With the return to democracy 
and improved labor policies under 
President Patricio Ay 1 win, the federa- 
tion called for removal of sanctions. 

The White House also awarded GSP 
privileges to Namibia, which became an 
independent country last March. 

GSP sanctions continue against 
Burma, Liberia, Nicaragua and 
Romania because of worker rights 
abuses. Labor policies are under review 
for eight other GSP beneficiaries — 
Bangladesh, Benin, the Dominican 
Republic, El Salvador, Haiti, Nepal, the 
Sudan and Syria. 


New Jersey heeds boycott, 
to ban Shell on Turnpike 


Equity gains contract for Disney performers 








Union pay 
well ahead 
of nonunion 

Wages plus benefits 
yield clear advantage 

By John R. Oravec 

U nion membership was worth $119 
more a week in the average 
worker’s paycheck last year. That was 
just regular wages, not the additional 
value of employer-paid benefits that 
have been running nearly double those 
of nonunion workers. 

Median weekly earnings in 1990 for 
full-time unionized wage and salary 
workers were $509, compared with 
$390 for nonunion workers, according 
to data compiled by the Bureau of Labor 
Statistics. 

On an annual basis, the union advan- 
tage in median earnings works out to 
more than $6,100, figures from the BLS 
household survey show. 

The BLS earnings data do not include 
employer-paid benefits, which in the 
third quarter of 1989 averaged $6.95 an 
hour for union members — nearly 90 
percent more than the $3.80 rate for 
nonunion workers, AFL-CIO eco- 
nomist John Zalusky pointed out. 

“Union membership is one of the 
best investments a worker could 
make,” Zalusky said. “The monetary 
return on a union card is 18 times the 
average cost of union dues.” 

Union members fared better in just 
about every job category, except in pro- 
fessional specialties. The median pay 
for nonunion workers was boosted 
significantly by the executive, man- 
agerial and administrative categories. 
Only in finance, insurance and real 
estate did nonunion workers have an 
edge over union employees. 

Here are some examples of the ad- 


vantage of a union contract that BLS 
found in its 1990 study: 

• Male union members averaged 
$85 a week more than their nonunion 
counterparts. 

• Union women earned $122 more 
than nonunion females. 

• Among white workers, those with 
union cards earned $119 more than 
those without. 

• Among minorities, the union edge 
for blacks was $138 a week, while 
Hispanic union workers earned $137 
more a week. 

Here is the rundown on the union dif- 
ferential in average weekly pay in basic 
industries: manufacturing, plus $60; 
construction, plus $246; mining, plus 
$34; transportation and public utilities, 
plus $91; wholesale and retail trade, 
plus $99; government, plus $93, and 
finance, insurance and real estate, 
minus $20. 

Among precision production workers 
and certain skilled crafts, the union ad- 
vantage was $164 a week. For union 
machine operators, assemblers and in- 
spectors, it was $249 more a week. For 
union laborers and helpers, the edge 
was $154 a week. 

The median weekly pay for union 
workers increased $12 over the year 
while rising $18 for nonunion employ- 


ees, with the biggest raises coming in 
the managerial and professional ranks. 

The BLS report also said that 16.7 
million American workers were mem- 
bers of unions in 1990, down 1.3 per- 
cent from the 16.9 million in 1989. 
Union membership has hovered around 
17 million since the mid-1980s. 

In a separate report, BLS said major 
collective bargaining settlements in 
1990 covering some 2 million workers 
provide wage increases averaging 4 
percent in the first contract year and 3.2 
percent annually over the contract term. 
The BLS wage rate study comprises 
bargaining units of 1,000 workers or 
more, and does not include lump-sum 
bonuses, cost-of-living adjustments and 
employer-paid benefits. 

Zalusky estimated that the union- 
negotiated benefits in the 1990 set- 
tlements could add at least another 1 
percent more to the annual value of the 
average contract. 

The BLS said lump-sum bonuses 
were negotiated for 819,000 workers in 
last year’s settlements. The provisions 
were dropped from contracts covering 

214,000 workers. 

Unions negotiated contracts with 
COLAs for 778,000 workers last year. 
COLA clauses were dropped from con- 
tracts covering 37,500 workers. 


Unions provide 
trade benefit in 
global market 

L abor’s critics who blame the nagging 
U.S. foreign trade deficit on unions 
are off base, economics professor 
Thomas Karier asserts in a report issued 
by the Economic Policy Institute. 

Karier writes that there is no evidence 
that labor unions have made U.S. com- 
panies less competitive and more 
vulnerable to foreign imports. 

If anything, higher wages and high 
rates of unionization are usually accom- 
panied by high levels of capital invest- 
ment, Karier points out in his study. 
These are characteristics of countries 
that have increasing productivity 
growth and economic competitiveness. 

The study, titled Trade Deficits and 
Labor Unions: Myths and Realities, 
observes that Japan, West Germany and 
Canada accounted for 63 percent of the 
$120 billion merchandise trade deficit 
that the United States ran up in 1988. 
All three had higher rates of unioniza- 
tion than the 18 percent mark in the 
United States. 

Japan, with 32 percent of its work- 
force organized and the average 
manufacturing hourly pay scale just 
pennies below the U.S. rate of $13.90, 
rang up a $52 billion surplus in trade 
with the United States. 

West Germany, with 42 percent of its 
workers in unions and the manufactur- 
ing wage average nearly $5 more an 
hour than in American factories, posted 
a $12 billion surplus in U.S. trade. 

Canada, with 36 percent of the work- 
force organized and the factory pay 
comparable to the U.S. rate, had an ex- 
port edge of nearly $12 billion. 

Karier notes the U.S. position in in- 
ternational economics has declined at 
the same time that union representation 
has dropped to a 40-year low and is the 
lowest of any industrialized nation. 


Jobless rate at 6.2 percent as more workers drop out 


By John R. Oravec 

M ore than 7.7 million workers were 
unemployed in January as layoffs 
and shrinking job openings bumped the 
jobless rate to 6.2 percent. But even for 
the employed wage earners, the average 
workweek dropped by a half-hour to 
34.1 hours as the economy continued 
to slide, the Bureau of Labor Statistics 
reported. 

The recession cut deeper into better- 
paying construction and factory jobs as 
the unemployment rate climbed to its 
highest level in more than three-and-a- 
half years. 

Based on the BLS household survey, 
total civilian employment fell by 

650,000 last month, while 540,000 
workers dropped out of the labor force 
as the prospects of finding a new job 
dimmed further. 

Since June, unemployment has shot 
up by 1 .2 million as the jobless rate rose 
from 5.3 percent, including 0. 1 percent 
from December. But AFL-CIO chief 
economist Rudy Oswald warned that 
the January data are substantially 
weaker than the slight over-the-month 
percentage change implies. 

By counting the 1.5 million dis- 


couraged workers who have dropped 
out of the labor force, as well as 5.5 
million involuntary part-time workers 
on top of the 7.7 million officially 
jobless, Oswald noted that 14.7 million 
are affected by partial or total 
unemployment. 

Based on state unemployment in- 
surance reports and BLS data, 8.6 
million workers were counted as jobless 
before seasonal adjustment. Yet, only 
some 4 million were eligible to collect 
unemployment compensation, leaving 
4.6 million out of work and without 
benefits. 

Payroll employment dropped by 

230.000 in January after a decline of 

150.000 in December, the BLS survey 
of non-farm establishments showed. 

Construction workers lost 155,000 
jobs last month — some of the losses 
stemming from weather conditions. 
With the severe building slowdown in 
1990, the industry has lost 450,000 jobs 
since last May. 

Manufacturing employment dropped 
by 70,000 in January, continuing the 
downturn that started early in 1989, and 
has resulted in the loss of about 1 
million factory jobs. 


BLS said there were large losses in 
construction-related industries — 
lumber and wood products, furniture 
and fixtures, as well as stone, clay and 
glass products. Also severely affected 
were auto-related jobs — assembly 
lines, parts and fabricated metals. 

In the services sector, job losses came 
in wholesale trade, finance, insurance 
and real estate, as well as in local, state 
and federal governments. Small gains 
were posted in transportation, retail 
trade and health care. 

Several large states reported sharp in- 
creases in unemployment last month. 
Heading the list was Massachusetts, 
where the rate jumped from 7.3 percent 
in December to 8.6 percent in January. 
New York’s rate climbed a full percen- 
tage point to 6.5 percent, while Califor- 
nia listed more than 1 million workers 
on its jobless rolls as the rate rose 0.2 
percent to 7 percent. 

Nearly 100,000 auto workers re- 
mained on temporary layoff in January 
as automakers shutdown production 
lines because of slumping car sales. But 
with the combination of jobless com- 
pensation and negotiated supplemental 
unemployment benefits, laid off UAW 


members are drawing up to 95 percent 
of their regular pay. 

Meanwhile, General Motors Corp. 
announced early in February it would 
slash 15,000 white-collar jobs by 1993, 
starting with a cuts of 6,000 salaried 
workers this year. And Hughes Air- 
craft, a unit of General Motors, an- 
nounced plans to cut up to 2,000 jobs 
over the next two years. It said most of 
the reductions would be at the com- 
pany’s missile system division in Tuc- 
son, Ariz., where some 5,500 workers 
are employed. 

Pan Am Corp. announced that it will 
cut 4,000 jobs, or 15 percent of its 
workforce, including 1,400 workers 
who are scheduled to move to United 
Airlines as part of the $290 million deal 
to sell the carrier’s London routes. Pan 
Am officials said 900 of the 1,400 
workers would be transferred to United, 
but the other 500 jobs would be elimi- 
nated. 

USAir also announced a new wave of 
job cuts, idling 3,585 employees as it 
shut down four of its 12 flight bases, 
a maintenance facility and a reservation 
office. The airline said all job sectors 
would be affected by the cuts. 



Meany Center reaches out to West Coast 


T he George Meany Center for Labor 
Studies, in conjunction with the 
AFL-CIO Department of Education, is 
taking many of its labor courses to the 
West Coast. 

A new western semester, to be of- 
fered during June at the Clark Kerr 
Campus of the University of California 
at Berkeley, will give West Coast labor 
leaders and staff members an opportun- 
ity to study labor courses in their back 
yard. 

Five institutes from the center’s core 
curriculum will be offered. They are: 
Organizing Techniques (in English and 


Spanish); Arbitration: Preparation and 
Presentation; Organization in the Con- 
struction Industry; The Craft of Nego- 
tiations, and Newswriting and Editing 
for Union Publications. 

Robert Pleasure, director of the 
Meany Center, said the western 
semester provides access to union 
leaders who might not have a chance to 
travel to Washington. 

In addition, the Department of 
Education will offer workshops in 
Teaching Techniques for Labor Educa- 
tion, Advanced Teaching Techniques, 
Labor in the Schools and One-on-One 


Coordinator Training, also in English 
and Spanish. 

Education Director Dorothy Shields 
said previous enrollment clearly showed 
the popularity of the curriculum and 
“considering the exorbitant cost of 
travel and other expenses, we 
developed the Western Semester.” 

Staff from the AFL-CIO Education 
Department and the Meany Center will 
teach the courses. 

Some 250 people are expected to 
study in the western semester program, 
according to Dave Alexander, senior 
staff associate at the Center. 


Enrollment will be limited to elected 


or appointed staff and officers of AFL- 
CIO affiliated unions. First priority will 
be given to those applicants west of the 
Mississippi River. 

Besides the University of California 
at Berkeley, other institutions that have 
provided assistance in establishing the 
program are UCLA, the University of 
Oregon, the University of Colorado and 
San Francisco Community College. 

More information about enrolling in 
the western semester may be obtained 
by calling registration at the Meany 
Center at 301/431-6400. 



Spreading news 
of Workers 
Memorial Day 


Kits now are available for 
the third annual obser- 
vance of Workers 
Memorial Day, April 28, 
1991. For more informa- 
tion, contact the AFL-CIO 
Department of Occupa- 
tional Safety and Health 
(202/637-5366). 


1st annual Saul Miller Award 
to honor strikebreaker report 


T he Saul Miller Award, recognizing 
the best print labor reporting on a 
single issue, was announced by the 
AFL-CIO and the International Labor 
Communications Association. 

The 1991 award is designated for 
reporting on the use of permanent 
replacement workers by employers bent 
on upsetting the balance of collective 
bargaining. 

The first contest will recognize the 
labor press’ effort to inform members 
about this issue and strengthen grass- 
roots efforts to win congressional re- 
form. The AFL-CIO has declared that 
the passage of the bill banning the use 
of permanent striker replacements is 
among its top legislative priorities. 

Entries will be accepted from na- 
tional, international, local and union 
regional publications. Publications must 
be, or become, members of ILCA at the 
time their entries are submitted. All 
work published between Jan. 1 and 
Dec. 31, 1991, will be considered. 

Because it is part of the ILCA Jour- 
nalistic Awards Contest, the official 
contest call will go out early next year. 
All printed material, news stories, col- 
umns, series, original photographs, car- 
toons and artwork may be entered in the 
competition. 

The contest, a brainchild of Steel- 


workers Assistant Legislative Director 
Ken Kovack, is being coordinated by 
ILCA President Pat Ziska and Susan 
Dunlop, assistant to AFL-CIO Presi- 
dent Lane Kirkland and former 
secretary -treasurer of ILCA. 

Miller’s career with the federation 
spanned 27 years, beginning as a 
reporter for the AFL News Reporter. 
Fie served as director of publications 
and retired as director of the Depart- 
ment of Information in 1982. Miller 
died in 1987. 

Meanwhile, the ILCA announced its 
sixth biennial Film and Broadcast Com- 
petition for member-organization works 
first shown in calendar years 1989 or 
1990. 

The purpose of the contest is to in- 
crease interest and use of film, tape and 
audio resources now available in the 
labor movement, according to ILCA. 
Deadline for entries is May 1. 

Categories include television pro- 
grams produced at least six times a 
year, promotional spots and commer- 
cials, home videos, radio programs and 
promotional spots, slide shows and all 
other film or video productions. 

For contest rules and entry form, 
write ILCA, 815 16th Street, N.W., 
Washington, D.C. 20006, or call (202) 
637-5068. 



George E. “Jeep” Gilliland was 
elected president of the New Mexico 
AFL-CIO by a unanimous vote of the 
state federation’s executive board. 
Gilliland, 48, will fill out the unexpired 
term of Neal Gonzalez, who retired 
Jan. 1. Gonzalez had headed the state 
central body for 24 years. Gilliland, a 
member of Sheet Metal Workers Local 
49 in Albuquerque, served as the local’s 
business representative from June 1980 
to July 1989, and as president of the 
Bernalillo County, N.M., AFL-CIO 
from January 1985 to December 1988. 
He is currently chairman of the New 
Mexico Homeless Coalition and a 
member of the Governor’s Task Force 
to Re-write the Construction Industries 
Act. 

Susan Carey of Grand Blanc, Mich., 
has been appointed by Gov. John 
Engler (R) to represent worker interests 
on the state Employment Security Com- 
mission. Carey is executive secretary to 
UAW Local 599 President David Yet- 
taw. She has worked for the local for 
38 years, serving 10 presidents. She 
also organized Office and Professional 
Employees Union Local 393, which 
now represents UAW office staffers, 
credit union and school assistance 
workers and Saginaw County court- 
house employees. 

DEATHS 

George E. Fairchild, secretary- 
treasurer emeritus of the Service 
Employees and a union activist since 
1931, died Jan. 29 of cancer at Subur- 
ban Hospital in Bethesda, Md. He was 
82. 


n 

ii 


l\ 

i 

i 



Nominations for 1991 inductees in 
the Labor Hall of Fame are being ac- 
cepted through March 28, said Chair- 
man W.J. Usery Jr. of the Friends of 
the Labor Department, which ad- 
ministers the project. Last year, the 
Labor Hall of Fame inducted the late 
UAW President Walter Reuther, in- 
dustrialist Henry J. Kaiser, Sen. Robert 
F. Wagner and union pioneer Eugene 
V. Debs. Usery, a former secretary of 
labor, said nominations should be sent 
to the Labor Hall of Fame, Box 2258, 
Washington, D.C., 20013. 


AFL-CIO President Lane Kirkland 
and Secretary -Treasurer Thomas R. 
Donahue, wrote to Fairchild’s wife, 
Elaine, that “George was a good friend 
and staunch advocate of working men 
and women. To him, there were no jobs 
which natural law ordained as inherent- 
ly low-paid and devoid of benefits and 
security.” 

Fairchild joined SEIU while working 
as a school custodian in Chicago, event- 
ually becoming a local union organizer 
and officer. He was elected SEIU’s 
secretary-treasurer in 1955, a post he 
held until his retirement in 1976. He 
served on the executive board of the 
AFL-CIO Secretary-Treasurers Con- 
ference. 

Paul T. Russillo, a labor economist 
with the AFL-CIO ’s American Institute 
for Free Labor Development, died of 
heart ailments on Feb. 5 at Suburban 
Hospital in Bethesda, Md. 

Russillo joined AIFLD in 1966 and 
was program director for Costa Rica 
and Colombia, where he lived from 
1973 to 1979, and of Peru, where he 
resided in 1983 and 1984. He had 
served also as the acting director for 
Guatemala, Nicaragua and Honduras. 

He served as the director of labor 
studies at the George Meany Center and 
was a lecturer and consultant there 
when he retired in 1989. He also had 
been director of the Education Institute 
in Front Royal, Va. 

Thomas X. Dunn, a longtime labor 
lawyer, died Jan. 30 of cancer while on 
vacation in Fort Myers, Fla. He was 79. 

Dunn, who retired in 1980, was 
general counsel to the AFL-CIO 
Building and Construction Trades 
Department and the Electrical Workers. 
He was a senior partner in Sherman, 
Dunn, Cohen, Leifer and Yellig. 

Dunn served for 10 years after his 
retirement as a member of the U.S. 
Wage Appeals Board. He also served 
as co-chairman of the federal labor stan- 
dards committee of the American Bar 
Association. 


VIDEOS 

The Labor Institute of Public Affairs 
is offering two videos especially for 
Black History Month. 

A. Phillip Randolph is a five-minute 
video on the unveiling of the Randolph 
bust at Washington’s Union Station. 
Randolph, a giant of the labor and civil 
rights movements, died in 1979. The 
tape is available to unions for $7.50 
(VHS) and $25.00 (3/4-inch). 

Union Yes: Apartheid No is a 
10-minute video highlighting the visit 
of Nelson Mandela, anti-apartheid 
leader, to the AFL-CIO, a UAW rally 
in Detroit and AFSCME’s convention 
in Miami. The tape is available to 
unions for $10.00 (VHS) and $25.00 
(3/4-inch). To order these videos, call 
800/242-UNION or write LIPA, 815 
16th Street, N.W. Suite 206, Washing- 
ton, D.C. 20006. 






Unions gear up to support troops, families 



USO photo 


Service men and women stationed in the Persian Gulf line up at mobile 
telephone stations and vans for free phone calls home, courtesy of "I'm 
Okay," a project of the Communications Workers and the USO. 


Continued from Page 1 

force behind “Desert Read,” a project 
to ship books to U.S. troops in the Per- 
sian Gulf, and several other projects. 

Through Desert Read, books are col- 
lected and boxed by volunteers at an 
Arlington, Va., warehouse. Then, 
under an arrangement with St. Johns- 
bury Trucking Inc. , they are trucked by 
IBT members to a Pennsylvania mili- 
tary base, the first leg of the overseas 
journey. 

The first load of 20,000 books was 
delivered to the base by IBT Local 557 
member Ron Cain. Desert Read organ- 
izers hope to deliver as many as a 
million books to troops serving 
overseas. Paperback books can be sent 
to the Desert Read Project at 1201 Fern 
St., Arlington, Va., 22202. 

Boosting spirits 

Reading material of a different kind 
is a pet project of the Teachers, who are 
coordinating a letter-writing campaign 
in classrooms and workplaces across 
the country to boost the spirits of serv- 
ice members. 

As part of this “Operation Pen Pal,” 
AFT Local 3010 member Shirley 
Richter donated more than 200 cassette 
recorders that were shipped overseas by 
the AFT, so service men and women 
can record messages for home. 

Union members wishing to join 
Operation Pen Pal can mail letters to: 
Any Service Member, Operation Desert 
Storm, APO New York, N.Y. 
09848-0006. No packages will be ac- 
cepted under this program, the AFT 
said. 

For troops stationed on ships, write 
to: Any Service Member, Operation 
Desert Storm, FPO New York, N.Y. 
09866-0006. 

Meanwhile, service members 
overseas can keep in touch with their 
families back home through a project 
called “I’m Okay,” which received a 
$50,000 donation from the Com- 
munications Workers. 

CWA, in conjunction with the United 


Service Organizations (USO), is help- 
ing to supply mobile vans and cellular 
phones for troops on ships and bases in 
the Persian Gulf area. The union is en- 
couraging local unions and members to 
contribute to the effort. 

Other programs developed by unions 
and labor community services commit- 
tees include: 

• Members of the Pittsburgh 
Building and Construction Trades 
Council are making free emergency 
home repairs for families of soldiers 
serving in the Persian Gulf. Business 
representative Richard Stanizzo said the 
program will continue throughout 
Operation Desert Storm, with repairs 
made on appliances, plumbing, roofs, 
wiring and for other needs. 

• In New York, OPEIU Local 153 
Ts trying to ease the financial crunch 
facing many families from which a 
reservist has been called to duty in the 
Persian Gulf with a one-time grant of 
$500. 

• In Albuquerque, N.M., members 
of the Teachers, Sheet Metal Workers, 
Communications Workers and 
AFSCME answered the phone bank 
during a local telethon that raised 
$36,000 for the Desert Storm Family 
Fund, to be administered by the United 
Way. 

• Local unions locked out last year 
by International Paper Co. in Mobile, 
Ala. — the Paperworkers, Electrical 
Workers and Office and Professional 
Employees — held a special blood 
drive to replace one canceled at the 
local Air Force base when soldiers were 
mobilized for Desert Storm. 

• Many local unions — including 
CWA, the Fire Fighters, Plumbers and 
Pipefitters, and Food and Commercial 
Workers — have volunteered to help 
the USO and other organizations in sup- 
port groups, counseling and other pro- 
jects for Desert Storm families. 

• IBT Local 822 members in 
Hampton Roads, Va., collected good 
wishes from holiday shoppers on a huge 
Christmas card that was sent overseas. 


Signers paid $1 per signature, with pro- 
ceeds donated to the Navy Family Ser- 
vices fund. 

• CWA is working with “Operation 
Something from Home,” encouraging 
local unions to make donations for care 
packages and supplies sent to troops 
overseas. 

• Members of Clothing and Textile 
Workers Local 90 joined in “Operation 
Southern Comfort,” a project to collect 
and deliver candy, cookies, books and 
other items overseas. 

• Members of Chemical Workers 


Local 15 in Clarksville, Ind., in 
cooperation with the Colgate-Palmolive 
Co., collected donations for 120 cases 
of soap, plus 65,000 tubes of toothpaste 
and toothbrushes, that will be sent 
overseas. 

For more information about ways to 
join in Operation Stateside and other 
programs aiding soldiers and their 
families, union members can contact 
their local union or central body com- 
munity services committee, or com- 
munity services representative with the 
Red Cross or United Way. 




Top mediator joins 
Daily News talks 

The Daily News strikers agree on a 
super mediator and announced an ex- 
panded consumer campaign against the 
newspaper’s Chicago-based parent 
Tribune Co. 

Labor leads fight 
against trade pact 

AFL-CIO Secretary-Treasurer Thomas 
Donahue tells a Senate committee that 
a free trade agreement with Mexico will 
cost U.S. jobs and exploit already poor 
Mexican workers. 



0 


Public employees 
face tough talks 

Public employee unions preparing to 
bargain new contracts face tough 
negotiations as governments try to 
balance their budgets with layoffs, wage 
freezes and furloughs. 

OSHA asbestos rules 
not strong enough 

The AFL-CIO and 12 affiliates assail 
proposed OSHA asbestos regulations 
because they don’t adequately protect 
workers against many asbestos-related 
diseases. 




N.J. pushes Shell 
off state turnpike 

New Jersey Gov. Jim Florio backs the 
AFL-CIO ’s boycott of Shell Oil by bar- 
ring the oil giant from doing business 
on the state turnpike because of its 
policies in South Africa. 

Union membership 
yields more pay 

Union members on the average make 
$119 a week more than nonunion 
members in wages. Employer-paid 
benefits for union members is about 
double that of other workers. 



The AFL-CIO NEWS (ISSN 001-1185) is published every two weeks. 
Second Class postage paid at Washington, D.C. Subscriptions $ 1 0 per 
year. POSTMASTER: Address changes to Room 209, 815 16th Street, 
N.W., Washington, D.C. 20006. 


2/18/91 


The AFL-CIO does not accept paid advertising in any of its official publications. No one is authorized 
to solicit advertising for any publications in the name of the AFL-CIO. 






Council adopts health care reform program 


By Colleen M. O’Neill 
Bal Harbour, Fla. 

T he AFL-CIO Executive Council, 
reiterating labor’s decades-long drive 
for universal access to quality health 
care, called on Congress to enact legis- 
lation to establish a national system that 
covers workers and non-workers and 
incorporates Medicare and Medicaid. 

The council statement recommended 
the establishment of a cost-containment 
program to include a cap on health ex- 
penditures, a capital budget and a 
federal authority to negotiate uniform 


reimbursement rates for all payers. 

The federation also called for the 
creation of a national commission of 
consumers, labor, management, gov- 
ernment and providers to administer the 
program. 

While the AFL-CIO statement set out 
specific goals to achieve universal ac- 
cess, cost containment and adminis- 
trative overhaul, it left open the kind of 
legislative package that could achieve 
those goals. 

“We are not committed to any rigid 
single plan,” AFL-CIO President Lane 


Kirkland said at a news conference 
following the unanimous council vote. 
“We are in a negotiating posture and 
we intend to approach it in a practical 
way, working with the leadership in the 
House and the Senate.” 

The council action was the result of 
a year of intense work by the 
16-member AFL-CIO Health Care 
Committee, chaired by John J. 
Sweeney, president of the Service 
Employees. 

Democratic leaders visiting the coun- 
cil during its mid-winter meeting — 


Senate Majority Leader George Mit- 
chell (D-Maine), House Speaker 
Thomas Foley (D-Wash.), House 
Majority Leader Richard Gephardt (D- 
Mo.) and House Education and Labor 
Committee Chairman William Ford (D- 
Mich.) — all voiced concerns about the 
nation’s crisis in health care. 

Mitchell, saying that health care is 
one of the Senate’s highest priorities, 
decried the “many thousands of human 
tragedies when families don’t have 
health care. ’ ’ He urged an approach that 
Continued on Page 12 



Labor Secretary Lynn Martin responds to concerns of Ex- 
ecutive Council members on job safety and health 
hazards at the mid-winter meeting in Bal Harbour, Fla. 


Raymond Crowell/Page One Photography 

From left, AFL-CIO Secretary-Treasurer Thomas R. 
Donahue, Martin, President Lane Kirkland and Vice 
President Susan Bianchi-Sand. See Story on Page 5. 


Striker replacement bill urgency stressed 


By Michael Byrne 
Bal Harbour, Fla . 

D eclaring that the integrity of the col- 
lective bargaining system is at stake, 
the AFL-CIO called on Congress to 
pass legislation that would ban the use 
of “permanent replacement” workers 
to break strikes. 

“A judicially created loophole in the 
law provides that although it is illegal 
for an employer to discharge workers 
for engaging in a legal strike, it is lawful 
to ‘permanently replace’ them,” the 
Executive Council said in a statement. 

“To workers, the distinction is mean- 
ingless,” the statement said. “Whether 
fired or ‘permanently replaced,’ they 
have lost their jobs; and that subverts 


the legal protections of their trade union 
rights.” 

The judge-made loophole in the law, 
the council said, has had a “seductive” 
effect on many employers. 

“For them, the opportunity to hire 
permanent replacements is an incentive 
to provoke strikes, to recruit a more 
pliant, non-union workforce, and to re- 
nounce any further employment rela- 
tionship with their union workers,” the 
statement said. 

Citing the attempts by management 
to force strikes at Eastern Airlines, 
Greyhound, the New York Daily News 
and other companies, AFL-CIO Presi- 
dent Lane Kirkland said labor is unified 
in its drive to gain legislation this year 


that would prohibit the practice of ‘ ‘per- 
manent replacements.” 

“This is a very burning issue to 
unions, a deeply felt issue throughout 
the trade union movement,” Kirkland 
told a news conference. “We see a 
great urgency to this legislation.” 
Kirkland stressed that by removing 
the threat of “permanent replace- 
ments,” legislation would restore a 
climate in which collective bargaining 
would work as it was intended under 
federal law, thereby reducing the 
number of strikes. 

“Believe me, unions are always 
reluctant to strike,” he said. “A strike 
is not a trip to Disneyland. It involves 
Continued on Page 3 


All-out fight 
vowed to halt 
Mexico pact 

By Michael Byrne 
Bal Harbour, Fla. 

L abor pledged to join with its environ- 
mental and consumer allies to fight 
the proposed U.S. -Mexico free trade 
agreement on every front — in the halls 
of Congress, in corporate board rooms 
and in the court of public opinion. 

“What they propose is a fundamen- 
tal restructuring of the economics of the 
North American continent,” AFL-CIO 
Secretary-Treasurer Thomas R. 
Donahue told the Executive Council. 
“The U.S. trade representative wants 
to do it in six months, keeping everyone 
in the dark, and then giving Congress 
no chance to debate or to alter the 
agreement.” 

Donahue warned that unless the 
federation and its allies can get the pro- 
posal off the “fast track,” the ad- 
ministration can ram through an agree- 
ment that will expand the maquiladoras, 
“which is an absolute disaster for 

workers in the United States and Mex- 
• _ » * 

ICO. 

In its statement opposing the pro- 
posed agreement, the Executive Coun- 
cil pointed to the maquiladoras as a 
model of what would happen throug- 
hout Mexico under a free trade agree- 
ment. In the maquiladoras, U.S. -owned 
plants operate inside Mexico along the 
border and produce goods exported 
back to the United States. 

Hundreds of thousands of American 
jobs have been lost to the maquiladoras, 
which offer Mexican workers bare sub- 
sistence wages and generate air pollu- 
tion and toxic waste that are among the 
worst in the world, the statement said. 

“The maquiladoras have flourished 
because U.S. companies have seen an 
opportunity to pay Mexican workers a 
fraction of the wages that U.S. workers 
receive, and to evade the standards for 
Continued on Page 3 






High court examines hospital unit rule 


By James B. Parks 

U nions prepared for a more hospit- 
able climate for organizing health 
care workers as the Supreme Court 
finally began hearing oral arguments on 
a National Labor Relations Board rule 
creating eight appropriate bargaining 
units in acute care hospitals. 

The AFL-CIO, in a joint brief pre- 
pared along with the AFL-CIO Building 
and Construction Trades Department 
and the American Nurses Association, 
argued that the NLRB had the author- 
ity to create the eight units rather than 
having to consider bargaining unit peti- 
tions on a case-by-case basis. 

The AFL-CIO said the union election 
system set up by the National Labor 
Relations Act could not work if each 
petition for bargaining rights had to be 
decided individually. 

If bargaining units varied from 
employer to employer within a given 
market, the federation argued, 
employees would not be able to 

Air traffic union 
gets FAA to ease 
rule on diabetics 

T he National Air Traffic Controllers 
Association won medical recon- 
sideration for insulin-dependent diabetic 
controllers who have been medically 
disqualified by the Federal Aviation 
Administration. 

In settling a grievance against the 
agency, the union got the FAA to agree 
to obtain the counsel of a panel of five 
eminent endocrinologists, who will ad- 
vise on the “appropriateness, efficacy 
and safety” of a policy requiring in- 
dividual determination of the medical 
qualifications of insulin-using employ- 
ees to perform the duties of an air traf- 
fic controller. 

The union’s grievance had charged 
the FAA’s blanket disqualification of 
insulin-dependent diabetics violated the 
Rehabilitation Act, which bars discrim- 
ination on the basis of a physical handi- 
cap that is not “disqualifying for the 
position.” 

NATCA President R. Steve Bell said, 
“This is an enormous victory for the 
diabetic controllers, NATCA and those 
individuals who have found themselves 
the victims of arbitrary and capricious 
discrimination because of a physical 
disability.” 

Bell said the union wants the FAA to 
deal with the controllers on a case-by- 
case basis. “The settlement maintains 
the safety of the air traffic control 
system and re-inforces the controller’s 
safety net. That is fairness and 
balance.” 


eliminate wage competition through 
collective bargaining. 

U.S. Deputy Solicitor General David 
L. Shapiro, arguing for the govern- 
ment, agreed. “One of the great 
strengths of the administrative process 
is that agencies are able, through the 
promulgation of rules, to narrow and 
define the scope of the issues for ad- 
judication. The regulation challenged in 
this case is an example of the working 
of this process at its best.” 

“The hospitals have tied up this pro- 
cess long enough,” said Paul Booth, 
AFSCME’s field services director. And 
Jerry Shea, director of the Service 
Employees’ health care division, said 
“the NLRB’s case is as strong a case 
as they can have and we look for a 
positive outcome from this court.” 
The American Hospital Association 
appealed a U.S. 7th Circuit Court of 
Appeals ruling that upheld the NLRB 
rule. Concerned that union representa- 
tion of segments of its members’ 


Nashville, Tenn. 

D elegates to the Independent Workers 
of North America merger conven- 
tion here voted by a 9-1 margin to af- 
filiate with the Paperworkers. 

The AFL-CIO Executive Council, 
meeting last week in Bal Harbour, Fla. , 
approved the affiliation agreement that 
brings the 7,000 IWNA members into 
the 240,000-member UPIU. 

The IWNA had its roots in the 
Cement, Lime and Gypsum Workers 
union, which became a division of the 
Boilermakers in 1984. But a number of 
the former Cement Workers locals 
formed the IWNA in 1986. 


work force could prove contagious, the 
AHA is pressing for broader bargain- 
ing units that include dissimilar job 
classifications. Mixing and rearranging 
units with disparate job descriptions is 
a well-known scheme of managements 
bent on “union avoidance.” 

The NLRB rule followed two prev- 
ious court decisions, known as St. Fran- 
cis I and St. Francis II, and provided 
eight categories for union units — 
registered nurses, physicians, all other 
professionals, technical employees, 
skilled maintenance workers, office and 
clerical employees, all other non-pro- 
fessionals and guards. 

If the court upholds the rule, the 
number of bargaining units in practice 
normally would be less than eight. A 
union would be able to seek represen- 
tation rights for a combined unit, except 
for the guards. 

But the decision on the number of 
bargaining units would be made by the 
workers and the unions. 


In welcoming the new members, 
Paperworkers President Wayne E. 
Glenn said, “This affiliation is a re- 
minder that in unity there is strength. 
We are impressed by the dedication of 
this group of trade unionists who have 
struggled so much over the years.” 
Retiring IWNA President Richard 
Northrip called on the IWNA members 
to “support your new officers and staff. 
Our organization has come farther than 
we ever thought we could.” 

With the April 1 effective date of af- 
filiation, six IWNA officers will join the 
UPIU staff as international represen- 
tatives and organizers. 


Postal Service 
contract snag 
in arbitration 

A rbitration to determine the pro- 
visions of new national contracts 
covering 568,000 members of the 
Postal Workers and Letter Carriers at 
the U.S. Postal Service begins March 
5 when the five-member panel meets for 
the first time. 

The key issues for the unions remain 
wages, job security and working con- 
ditions, while postal management, in 
the name of “flexibility,” is seeking to 
create a new classification of permanent 
part-time workers who would be paid 
less than full-time career employees and 
receive little or no benefits. 

Under the terms of the arbitration 
agreement reached by the two sides, the 
panel is to report its binding award on 
a new national contract within 45 days 
after arbitration begins, subject to ex- 
tension by the impartial arbitrator, 
Richard Mittenthal. 

Mittenthal was selected by the two 
sides as the impartial member of the 
five-person panel. Mittenthal, 64, is a 
member and former president of the 
National Academy of Arbitrators and 
has served as national-level impartial 
arbitrator under Postal Service contracts 
with the two unions since 1979. 

Other members of the panel are: 
NALC General Counsel Bruce Simon; 
New York City arbitrator Theodore 
Kheel for the APWU (Kheel most 
recently has served as an adviser to the 
unions involved in the New York Daily 
News strike); Joseph Mahon, assistant 
postmaster general for the USPS, and 
Peter Nash, a private attorney. 

The previous national postal agree- 
ment ended last Nov. 20, when the two 
sides bargained up to the contract’s ex- 
piration. The APWU and the NALC 
formed the Joint Bargaining Commit- 
tee to coordinate their negotiations, but 
both are bargaining separate contracts 
with the USPS. 

Mail Handlers accord 

Meanwhile, the Mail Handlers Union, 
a division of the Laborers, reached a 
tentative three-year settlement for its 
53,000 members. Mail Handlers Presi- 
dent Glenn Berrien said the proposed 
accord would protect members’ jobs 
and cost-of-living adjustments, while 
guaranteeing its members continue to 
pay less for health insurance than other 
federal workers. The accord contains 
lump-sum payments in place of regular 
pay raises. 

NALC President Vincent R. Som- 
brotto and APWU President Moe Biller 
criticized the Mail Handlers’ tentative 
package and said it could “undercut” 
the arbitration process for their unions. 



Gary Schoichet 


New York area union conference promoting outreach efforts to deaf and 
hearing-impaired members is addressed by Tom Gradnauer of Communica- 
tions Workers Local 1033, who is deaf. Representatives of 30 AFL-CIO- 
affiliated locals participated in the sessions. 

7,000 former cement union members 
vote to affiliate with Paperworkers 



Director of Information: Rex Hardesty 

Editor: Michael Byrne 

News Editor: John R. Oravec 

Assistant Editors: Arlee C. Green, 

Candice Johnson, James B. Parks 

Staff Writers: Muriel H. Cooper, Mike Hall, 
Colleen M. O’Neill, Sharolyn A. Rosier 

Graphics /layout: Stan Hitt 


AFL-CIO Headquarters: 815 Sixteenth St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20006 
Telephone: (202) 637-5010 


Vol. 36, No. 5 



MONDAY, MARCH 4, 1991 


KB 


The AFL-CIO News (ISSN-001-1 185) is issued every two weeks at 815 Sixteenth St.. N.W.. Washington, D.C. 
The AFL-CIO does not accept paid advertising in any of its official publications. No one is authorized to solicit 
advertising for any publications in the name of the AFL-CIO. 


Official Publication 
of the 

American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations 

Lane Kirkland, president 
Thomas R. Donahue, secretary-treasurer 

EXECUTIVE COUNCIL 


Albert Shanker 
William H. Wynn 
Joyce D. Miller 
Richard I. Kilroy 
William H. By water 
John T. Joyce 
Robert A. Georgine 
Jay Mazur 
John J. Barry 
Susan Bianchi-Sand 
John N. Sturdivant 


Edward T. Hanley 
John DeConcini 
John J. Sweeney 
Vincent R. Sombrotto 
Marvin J. Boede 
Lynn R. Williams 
Milan Stone 
Lenore Miller 
Sigurd Lucassen 
Moe Biller 
Richard L. Trumka 


Angelo Fosco 
Wayne E. Glenn 
James E. Hatfield 
Gerald W. McEntee 
Owen Bieber 
Morton Bahr 
Gene Upshaw 
Jack Sheinkman 
William J. McCarthy 
George J. Kourpias 
Frank Hanley 





mmm 


All-out fight pledged on trade pact 






Continued from Page 1 

occupational safety, workers’ compen- 
sation, and environmental protection 
that are required here,” the AFL-CIO 
said. 

Donahue said the federation has 
asked the administration to provide an 
economic impact statement on a free 
trade agreement with Mexico, but has 
been given little satisfaction. A study 
conducted for the Senate Finance Com- 
mittee by the International Trade Com- 
mission was rife with misinformation, 
he said. 

“The study said that unskilled U.S. 
workers are likely to ‘suffer a slight 
decline in real income.’” 

But the AFL-CIO was told those 
“unskilled workers” make up 57 per- 
cent of the working population, “and 
I would suggest that ‘slight decline’ is 
a very rosy scenario.” 

Playing for time 

The current fast-track authority ex- 
pires Feb. 28, but the administration has 
indicated that it will request an exten- 
sion for one or two years, Donahue 
said, including an extension to complete 
the stalled negotiations on the General 
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 
(GATT). 

Donahue called for AFL-CIO affil- 
iates to join in a massive program of 
communication to arouse public senti- 
ment against the fast-track process, and 
to force a full debate on the proposal 
in Congress. 

Donahue reported on the Coalition 
for Justice in the Maquiladoras, which 
includes 42 environmental, consumer, 
labor and community action organiza- 
tions that is “trying to educate the 
public about the conditions in the 
maquiladora plants, and to correct those 
conditions.” 


“The coalition has submitted stock- 
holders resolutions to 10 major corpora- 
tions operating in the maquiladoras, and 
is calling on these companies to adopt 
standards of conduct,” Donahue told 
the council. 

AFL-CIO Vice President Owen 
Bieber of the UAW, noting that two of 
those 10 corporations are Big Three 
automakers General Motors and Ford, 
called for an attempt to form partner- 
ships with corporations who would be 
adversely affected by low-cost competi- 
tion south of the border. 

“The Japanese would be the big win- 
ners of this free trade proposal,” Bieber 
said. “Chrysler, which didn’t produce 
a single car last week, wouldn’t be able 
to find the capital to set up shop down 
there. It would be the Japanese who 
would move in and build plants to com- 
pete with American automakers.” 

AFL-CIO President Lane Kirkland 
urged Secretary of Labor Lynn Martin 
to impress upon the Bush administra- 
tion labor’s “deep apprehension and 
concern of the breakneck pursuit of this 
free trade agreement. There are very 
serious issues to be resolved before we 
attempt to create a common market be- 
tween the United States and Mexico.” 

The lobbying campaign ultimately 
will end in the halls of Congress, where 
Senate Majority Leader George Mit- 
chell (D-Maine) told the council that 
there is not a strong sentiment to oppose 
the administration’s plans. 

However, House Majority Leader 
Richard Gephardt (D-Mo.) and Rep. 
William Ford (D-Mich.), chairman of 
the House Education and Labor Com- 
mittee, indicated they would try to 
derail the fast-track process, and House 
Speaker Thomas Foley (D-Wash.) 
urged the labor leaders to lobby 
members of the House Ways and Means 


Committee and the Senate Finance 
Committee, which have jurisdiction on 
the issue. 

Donahue interrupted his work with 
the Executive Council to travel to 
Washington, where he testified against 
the proposal before the Ways and 
Means Committee on Feb. 21. Compar- 
ing the “fast-track” U.S. -Mexico pro- 
posal with the European Community 
common market plan, which began in 
1958 and will be concluded next year, 
Donahue noted: 

“The Europeans are working to 
establish a Social Charter to protect 
workers in the 1992 single market. The 
charter would include rights to collec- 
tive bargaining, vocational training, 
health and safety protection and 
minimum wage. 

Protections lacking 

“The administration and the Mexican 
government resist any such protections 
in the U.S. -Mexico arrangements,” 
Donahue continued. “Also, it has been 
reported that the Mexicans have taken 
environmental issues off the table.” 

Donahue also pointed out that the 
European Community has a huge assist- 
ance program that will spend at least 
$68 billion over the next four years to 
narrow the gap between the richest and 
the poorest regions, while no such fund 
is available in any proposed U.S.- 
Mexico common market. 

In a North America free trade zone, 
Donahue noted, “Mexicans would 
make up 85 million of the 360 million 
people in the area — almost 25 per- 
cent — but the Mexican GNP per capita 
is less than 10 percent of the average.” 

A free trade agreement with Mexico, 
Donahue said, “is a device for the rich 
to get richer and the poor to get 
poorer.” 


Action urged to ban strikebreakers 


Continued from Page 1 

sacrifice for workers. It is a last resort 
when the effort to achieve agreement 
fails, and it is designed under those cir- 
cumstances to bring the other side back 
to the bargaining table.” 

AFL-CIO Secretary-Treasurer Thomas 
R. Donahue, who chairs a steering 
committee for the legislation that in- 
cludes Industrial Union Department 
President Howard D. Samuel and Leg- 
islative Director Robert M. McGlotten, 
said the federation is seeking to restore 
the balance in negotiations. 

Donahue, who appeared with repre- 
sentatives of striking Daily News work- 
ers at a news briefing on the issue, cited 
a litany of disputes egged on through 
the use of “permanent replacements” 
— from Magic Chef and International 
Paper to Greyhound and the Daily 
News. 

“Strikes are being prolonged by this 
practice,” Donahue said. “The threat 
of ‘permanent replacements,’ whether 
expressed or implied, has a stultifying 
effect on negotiations.” 

Donahue said the recent trend toward 
increased use of these replacement 
workers shows that “employers see in 
it an opportunity to change the system, 
to defeat the choices made by workers 
to choose their collective bargaining 


representatives and to replace their 
employees with lower-paid workers.” 

Democratic leaders visiting the Ex- 
ecutive Council expressed support for 
the legislation, with House Majority 
Leader Richard Gephardt (D-Mo.) 
stating that he would become the 192nd 
co-sponsor of the House bill. Rep. 
William Ford (D-Mich.), chairman of 
the House Education and Labor Com- 
mittee, later brought word that another 
member had agreed to co-sponsor the 
legislation, bringing to 193 the number 
of House co-sponsors. 

Volunteer sponsors 

“Four of those co-sponsors are Re- 
publicans,” Ford pointed out. “And all 
of the members who agreed to co- 
sponsor the legislation came to us, 
showing that your efforts are having an 
impact. There has been no arm-twisting 
involved.” 

House Speaker Thomas Foley (D- 
Wash.) pledged to push the Striker 
Replacement Bill, predicting unequiv- 
ocally that the legislation would pass the 
House and be sent to the Senate. “If 
there is a veto, then we could have a 
problem,” he said. 

Senate Majority Leader George Mit- 
chell (D-Maine) also promised to work 
for the legislation. But he warned that 


labor would have to add its many voices 
to the lobby to convince many senators 
of the need for the legislation. 

Working against the bill’s supporters 
in the Senate, Kirkland noted, are 
Senate rules that allow a filibuster. “If 
the opposition elects to use that device, 
we will need 60 votes to end debate,” 
he said. “That is a bit more difficult to 
achieve, but we intend to do our level 
best.” 

To facilitate the education process on 
the legislation, the AFL-CIO is mount- 
ing an extensive mass mailing to 
300,000 trade unionists in 21 states, 
McGlotten said. Members will be urged 
to write or phone their congressional 
representatives seeking support for the 
bills. 

Kirkland will testify during hearings 
on the House bill March 6. McGlotten 
said the bill will be marked up in com- 
mittee March 14, with action by the 
committee expected in late April. The 
legislation should be considered by the 
full House in June. The Senate has 
scheduled a hearing on the legislation 
April 9. 

“A democracy that fully respects 
freedom of association, the right to 
form unions, and the right of working 
people to withhold their labor should 
enact those bills,” Kirkland said. 



A n AFL-CIO-backed construction 
safety bill has been introduced in the 
House by Rep. Joseph Gaydos (D-Pa.). 
The bill, H.R. 1063, would establish a 
wide range of on-site safety regulations 
in an industry where some 2,500 work- 
ers are killed on the job each year and 
tens of thousands more are seriously in- 
jured and disabled. 

The bill calls for the property owner 
or a designee to be responsible for 
health and safety, including reporting 
and record-keeping duties, and requires 
a safety and health plan. Each employer 
would be required to have a “compe- 
tent” person responsible for inspecting 
sites, training workers and eliminating 
hazardous conditions. 

H.R. 1063 calls for the establishment 
of an Office of Construction Safety, 
Health and Education within OSHA to 
focus on the safety problems in the in- 
dustry. The legislation has 28 co- 
sponsors and a similar Senate bill is ex- 
pected to be introduced in April. 

In other Capitol Hill action: 
CRIMINAL PENALTIES - Leg 
islation calling for a 10-year prison 
sentence for willful OSHA violations 
that result in a worker’s death was in- 
troduced in the Senate. The bill, S. 445, 
would also impose up to five years in 
prison for violations that cause serious 
injury. 

FUEL EFFICIENCY - The UAW 
told a Senate subcommittee that, while 
it supports several provisions of a new 
motor vehicle fuel efficiency bill. The 
increases called for in S. 279 would re- 
quire significant changes in the kinds of 
automobiles and light trucks the manu- 
facturers produce, which could lead to 
plant closings and job loss for workers 
in those plants and in related industries. 

FEDERAL WORKERS - The 
AFGE urged House and Senate com- 
mittees to amend the 1989 Ethics 
Reform Act, which forbids all federal 
employees from accepting writing or 
speaking fees even if their topic is 
unrelated to their work. The act, aimed 
at members of Congress and other high- 
ranking officials, violates the First 
Amendment rights of most government 
employees, the AFGE charged. The 
prohibition is so broad that a govern- 
ment worker could not accept payment 
for an article or speech on gourmet 
cooking, golf or gardening. There are 
currently five bills in the House and 
Senate aimed at correcting the overkill 
in the original ban. 

UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE 
— Unemployed workers from the East 
Coast called on the government to 
release some of the $8 billion in a 
special fund for extended unemploy- 
ment benefits. Despite growing long- 
term unemployment, only two states 
have hit jobless levels that “trigger” 
such benefits. Witnesses told the House 
human resources subcommitee that the 
current trigger is unrealistic. Rep. 
Thomas Downey (D-N.J.) said he ex- 
pects to introduce legislation reforming 
the unemployment insurance shortly. 







Home mortgage plan joins Union Privilege benefits 


By Colleen M. O’Neill 

U nion members buying a home now 
can do it more easily while saving 
money through the Union Privilege 
Benefit Programs. 

The Union Privilege mortgage/home 
buyers program was to go into opera- 
tion March 1, UPBP President David 
Silberman told the AFL-CIO Executive 
Council. He also announced changes in 
the Union Privilege MasterCard pro- 
gram. 

The mortgage/home buyers program 
offers many special services and fea- 
tures for union members and their 
families, Silberman said. A number of 
affordability enhancement features are 
in the works, including 5 percent down 
payments as well as the availability of 
no-point loans and a first-time home 
buyer program. 

The first-time buyers’ program is be- 
ing developed to allow persons who 
have been union members for at least 
three years, with a household income 
of no greater than 115 percent of the 
median (as determined by HUD), to put 
down only 3 percent of the purchase 
price. And the additional 2 percent 


would come in the form of a bank loan. 

“This program will allow our sub- 
scribing members and their families to 
qualify as buyers more easily,” Silber- 
man said. “Many of those previously 
unable to buy their own home have been 
priced out of the market because they 
don’t have the necessary down pay- 
ment.” 

Another key feature of the program, 
Silberman said, is that the servicing of 
mortgages will never be sold. PHH US 
Mortgage Co. will continue to receive 
monthly payments and service escrow 
accounts, even though the mortgages 
might be sold and resold on the secon- 
dary market. The AFL-CIO Housing 
Investment Trust also is slated to par- 
ticipate. 

Other aspects of the home buyers’ 
program are: 

• Mortgage counselors to help 
members on an individual basis. 

• Telephone applications. 

• Notification of refinancing oppor- 
tunities. 

• Closings at the time chosen by the 
member. 

Final investigations are under way on 


strike insurance for mortgage holders, 
as well as the establishment of an 
interest-free loan fund to cover mort- 
gage payments during layoffs or dis- 
ability. Only union members are eligi- 
ble for those programs. 

UPBP officials also said work was 
under way on reduced-rate homeowners’ 
insurance and mortgage life insurance. 

Except as noted, all aspects of the 
program are available to members of 
subscribing unions, their parents and 
children. A toll-free telephone number 
will be available to members of par- 
ticipating unions, UPBP officials said. 

The new features of the Union 
MasterCard Program include the par- 
ticipation of the Amalgamated Bank of 
New York, owned by the Clothing and 
Textile Workers, in a secured credit 
card program to begin this spring. 

Silberman said the secured card and 
the companion “credit-builder” card 
would broaden the availability of a 
union MasterCard. 

The credit-builder card is designed 
for members with a limited credit his- 
tory. It features a higher interest rate 
(prime plus 8.4 percent) and a $20 


annual fee for two years. After that, 
there is an automatic graduation to a 
regular union MasterCard with no 
annual fee and a lower interest rate. 

Silberman said Union Privilege pro- 
jected that 7 percent of members unable 
to direcdy qualify for the union Master- 
Card would be able to take advantage 
of the program. 

The secured card will assist members 
who can’t qualify because of prior 
credit problems, he said. With a 
secured card, the member makes a 
minimum deposit of $250 and receives 
a credit line equal to that deposit. 

Additional features include a $20 
annual fee, 18.9 percent interest rate, 
a grace period, interest on deposits and 
an automatic graduation after two years 
to a regular union MasterCard. 

Other changes in the MasterCard pro- 
gram include the union bug on all cards, 
corporate or corporate-guaranteed cards 
and custom-designed or union-identi- 
fied cards for a greater number of par- 
ticipating members. 

Members should check with their 
unions to see whether they are sub- 
scribers to the program. 


Council presses rail carriers 
to end bargaining stalemate 



Steve Yarmola/AFL-CIO News 


House Majority Leader Richard Gephardt (D-Mo.) addresses the Maritime 
Trades Department executive board. At right is MTD President Michael 
Sacco. Executive Secretary-Treasurer Jean Ingrao and Air Force Gen. H.T. 
Johnson, commander of the U.S. Transportation Command. 

Maritime Trades urge overhaul 
of U.S. shipbuilding, cargo policies 


Bal Harbour, Fla. 

T he AFL-CIO commended railroad 
unions for their “dedication to the 
national interest” during the Persian 
Gulf War, citing their success in get- 
ting major rail carriers to agree to a 
60-day extension of the cooling-off 
period. 

The Executive Council also reaf- 
firmed its “solidarity with rail labor in 
its struggle for justice and fairness” in 
the current round of bargaining, which 
has been fruitless for three years. 

Pointing out that the negotiations 
“have seen little in the way of good 
faith on the part of the rail carriers,” 
the federation urged both sides “to 
strive toward a mutually acceptable 
agreement through good faith collective 
bargaining.” 

Since negotiations began in 1988, rail 
workers have gone without a wage in- 
crease, while the carriers have posted 
“unprecedented profits,” the council 
said. And yet, rail management con- 
tinues to insist on numerous concessions 
and is demanding its employees pick up 
all or part of the expected increase in 
health care costs. 

Both labor and management had re- 
jected the recommendations of a Presi- 
dential Emergency Board, thereby free- 
ing the unions to strike on or after Feb. 
14, as provided by the Railway Labor 
Act, the council noted. 

Rail unions, the council stressed, did 
not want the dispute to affect in any way 
the ability of U.S. forces to carry out 
their combat mission at this critical 
stage of the Persian Gulf War. They 
persuaded the rail carriers to extend the 
cooling-off period to April 17. 

The unions’ agreement not to strike, 
however, does not modify their rejec- 
tion of the emergency board’s recom- 
mendations, and it is conditioned on a 
commitment from rail management that 
it will begin bargaining in good faith to 


resolve the dispute fairly and equitably, 
the council said. 

Transportation Communications 
Union President Richard I. Kilroy told 
congressional leaders that the rail 
stalemate may yet end up in the hands 
of Congress. 

Kilroy told the council that the three- 
year bargaining effort by the 11 rail 
unions to gain new contracts was among 
the issues discussed during the ex- 
ecutive council meeting of the Trans- 
portation Trades Department, which he 
heads and which marked its first year 
in operation. 

The department also focused on the 
impact of deregulation on the airline in- 
dustry, Kilroy said, and received a 
presentation from Roland Mross, dep- 
uty administrator of the Urban Mass 
Transit Administration, on the Bush ad- 
ministration’s proposed reauthorization 
of the highway /mass transit programs 
that expire Sept. 30. 

Funding was approved for research 
into the current status of the worker in- 
jury compensation systems that cover 
the general work force, rail employees 
and harbor and maritime workers. 

The TTD set as its legislative prior- 
ities the enactment of legislation on 
striker replacement, high way /mass 
transit reauthorization, health care 
reform, flight attendant work hours, 
health and safety regulations, hazardous 
materials, drug and alcohol testing, 
unemployment insurance, whistle- 
blower protections and regulatory 
reform of various modes of 
transportation. 

Walter Shea, chairman of the TTD’s 
Intermodal Surface Transportation Sub- 
committee, reported on the subcommit- 
tee’s efforts to identify both the prob- 
lems and opportunities related to 
intermodalism — the integration of 
various transportation modes into one 
operation. 


Bal Harbour, Fla. 

T he Maritime Trades Department en- 
dorsed a number of issues outside of 
the maritime industry, ranging from 
supporting striker replacement legisla- 
tion to construction safety. It issued 
more than a dozen statements address- 
ing economic, social, legislative and 
health issues. 

However, the MTD executive board 
held fast to traditional concerns in ad- 
dressing domestic shipping policies, 
tariffs, cargo preferences and shipbuild- 
ing. 

The MTD is urging the Bush admin- 
istration to restart a domestic ship- 
building promotion to help stimulate 
commercial vessel construction as well 
as to provide additional shipping assets 
in times of national emergency. 

“Commercial shipyards are an en- 
dangered species in this country,” an 
MTD statement said. “Between 1978 
and 1990, approximately 52,000 ship- 
building and repair jobs were lost in the 
United States.” 

In related issues, the MTD asked the 


Bush administration to address pro- 
blems in the domestic shipping policy. 

“Year after year, the domestic ship- 
ping statutes come under attack, either 
directly with calls for outright repeal, 
or indirectly through waivers and ex- 
emptions that effectively whittle away 
their integrity,” the MTD said. 

Other statements pressed the admin- 
istration to reaffirm its commitment to 
the U.S. merchant fleet and its crews 
through cargo preference laws. 

Speakers at the MTD meeting in- 
cluded AFL-CIO Secretary -Treasurer 
Thomas R. Donahue, Communications 
Workers President Morton Bahr, UAW 
President Owen Bieber, Machinists 
President George Kourpias, Mine 
Workers President Richard Trumka and 
Transportation Communications Union 
Vice President Jack Otero. 

Also addressing the meeting were 
Democratic Sen. Charles Robb of Vir- 
ginia and Rep. Richard Gephardt of 
Missouri, as well as Air Force Gen. 
H.T. Johnson, commander of the U.S. 
Transportation Command. 





warn council 


Martin pressed on need for OSHA reform 



Ray Crowell/Page One Photography 


Susan Bianchi-Sand, president of the Flight Attendants, discusses with 
Secretary of Labor Lynn Martin the jurisdictional problem that has left AFA 
members without health and safety protection. 


By Michael Byrne 
Bal Harbour , Fla . 

N ew Secretary of Labor Lynn Mar- 
tin’s introduction to the labor move- 
ment, in a friendly but pointed meeting 
with the AFL-CIO Executive Council, 
was a primer in workplace safety and 
health. 

“Quite a number of members of the 
council very forcefully addressed a 
variety of occupational health and safety 
issues,’’ was the way AFL-CIO Presi- 
dent Lane Kirkland described the ses- 
sion to the news media. 

Martin, who would be sworn in for- 
mally as the 21st secretary of labor two 
days later, received a series of questions 
and comments addressing labor’s con- 
cerns about inadequate protections for 
workers on the job. She listened, took 
notes and promised to study the situa- 
tion. 

Although noncommittal, Martin said 
she brought a specific message from 
John Sununu, White House chief of 
staff. “The message is: ‘let’s talk.’ The 
door is open. Together we can make 
some changes needed in this country for 
workers.” 

Among the foremost changes needed, 
council member after member stressed, 
is enforcement and reform of the Oc- 
cupational Safety and Health Act. 
Paperworkers President Wayne Glenn 
noted that 1,148 OSHA inspection jobs 
had been eliminated during the Reagan 
administration and that Martin’s pred- 
ecessor, Elizabeth Dole, had restored 
only 150 of that number. 

‘Enforce the law 5 

“First of all, we need you to enforce 
the law,” Glenn said. “But secondly, 
we need your department to stop cav- 
ing in to employers. OSHA announces 
a fine and then their lawyers meet with 
OSHA lawyers and negotiate it way 
down. We believe that unions need a 
place at the table during those negota- 
tions.” 

Lenore Miller, president of the Re- 


By James B. Parks 

T he AFL-CIO congratulated union 
retirees who helped elect COPE- 
endorsed candidates in Florida in 1990 
and made plans to expand that Florida 
Project to other key states in 1992. 

A group of the seniors who played 
key roles in the Florida Project were in- 
troduced to the Executive Council at its 
meeting in Bal Harbour, Fla., where 
Vice President George Kourpias, presi- 
dent of the Machinists and chairman of 
the Committee on Older and Retired 
Union Members, noted that the project 
“engaged more retirees in our political 
program than ever.” 

The project, which was designed to 
increase the participation of union 
retirees in AFL-CIO political programs, 
produced a higher retiree voter turnout 
than ever and bolstered significantly the 
COPE programs of the Florida central 
labor councils, Kourpias said. 

As a follow-up to better senior in- 
volvement in union activities, the AFL- 
CIO Community Services Department 
is conducting seminars to train retirees 
how to help other senior citizens who 


tail, Wholesale and Department Store 
Union, elaborated, noting that Cargill 
Poultry was cited for 149 willful viola- 
tions of safety standards, “in which 
women, mostly single and black, are 
standing so close together that they cut 
each other while deboning chicken,” 
and were fined only $250,000. “Now 
they’re trying like hell to get that 
reduced.” 

The point was taken up by Sigurd 
Lucassen, president of the Carpenters, 
who noted that these downgraded set- 
tlements are not fair to the workers 
whom the act was designed to protect. 

“In most cases, these inspections are 
not initiated by OSHA but by com- 
plaints that we bring to you,” Lucassen 
said. “There should be worker involve- 
ment because workers have first-hand 
knowledge of the safety problems.” 

Told by Lucassen that OSHA Direc- 
tor Gerard Scanned is on record favor- 
ing employee participation in the settle- 
ment reviews, Martin said she would 
confer with Scanned. But she voiced 
skepticism that she could change the 
process through an executive order, and 
indicated that the law might have to be 
changed. 

Change the law 

Changing the law is a major legisla- 
tive priority of the AFL-CIO, said Lynn 
Williams, chairman of the federation’s 
Committee on Safety and Occupational 
Health. He told Martin that this April 
28, which is both Workers Memorial 
Day and the 20th anniversary of the 
enactment of OSHA, labor would be 
focusing on the need for reform of the 
law. 

“We hope that the Department of 
Labor will take a close look at what we 
would like to have changed and up- 
dated,” Williams said. 

In his report to the council, Williams 
noted that Scanned was briefed during 
a meeting with the committee in Novem- 
ber on concerns about ergonomic haz- 
ards and the continuing problem of the 


have health, social or financial prob- 
lems, Kourpias reported. 

One seminar is planned this month in 
York, Pa. Others were completed last 
week in Bethlehem and Johnstown, Pa. , 
and last month in Jacksonville, Fla. The 
Jacksonville seminar was so successful 
that the department has assigned a com- 
munity services liaison to coordinate 
training in Florida. 

More seminars 

Future seminars are planned for 
Orlando and Miami. AFL-CIO state 
federations in Ohio, Indiana, Texas, 
Alabama, and Illinois also are planning 
similar seminars. The AFL-CIO is 
surveying activity in central labor coun- 
cils and the National Council of Senior 
Citizens clubs to avoid duplication. 

The political success in Florida 
demonstrated the impact that seniors 
can have, Kourpias noted. Using the 
slogan “Retirees Make It Happen In 
1990,” the program played a key role 
in the victory of the COPE-endorsed 
candidate for governor, Democrat 
Lawton Chiles. 


exclusion of unions from settlement 
negotiations. 

“We also discussed the possibility of 
administration support for legislative 
proposals on OSHA reform, which at 
this point, looks unlikely,” said 
Williams, who predicted that a com- 
prehensive OSHA reform bill will be 
introduced before April 28. 

Communications Workers President 
Morton Bahr pressed Martin on ergo- 
nomic safety, noting that many workers 
are permanently disabled performing 
repetitive tasks. He urged her to review 
the transcript of testimony before the 
House subcommittee on employment 
and housing, chaired by Rep. Thomas 
Lantos (D-Calif.) 

“I testified following four women, all 
in different industries — a catfish 
worker, a poultry worker, a rewrite 


COPE-backed candidates won two 
closely contested congressional races 
and held or increased majorities in both 
houses of the state legislature. 

Voters over age 60 cast one-third of 
the vote in the governor’s race, with 58 
percent voting for Chiles. Union mem- 
bers cast 7 percent of the vote, with 70 
percent voting for Chiles. 

The Florida project began last year 
after the Executive Council directed 
COPE to develop a pilot program to in- 
volve more seniors more closely in 
AFL-CIO political activities. 

After Florida was selected as the pilot 
site, meetings were held in each AFL- 
CIO central labor council in the state 
with senior representatives from each 
affiliate and international unions. The 
NCSC also participated in the meetings. 

Seniors were installed in each central 
labor council along with senior repre- 
sentatives of the A. Philip Randolph In- 
stitute and the Labor Council for Latin 
American Advancement. The seniors 
began working full time on the project 
Oct. 1. 

Almost 50,000 retirees received a let- 


editor and a checkout clerk — and all 
permanently disabled,” Bahr said. 

‘ ‘When asked how the repetitive motion 
disorder had affected her life, one 
woman said, ‘I cannot even hug my 
grandchildren.’ ” 

Flight Attendants President Susan 
Bianchi-Sand asked Martin to help 
resolve a jurisdictional dispute between 
the Labor Department and the Federal 
Aviation Administration, which effec- 
tively leaves her members without 
OSHA coverage. 

And AFSCME President Gerald Mc- 
Entee pointed out that his public 
employee members, deprived of na- 
tional OSHA protections, have had to 
contend with patchwork remedies at the 
state level. He called for public 
employees to be covered under com- 
prehensive OSHA reform legislation. 

be expanded 

ter from AFL-CIO President Lane 
Kirkland asking them to volunteer for 
the program. Retirees staffed phone 
banks in the labor council offices and 
distributed printed material containing 
information, endorsements and can- 
didates’ positions on senior issues. 

The program also targeted mailings 
for absentee voting. 

Many unions participated 

With the help of all the affiliates that 
participated in the organizational meet- 
ing, COPE increased its computer list 
of seniors in Florida from 60,000 to 
87,000. This does not include a total of 
40,000 mailings to their own retirees by 
the Teamsters, UAW, AFSCME and 
Ladies’ Garment Workers. 

COPE Director John Perkins and 
staff member Steve Protulis, who 
directed the Florida Project, said the 
federation will continue to support the 
developing program to assure that 
seniors make their voices heard. 

The UAW, ILGWU and Machinists 
also contributed to the successful pilot, 
Protulis noted. 


Successful seniors’ political project will 





Rallies mark 
year of strike 
at Greyhound 



Steve Yarmola/AFL-CIO News 


Solidarity Day coordinator John Perkins displays a and supporters from across the country to counter the 
memento of the 1981 demonstration in Washington, anti-union campaign of the newly elected administra- 
which drew hundreds of thousands of union members tion of Ronald Reagan. 

Solidarity Day ’91 set for Labor Day weekend 


Bal Harbour, Fla. 

T he AFL-CIO donated $25,000 to 
start a relief fund for the 9,000 
Amalgamated Transit Union members 
who on March 2 passed their first year 
on strike against Greyhound. That date 
was marked by solidarity rallies in six 
cities across the country — Syracuse, 
N.Y., Atlanta, Milwaukee, Dallas, 
Denver and Portland, Ore. 

The AFL-CIO Executive Council ap- 
proved the fund and set up the rallies 
following the report of Steelworkers 
President Lynn Williams on the activ- 
ities of the strategic approaches sub- 
committee he chairs. 

Previous union contributions to the 
ATU had been solicited to help with ad- 
ministrative costs during the first year 
of the strike. 

Williams also reported that activities 
at the New York Daily News included 
an “expanding corporate strategy en- 
compassing other Chicago Tribune 
holdings and the board of directors” of 
the Tribune, which owns the Daily 
News. 

“Solidarity among the nine unions at 
the Daily News has been rock solid for 
the four months of the Daily News 
strike,” Williams said, noting that 
solidarity had brought management 
back to the bargaining table. Mediator 
W.J. Usery Jr. had met with all nine 
unions and management principals in 
talks William reported as “fruitless so 
far.” 

“That’s quite a change for manage- 
ment from its Oct. 25 presumption that 
it would bust out the unions” soon after 
a strike started, Williams said. He also 
noted the labor solidarity in the seven 
months following the March 1990 ex- 
piration of the Daily News contracts, as 
unions thwarted management’s attempt 
to force a strike. 

Daily News negotiations 

The nine striking Daily News unions 
selected the Graphic Communications 
members who are printing pressmen at 
the News as the first group to bargain. 
After several meetings, however, Usery 
announced that those talks would be 
postponed until Feb. 27. Daily News 
publisher James Hoge gave unions un- 
til today to grant concessions or he said 
he will decide whether to close the 
paper. 

Williams reported on continued com- 
munity services support for the Machin- 
ists following the suspension of opera- 
tions at Eastern Airlines, a major 
Strategic Approaches Committee pro- 
ject for the past two years. 

The strategic approaches method was 
created as a part of the AFL-CIO Com- 
mittee on the Evolution of Work in 
1986 to be a coordinating vehicle for 
federationwide support of unions who 
ask for AFL-CIO help in collective 
bargaining crises. 

It was immediately invited to become 
involved in the USX strike that year and 
has coordinated AFL-CIO efforts in 
strikes by the NFL Players Association, 
Broadcast Employees at NBC, Actors’ 
Equity and Musicians with recording 
companies, Communications Workers 
and Electrical Workers at AT&T and 
Mine Workers at Pittston, in addition 
to the Eastern, Greyhound and New 
York Daily News efforts. 

Checks to the new fund for ATU 
members should be made out to Fair- 
ness for Grayhound Strikers Inc. , 1 140 
Connecticut Ave. N.W., Suite 800, 
Washington, D.C. 20036. 


By Candice Johnson 
Bal Harbour, Fla . 

S olidarity Day 1991, set for the Satur- 
day of Labor Day weekend, will 
celebrate the 10th anniversary of the 
success of the first gathering, when 
hundreds of thousands of working men 
and women from across the country 
flocked to the nation’s capital, the Ex- 
ecutive Council said. 

Declaring “We Are One,” the trade 
unionists showed in 1981 that they were 
prepared to meet the attack on the labor 
movement launched by the Reagan ad- 
ministration and to work for economic 
and social justice, the council said. “It 
has not always been easy, but that 
promise was kept,” it added. 

Ten years later, union members again 
will be coming to Washington, on 
Saturday, Aug. 31, to demonstrate sup- 
port for three key goals: a ban on the 


Bal Harbour, Fla. 

R eaffirming its commitment to worker 
dignity and autonomy, the AFL- 
CIO called on Congress to outlaw a 
growing number of management prac- 
tices such as eavesdropping on phone 
calls and genetic screening tests that in- 
vade workers’ privacy. 

“Employers in increasing numbers 
are seeking to probe — and then to 
regulate — the most private aspects of 
their employees’ lives away from 
work,” the Executive Council said. 

These tactics “undermine basic 
privacy and due process rights. Yet to 
date, there has been only limited legis- 
lative protection for these rights,” the 
council statement noted. 

“The AFL-CIO is committed to 
enhancing the dignity of working men 
and women and to preventing intrusions 
into workers’ privacy. We support 
legislation that would go further than 
present law to preserve . . . worker 


Bal Harbour, Fla. 

I n the festering dispute in the Pacific 
Northwest over timber-related jobs 
and protection of the northern spotted 
owl, Congress should strike a balance 
by developing a policy that “will en- 
hance economic stability in the region, 
while maintaining the integrity of our 
precious natural resources,” the AFL- 
CIO said. 

“The issue is not whether the spot- 
ted owl should be preserved, but rather 
how to accomplish that goal while pre- 
serving the jobs and communities that 
depend on the continued harvesting of 
timber on public lands in the region,” 
the Executive Council said in a state- 
ment. 


permanent replacement of strikers, na- 
tional health care reform and full free- 
dom of association at home and abroad. 

“Much has happened since 1981,” 
AFL-CIO President Lane Kirkland 
said, noting that “freedom of associa- 
tion becomes a much more important 
issue since the massacre at Tiananmen, 
the fall of the Berlin Wall and the 
collapse of communism throughout 
Europe.” 

The 1991 Solidarity Day will target 
permanent replacements because “per- 
mitting permanent replacement disrupts 
the American system of collective bar- 
gaining and threatens the ability of the 
trade union movement to negotiate fair 
and effective labor contracts,” the 
council said. 

The demonstration also will continue 
the trade union movement’s call for na- 
tional health care reform — built 


privacy and to outlaw management 
practices which intrude” on that 
privacy. 

The statement condemned employers 
who ask their employees about their 
union sympathies, political beliefs, 
financial status and other personal 
matters. 

The council also attacked random 
drug testing policies applied “without 
any requirement of reasonable suspicion 
of wrongdoing.” 

Many employers, in an effort to shift 
the blame for rising health care costs 
and to further their personal agendas, 
are trying to regulate workers’ off-duty 
conduct, such as telling employees 
whether they can smoke at home or 
what they can eat at their own dinner 
table, the council said. 

“Medical screening reveals the most 
intimate details of employee health, in- 
cluding those that have no relation to 
job performance,” the council said. 


The council pointed out that the trade 
union movement, for more than 50 
years, has advocated forestry methods 
that reflect a concern for environmen- 
tal quality and the preservation of the 
nation’s forests. 

In particular, the AFL-CIO consist- 
ently has favored the combination of 
setting aside “old growth” stands of 
public timberland into wilderness areas 
and parks, and forestry practices that 
will assure an enduring supply of timber 
available for harvest, the council said. 

Measures now before Congress 
“would disrupt this balance,” the coun- 
cil warned, by placing severe new 
limitations on timber harvesting in an 
effort to protect the habitat of the 


around the principles of access, qual- 
ity care and cost containment. 

COPE Director John Perkins, who 
coordinated the first Solidarity Day, 
will again organize the anniversary 
event, said Kirkland, who noted that he 
had encountered wholesale support for 
the idea in talking with council mem- 
bers about the 1991 event. 

Perkins said he was contacting af- 
filiated unions, asking them to designate 
coordinators who could help arrange 
transportation for the event. With more 
than six months to prepare, compared 
with the 17 weeks’ lead time for the 
1981 demonstration, and with the help 
of international unions that have af- 
filiated since 1981, Solidarity Day 1991 
should be a successful event, he said. 

Perkins also told the council that the 
Interior Department has been notified, 
and permits already received. 


Finally, employers have exploited a 
legal loophole to eavesdrop on em- 
ployee telephone conversations with 
customers. This “is yet another often- 
used technique that has no place in a 
free society,” the council stressed. 

The statement is the latest in a series 
of efforts by unions to stop these prac- 
tices. The Communications Workers in 
September filed a multimillion dollar 
class action suit against Northern Tele- 
com Inc. of Nashville claiming the com- 
pany spied on its employees. 

The suit said the company wiretap- 
ped telephones and installed hidden 
microphones to stymie union organ- 
ization. 

The CWA in October also released 
a study that showed electronically 
monitoring the output of workers at 
video display terminals significantly in- 
creases VDT-related health problems 
such as aching wrists, back and neck 
problems and fatigue. 

save timber jobs 

northern spotted owl, which is desig- 
nated as “threatened” under the En- 
dangered Species Act. 

Leading forest economists have pre- 
dicted that restrictions would im- 
mediately wipe out 100,000 jobs in the 
logging industry, the council said. In 
addition, communities in Oregon, 
Washington and Northern California 
would suffer further job losses in 
timber-related industries that could 
bring the region’s total loss to $3.8 
billion. 

Further, the council emphasized, the 
severe limitations on timbering could 
reduce the supply of wood, raise the 
cost of building materials and exacer- 
bate the shortage of affordable housing. 


Council: Keep Big Brother out of workplace 


Balanced federal policy sought to 







AFSCME Photo 


AFSCME Minnesota activists and organizers celebrate the election victory of 
their union on six state university campuses. 


Large-unit 
drives boost 
organizing 

Major wins feature 
Hispanics, women 

By Sharolyn Rosier 

T he start of the 1990s has been marked 
with “increasing sophistication and 
commitment of unions to undertake 
large organizing drives,” the AFL-CIO 
Executive Council was told during its 
winter meeting in Bal Harbour, Fla. 

“The development of strategies and 
programs which address the special 
problems of units involving more than 
500 workers” has resulted in some 
distinctive victories, reported Vice 
President John J. Sweeney, president of 
the Service Employees and chairman of 
the Committee on Organizing. 

SEIU Local 399’s Justice for Janitors 
campaign in Los Angeles is a prime ex- 
ample, Sweeney said. That campaign’s 
latest contracts, which came during the 
council meeting, bring to 5,200 the 
number of workers organized in the Los 
Angeles area alone. More than 90 per- 
cent of these Los Angeles workers are 
Hispanics. 

Most recently, Local 399 organized 
850 employees of Bradford Building 
Services, the largest non-union clean- 
ing contractor in Los Angeles. 

Labor’s ability to organize large 
groups of Hispanic workers has been 
aided by the development of such 
organizations as the Labor Immigration 
Assistance Program (LIAP) and the 
California Immigrant Workers Associa- 
tion (CIWA) in the Los Angeles area. 

“Latino workers come to the United 
States with differing views of labor 
depending upon their culture and ex- 
periences in their own country,” said 
AFL-CIO Regional Director David 
Sickler. “LIAP and CIWA are an in- 
tegral part of the gap the AFL-CIO has 
begun to bridge with the Latino com- 
munity in Los Angeles.” 

Another organizing breakthrough 
was reported to the council by 
AFSCME President Gerald W. Mc- 
Entee, whose union recently organized 
3,200 clerical employees on six cam- 
puses of the University of Minnesota. 
The election marks a nearly decade- 
long effort to unionize the university’s 


Bal Harbour, Fla. 

U nion-only investments offer the best 
return for union pension funds, in 
advancing both finances and the labor 
movement, the AFL-CIO said in urg- 
ing union pension trustees to invest in 
union projects. 

In a report on the Pension Investment 
Committee he chairs, Bricklayers Presi- 
dent John T. Joyce told the Executive 
Council that union-only projects are 
outperforming non-union investments. 
Even in a slumping housing market, the 
AFL-CIO Housing Investment Trust 
reported a 29 percent increase in assets 
last year, he said. 

“While the industry may be down, 
investments are providing an excellent 
return,” Joyce said. “Union trustees 
should be encouraged to participate in 
union-only housing and real estate in- 
vestments.” 

Joyce also reported that the commit- 
tee will do fact-finding on investment 
opportunities in Eastern Europe, where 
an economic boost could assist fledg- 
ling free trade unions. 


clerical employees — 93 percent of 
whom are women — in Minneapolis, 
St. Paul, Duluth, Waseca, Crookston 
and Morris. 

“This is certainly one of the happiest 
days of our union since the Harvard vic- 
tory,” McEntee said. Staff from the 
AFSCME Harvard clerical campaign, 
which organized 3,400 clerical workers 
at that university, assisted in the Uni- 
versity of Minnesota campaign. 

The organizing committee report 
noted that, “while the NLRB figures 
for AFL-CIO unions for the first half 
of 1990 reflect a slight downturn in the 
number of elections and employees 
organized, they remain higher than the 
years 1982 through 1988.” 

Unions avoid NLRB 

NLRB statistics, however, would not 
include either the AFSCME success in 
Minnesota or the SEIU victories in Los 
Angeles because Minnesota public em- 
ployees are not covered by the National 
Labor Relations Act and the SEIU 
chose to deal directly with the building 
service contractors rather than petition- 
ing through the NLRB. That method — 
outside the NLRB — was also used by 
the Food and Commercial Workers in 
recent drives among catfish workers in 
Mississippi. 

The report cited organizing victories 
by the Machinists, with 2,500 workers 
at American Racing Equipment in Cali- 
fornia, and by the UAW, with 1,300 
workers at Freightline Truck Manufac- 
turing Co. in North Carolina. 

Other organizing gains included: the 
Mine Workers at South East Coal Com- 
pany in Kentucky; the Rubber Workers 
at America Olean Tile Company in 


Joyce also announced model guide- 
lines on the use of proxy votes for 
trustees of Taft-Hartley pension plans. 
The guidelines spell out the duties of the 
proxy and specify key issues that the 
proxy should consider before voting. 
They are available to unionists by 
writing the AFL-CIO Employee Bene- 
fits Department, Room 306, 815 16th 
St. N.W., Washington, D.C. 20006. 

The Executive Council also addres- 
sed several other key corporate issues, 
including takeovers, foreign control of 
the aviation industry and abuse of Sec- 
tion 936 of the tax code. 

The council urged Congress to stop 
the leveraged buyout craze that “lines 
the pockets of speculators, investment 
bankers and lawyers at the expense of 
working people.” 

While condemning the “financial an- 
tics” of corporate raiders like Carl 
Icahn and Frank Lorenzo, “who left a 
trail of broken companies, disrupted 
communities and shattered lives,” the 
statement singled out Harold Simmons’ 
bid to take over Lockheed. 


Pennsylvania; Graphic Communica- 
tions at Areata Graphics in Massachu- 
setts; the Government Employees at 
Defense Industrial Plant Equipment 
Center; the Clothing and Textile Work- 
ers at the University of Massachusetts 
at Amherst; and SEIU at the Los 
Angeles Public School System. 

The workers most interested in 
organizing are those in the fastest grow- 
ing segments of the work force. By the 
year 2000, fully 40 percent of the labor 
force will be minorities or women and 
the female proportion will be close to 
50 percent. 

In the coming decade, these groups 
will account for 85 percent of all new 
entrants into the workforce. 

To reach these large numbers of the 
changing work force, AFL-CIO unions 
have drawn on a large array of specific 
tactics, the report said. 

“The major elements of these large 
unit strategies include extensive ad- 
vance preparation, a substantial staff 
commitment from the outset of the cam- 
paign, involvement of union members 
as volunteer organizers, careful devel- 
opment of themes, efforts to win com- 
munity support, and an emphasis on 
timing,” Sweeney reported. 

But small campaigns are just as im- 
portant to the growth of many unions, 
the report stated, noting that the federa- 
tion’s largest affiliate, the Teamsters, 
“has continued to have success by con- 
centrating on smaller units.” 

Workers are more aware of their 
rights today, he added, noting the “per- 
sistent willingness of non-union 
workers to overcome the inequities of 
the current labor laws to join together 
and gain a voice on the job.” 


The takeover would threaten some 
25,000 jobs of Machinists, Electrical 
Workers and Operating Engineers at 
Lockheed. Simmons’ previous three 
deals led to the loss of 10,000 jobs and 
a reduction in benefits and the use of 
pension funds to finance other take- 
overs, the council said. 

Another threat to U.S. jobs is the 
Bush administration’s plan to liberalize 
controls on foreign ownership of air- 
lines and its willingness to allow foreign 
airlines to carry passengers between 
U.S. cities, the council said. 

These policies could destroy the 
domestic airline industry’s ability to 
compete and cause some companies to 
be replaced by foreign carriers, the 
council said. 

The council also called on Congress 
to deny tax breaks under Section 936 
of the U.S. Tax Code to companies that 
have used the law to shut down U.S. 
plants and transfer jobs to Puerto Rico. 

Section 936 exempts companies from 
corporate income taxes on profits made 
in Puerto Rico and the U.S. territories. 


Institute trains 
new generation 
of organizers 

By Candice Johnson 
Bal Harbour, Fla . 

T he AFL-CIO Organizing Institute’s 
mission to recruit, train and place a 
new generation of union organizers is 
meeting with success, especially in ef- 
forts to find unionists, female and 
minority candidates to spread the union 
message. 

In a presentation to the Executive 
Council, Richard Bensinger, the in- 
stitute’s executive director, outlined the 
program’s development and accomplish- 
ments over its 17 months of operation, 
and highlighted some new initiatives. 

He noted that some 50 teaching fel- 
lows from the eight unions participating 
in the institute — AFSCME, Service 
Employees, Clothing and Textile Work- 
ers, Carpenters, Steelworkers, Team- 
sters, Hotel Employees and Restaurant 
Employees, and Food and Commercial 
Workers — are passing on their skills 
and ideas in expanded classroom train- 
ing sessions, training a new generation 
of organizers. 

“We are attempting to make some 
fundamental changes in what is now an 
incredibly unfair arena” of a national 
labor law manipulated by ruthless em- 
ployers, Bensinger said. 

To accomplish its goals, Bensinger 
said, the Organizing Institute carefully 
recruits the best potential organizers, 
provides them with rigorous classroom 
and on-the-job training and tests them 
in rough-and-tumble organizing drives, 
where they help develop campaign 
strategies along with experienced organ- 
izers. 

One-quarter complete program 

Bensinger noted that only one-quarter 
of the individuals who qualify for the 
program actually complete it. “While 
we are grading these individuals, they 
are also grading us,” he said. “As 
many as 30 percent discover that the job 
is just not for them.” 

In 1990, 196 students began the in- 
stitute’s three-day classroom training 
session. Nearly 50 percent were 
women, 55 percent were trade unionists 
and 27 percent were black, Asian or 
Hispanic workers, the institute said, 
noting that its success in reaching 
qualified minority candidates will help 
affiliates reach workers most in need of 
union representation. 

Bensinger said his goal is to increase 
recruitment and the number of gradu- 
ates by 60%, achieving a level of 70 
graduates per year. In its first year, the 
Organizing Institute has successfully 
placed 44 of its graduates in full-time 
organizing jobs. 

Clothing and Textile Workers Presi- 
dent Jack Sheinkman told the council 
that his union had hired several grad- 
uates from the institute and “has gained 
immensely” from participating in the 
program. 

“The AFL-CIO is performing one of 
the most valuable services it can to its 
affiliates and I would urge other union 
officers to participate,” he said. “By 
assisting in this vital area, the federa- 
tion is giving us something we might 
not otherwise be able to achieve, given 
our resources.” 

Mark Splain, the institute’s assistant 
director, told the council that demand 
is growing for trained and talented 
organizers. 

“Our affiliates say their greatest need 
is for individuals who can plan and lead 
the organizing campaigns, and that’s 
where we’ve put our resources,” Splain 
said. 


Pension trustees urged to invest union-only 




Fang Lizhi, free at last, 
accepts Meany Award 



Steve Yarmola/AFL-CIO News 


Fang Lizhi is congratulated for winning the 1990 George Meany Award. 


Council condemns 
Bush’s support 
of China tryanny 

By Michael Byrne 
Bal Harbour , Fla. 

L ike Lech Walesa of Poland and Dr. 

Andrei Sakharov of the Soviet Union 
before him, Dr. Fang Lizhi of China 
traveled an arduous road to freedom, 
finally meeting with the AFL-CIO Ex- 
ecutive Council to accept the George 
Meany Human Rights Award. 

Fang, 54, an astrophysicist, inspired 
a generation of Chinese students with 
his writings on human rights, leading 
to the Tiananmen Square protests of the 
spring of 1989. At the time, he was con- 
fined to the U.S. Embassy in Beijing, 
where he spent 385 days to foil efforts 
by the Chinese government to arrest 
him. 

The AFL-CIO twice before sought to 
meet with Fang and to present him with 
the 1990 Meany award, but was re- 
buffed by the Chinese government, 
which refused him permission to leave 
China. The council chose him to receive 
the prize last February. 

Fang, appearing before the council 
with his wife, Dr. Li Shuxian, said he 
was “deeply moved to accept this 
award. It is a special honor because it 
is the first time I have been honored by 
an organization of workers.” 


AFL-CIO President Lane Kirkland, 
noting that Fang is now conducting 
research in astrophysics at the Institute 
of Advanced Study in Princeton, N.J., 
where Albert Einstein worked, praised 
Fang for his continued compaign 
against China’s repressive communist 
regime. 

Fang, often called the “Sakharov of 
China,” was twice expelled from the 
Communist Party for his published 
criticisms, the first time in 1957, and 
was imprisoned for a year during the 
so-called Cultural Revolution in the 
1960s. 

“Rehabilitated” in 1978, when he 
became China’s youngest full pro- 
fessor, Fang continued to speak out on 
the failure of communism in China, and 
again was expelled in 1987. 

Fang played no public role in the stu- 
dent campaign that led to Tiananmen 
Square, but China’s leaders saw him as 
a major inspiration behind the protests 
and demanded that the United States 
hand over Fang and his wife to 
authorities. 

Chinese police prevented him from 
attending a dinner hosted by President 
Bush during his visit to China in 
February 1989, an invitation that has 
not been extended since. 

The council criticized the Bush ad- 
ministration for pursuing a policy “that 
reinforces what our own State Depart- 
ment calls ‘an authoritarian one-party 


state ruled by the Chinese Communist 
Party.’ ” It noted that U.S. trade incen- 
tives for China produced a deficit with 
that country in 1990 of nearly $11 
billion, second only to the U.S. trade 
deficit with Japan. 

“The AFL-CIO believes that U.S. 
policy in China is wrong; it must be 
changed,” the council said. “Business- 
as-usual cooperation with the totali- 
tarian regime makes America de facto 
partners in the oppression of the 
Chinese people.” 

Specifically, the council called on 
Congress to withdraw China’s “Most 
Favored Nation” status; halt U.S. 
government activities to promote 
business in China; mandate that U.S. 
businesses operating in China adopt a 
code of conduct to permit Chinese 
workers to be represented by unions of 
their choosing, and to require U.S. im- 


porters to certify that no part of the pro- 
ducts they buy in China is made by 
forced labor. 

The federation also called for the 
release of Han Dongfang, the leader of 
the Beijing Workers Autonomous 
Federation, and his fellow worker ac- 
tivists arrested in 1989, as well as Wei 
Jingsheng, an electrician imprisoned 
since 1979 for demanding democratic 
reforms. 

In other action, the council approv- 
ed a report from the Committee on 
Asian/ American Labor Support Group 
on the continued work on a national 
organization to support the activities of 
Asian- American trade unionists. 

Committee Chairman Jay Mazur, 
president of the Ladies’ Garment 
Workers, presented a survey showing 
that there are some 200,000 Asian/ 
Pacific union members in the country. 


Lithuanian trade unionist awarded 1991 human rights award 


By Rex Hardesty 
Bal Harbour , Fla. 

L ithuanian trade unionist Kazimieras 
Uoka was awarded the 1991 George 
Meany Human Rights Award by the 
AFL-CIO Executive Council. 

Uoka, a bulldozer operator, founded 
the Lithuanian Workers Union in 1988 
and his drive for free trade unionism has 
carried him beyond his home republic 
to become the key force behind the new 
Confederation of Labor in Russia and 
the Independent Miners Union of the 
Ukraine. 

Uoka provided one of the dramatic 
moments of the 1989 AFL-CIO Con- 
vention when he appeared with Lech 
Walesa of Poland and became the first 
trade unionist from inside the Soviet 


Union to be allowed to respond to an 
AFL-CIO invitation. 

In a council statement, the AFL-CIO 
also denounced the crackdown on free 
democratic movements in the Baltic 
states and the Soviet republics. It called 
on the United States to suspend all 
economic aid to the central Soviet 
government and pledged to “cooperate 
with democratic worker organizations 
and free trade unions of the USSR and 
the Baltic states.” 

In addition to Walesa, other world 
figures who preceded Uoka as winners 
of the award include Andrei Sakharov 
of the Soviet Union, Ernesto Herrera 
of the Philippines, Fang Lizhi of China, 
and Kim Dae Jung of Korea. 

Since 1983, Uoka has worked non- 


stop for formation in Lithuania of a 
trade union movement free of the party- 
controlled Soviet “union” structure. 

Uoka also is a leader of Lithuania’s 
Social Democratic Party and was 
elected to the Supreme Soviet of the 
USSR in 1989 and to the Supreme 
Council of Lithuania in 1990. 

From his youth, Uoka has been in 
constant conflict with the KGB. For 
these activities he was prevented from 
attending schools of higher education as 
a normal student. But he secured a 
higher education in the evenings while 
working for 18 years as a bulldozer 
operator on numerous construction 
projects. 

He proved to be a prophet at the close 
of his remarks to the AFL-CIO conven- 


tion, when he recited the 22 Soviet 
areas in which he knew free trade 
unions were emerging in the wake of 
that year’s dramatic emergence of 
democracy in the Warsaw Pact nations. 

“We would gladly welcome you as 
guests,” he told delegates to the con- 
vention. “If they refuse to let you in 
elsewhere, I can assure you of a fruit- 
ful visit in Lithuania, providing there 
is no military crackdown.” 

On Christmas Eve 1990, just 13 
months later, Uoka sent a message to 
AFL-CIO President Lane Kirkland, 
asking him to call attention to the Soviet 
troop movement on the border — ad- 
vance notice of the crackdown that 
came soon after the Jan. 16 start of war 
in the Persian Gulf. 


Council urges participation in international labor solidarity 


By John R. Oravec 

I nternational labor solidarity is as 
essential to U.S. workers as it is to 
those of nations saddled with oppressive 
regimes where trade union rights are 
subverted and cheap labor is exploited, 
the Executive Council declared at its 
meeting in Bal Harbour, Fla. 

Addressing worker concerns in Latin 
America, Asia and the Middle East, 
council statements called on AFL-CIO 
affiliates to step up their participation 
in the functions of international trade 
secretariats (ITSs). 

U.S. trade unions are confronted with 
an increasingly interdependent world 
where multinational corporations move 
quickly to shift jobs across borders, the 
council said. In such a setting, it noted, 
the role of ITS organizations is vital to 
protect the interests of union members. 

An immediate concern of the council 
is the rapid expansion of so-called ex- 
port processing zones in Caribbean 
countries. “Multinational firms flock to 
these zones to take advantage of cheap 


labor, tax breaks and special trading 
privileges for duty-free access to the 
U.S. market under the Generalized 
Systems of Preferences and the Carib- 
bean Basin Initiative,” the council 
noted. 

“Despite U.S. laws conditioning 
these privileges on respect for interna- 
tionally recognized worker rights, 
workers in many of these zones are not 
allowed to form unions or bargain col- 
lectively. Workers face special diffi- 
culties in Haiti, El Salvador, Guate- 
mala, Colombia, the Dominican Repub- 
lic and Panama.” 

In a statement on Histadrut, the 
Israeli labor federation, the council 
said, “the AFL-CIO expresses its ad- 
miration for Israel’s courage and re- 
straint in the face of unprovoked Iraqi 
attacks on its civilian population . . . We 
reaffirm our bonds of solidarity with 
Histadrut.” 

In other action, the council: 

• Affirmed its support of the Con- 
federation of Turkish Trade Unions 


(Turk-Is), protesting a government ban 
on all strikes for two months and an 
order for striking miners to return to 
work. The crackdown by President 
Turgut Ozal came after Turk-Is con- 
ducted a one-day national demonstra- 
tion by 1.5 million workers that shut 
down all major industrial facilities in the 
country. 

The Bush administration must point 
out to Ozal that “the U.S. government 
considers Turkish compliance with 
democratic norms as important an ob- 
jective as the restoration of Kuwait’s 
sovereignty,” the council declared. 

• Called for the U.S. government to 
defer granting concessions on trade, in- 
vestment and other aid to Vietnam, say- 
ing that “government must end the 
crackdown on pro-democracy organiza- 
tions, release their leaders from prison 
and permit them to continue their demo- 
cratic activities,” the council said. 

• Renewed its call for the U.S. 
government to help end the civil war in 
El Salvador, which has raged for years 


between the right-wing extremists and 
the left-wing FMLN combatants. Vio- 
lence by both sides threatens peace 
negotiations as well as the March 10 
elections for El Salvador’s general 
assembly, in which trade unionists have 
a chance of helping defeat the right- 
wing majority. 

The council called on the Bush White 
House to continue withholding $42.5 
million in military aid and to reinforce 
United Nations efforts for peace nego- 
tiations. 

• Decried workers rights violations 
in Panama, noting that the government 
recently suspended collective bargain- 
ing rights in its export processing zones 
for three years. 

The prohibition was imposed after 
several Korean firms reportedly threat- 
ened to withhold investments if unions 
were allowed, the council said. When 
workers protested the labor code 
changes, the government fired nearly 
1,000 public employees and their 
leaders. 




AFL-CIO pledges campaign to free Cuban workers 



Raymond Crowell/Page One Photography 

Joined by Cuban trade unionists, AFL-CIO President Lane Kirkland lays wreath 
at memorial of Jose Marti in Miami. 


By Michael Byrne 
Bal Harbour, Fla . 

A rmed with specific new evidence of 
Fidel Castro’s continued abuse of 
human and worker rights in Cuba, the 
AFL-CIO pledged to join in an inter- 
national campaign to end his brutal 
regime. 

Pointing out that “the collapse of the 
Soviet bloc has knocked the props from 
under the inefficient Cuban economy,” 
the Executive Council predicted that 
Castro’s “reckless, cruel and mur- 
derous tenure over the people of Cuba 
(is) coming to an end.” 

‘ ‘At this time of democratic possibili- 
ty ... the AFL-CIO looks forward to the 
day when the working people will take 
to the streets of Havana in celebrations 
that rival those we have witnessed in 
Prague, Budapest, Gdansk and Berlin,” 
the council said in a statement. 

Accepting the report of the federa- 
tion’s Labor Committee for a Free 
Cuba, which has spent the past six 
months documenting worker rights 
abuses in Cuba, the council pledged a 
series of concerted actions that “to- 
gether with the struggle of the Cuban 
people can lead to Castro’s fall from 
power, and the establishment of 
democracy.” 

The AFL-CIO designating Feb. 21 as 
“Free Cuba Day,” with various activi- 
ties that highlighted Castro’s tyranny 
while celebrating the resiliency of the 
Cuban people and demonstrating soli- 
darity with the many Cuban ex-patriates 
and freedom-fighters now living in the 
Miami area. 

After the council action, the federa- 
tion held a luncheon to honor two 
Cuban trade unionists — Mario Chanes 
de Armas and Ernesto Diaz 
Rodriquez — who have been im- 
prisoned since the 1960s. Later in the 


day, AFL-CIO President Lane Kirkland 
laid a wreath at the monument of Jose 
Marti, “Cuba’s George Washington,” 
and AFL-CIO Vice President John 
DeConcini, chairman of the Free Cuba 
committee, hosted a reception honoring 
Cuban community and labor activists. 

Kirkland, addressing the luncheon, 
said the AFL-CIO will pursue its cam- 
paign for a free Cuba through the in- 
ternational labor movement and through 
diplomatic channels. 

“We will organize and agitate for 
democratic elections, freedom of asso- 
ciation for workers and full amnesty for 
the 30,000 political prisoners now be- 
ing held in Cuba’s jails,” Kirkland said. 

DeConcini and the Cuba committee 
held three regional meetings last year 
to hear testimony on the conditions in 
Cuba. DeConcini, president of the 
Bakery, Confectionery and Tobacco 
Workers, also introduced members of 
the committee to the AFL-CIO Ex- 
ecutive Council, which named Mike 
Ruano of the Ladies’ Garment Workers 
as the twelfth member of the committee. 

The committee has compiled a 30- 
page report on worker rights abuses in 
Cuba that will be presented to the In- 
ternational Labor Organization in 
Geneva later this year. Last year, it call- 
ed attention to the plight of Chanes and 
Diaz by attempting to deliver to the 
Cuban Interests Section in Washington 
letters from trade unionists around the 
country, protesting their political 
imprisonment. 

“The committee has arranged four 
radio interviews with Eastern European 
trade unionists to be broadcast into 
Cuba,” DeConcini reported. “Ulti- 
mately, the committee seeks to provide 
direct assistance to workers inside Cuba 
who wish to build democracy and free 
trade unions.” 


Kirkland told the luncheon gathering 
that “Cuba has become one of the 
world’s worst places to work — a place 
of abusive and degrading working con- 
ditions, forced labor thinly disguised as 
‘volunteerism,’ religious and ideo- 
logical discrimination at the workplace, 
and relentless pressures to produce 
more for the glory of the state. 

“In order to enforce its directives, the 
Castro regime has devised an Orwellian 
scheme of ‘merits’ and ‘demerits’ for 
individual workers — all neatly record- 
ed in personal dossiers that follow them 
through their lives,” Kirkland said. 

In its report to the council, the Cuba 
committee said its fact-finding revealed 
that Cuban trade unions function as in- 
struments of the Communist Party and 
the Castro regime, working with the 
government to set production quotas. 

“When quotas are not met, workers 
must labor extra hours without pay,” 


the committee reported. ‘The official 
trade unions then dispense permits for. 
housing and comsumer goods based 
upon a workers ‘integration into the 
Revolution,’ including willingness to 
perform ‘voluntary’ labor.” 

One witness told the committee that 
he was aware of three occasions in 
which workers bypassed the official 
trade union to seek redress of their 
grievances, establishing independent 
committees to represent them. 

“These informal groups were quickly 
dismantled by the official unions and 
state security police,” the panel said. 

The hope for Cuba, the council said, 
lies in the strength of its working peo- 
ple. “To this end, we will foster com- 
munication and contact between Cuban 
workers and trade unionists in the 
United States and elsewhere in order to 
share ideas and resources for the tran- 
sition to democracy.” 



Raymond Crowell/Page One Photography 


COSATU's Jay Naidoo is greeted by Presidents Richard Trumka of the Mine 
Workers, right, and Owen Bieber of the UAW, who co-chair the AFL-CIO 
Shell Boycott Committee. 


South African 
sanctions called 
vital by unions 

Bal Harbour, Fla. 

T he violence that has led to the deaths 
of many South African blacks over 
the past six months has been fomented 
by reactionary whites “attempting to 
destabilize the opposition to apartheid,” 
Jay Naidoo, general secretary of the 
Congress of South African Trade 
Unionists (COSATU), told the Execu- 
tive Council. 

“It has been portrayed as black-on- 
black violence,” Naidoo said, “but 
evidence shows that the government 
security forces have played a role. 
Powerful whites are arming the mobs 
and giving rise to vigilantes. People are 
having to defend themselves because 
there is no common police force.” 
Naidoo, criticizing the European 
Community’s decision to lift economic 
sanctions without consulting with black 
South African leaders, urged the United 
States to continue sanctions “until every 
political prisoner is freed, every exile 
welcomed home and every citizen has 
the vote.” 

Moments before Naidoo addressed 
the council, the AFL-CIO reiterated its 
long-standing support for keeping the 
sanctions in place. 

While praising the reforms that had 
occurred over the past year in South 
Africa — particularly the announce- 
ment of the dismantling of the Land, 
Group Areas, Development of Black 
Communities and Population Registra- 
tion Acts — the federation said sanc- 
tions should continue until the govern- 
ment treats all citizens equally. 


The AFL-CIO statement also called 
for a representative conference in South 
Africa to create an interim government 
and the election of a constituent as- 
sembly to draft a new constitution. 

The conference “needs to address the 
issue of an interim administration that 
would represent the broader interests of 
the South African population,” the 
statement said. 

The AFL-CIO said it also supports 
the call by South African trade unions 
for the election of a constituent assemb- 
ly, on a non-racial, one-person, one- 
vote system. 


The federation and its African-Amer- 
ican Labor Center pledged to continue 
backing the South African trade union 
movement. It is this movement that 
“fostered democracy in the dark days 
of apartheid and mass repression and 
led the struggle against an unequal and 
unjust South Africa,” the council said. 

Naidoo thanked the AFL-CIO for its 
continued support, noting that union-to- 
union programs run by AFSCME, the 
UAW, Service Employees, Mine 
Workers and other affiliates were essen- 
tial to the continued development of 
trade unions in South Africa. 


Labor endorses 
Black Patriots 
Memorial drive 

Bal Harbour, Fla. 

T he AFL-CIO, urging its affiliated 
unions to support the Black Revolu- 
tionary War Patriots Memorial, donated 
$5,000 to the project, which would be 
located at Constitution Gardens, mid- 
way between the Lincoln Memorial and 
the Washington Monument in Washing- 
ton. 

With the proposed memorial, “the 
more than 5,000 black soldiers and 
countless other black patriots who sup- 
ported the American Revolution will at 
last be honored for their struggle and 
sacrifice to win freedom for all Amer- 
icans,” the Executive Council said in 
a statement. 

AFL-CIO President Lane Kirkland is 
a member of the national advisory coun- 
cil to the Black Revolutionary War 
Patriots Foundation, a non-profit 
organization that is spearheading the 
effort. 

The foundation must raise $6 million 
by Oct. 27, or forfeit the site. These 
funds will be used to design and con- 
struct the memorial and to provide 
educational materials to schools and 
civic organizations. 

The foundation has designated the 
week of March 4 as Black Revolu- 
tionary War Patriots Week to help in- 
crease public awareness of the signif- 
icance of the memorial for all Amer- 
icans. 

Contributions are being taken through 
the Patriots Foundation, 1612 K Street, 
N.W. Suite 1104, Washington, D.C. 
20006. 




The worst is yet to come 

After recession, it takes years for unemployment to go down 


Jobless rate 




July '81 
to Dec. '82 

□ 

□ 

Q 


Nov. 79 
to July 80 


June 90 
to Jan. '91 


to May 75 


We 

are 

.here. 


Six 

months 


One 

year 


Year and 
a half 


Oct. 1973 -May 1975 

It took three years for unemployment 
to fall below 6 percent, and it never 
got back to the pre-recession rate 
of 4.3 percent 

Nov. 1979 -July 1980 

Unemployment declined for only nine 
months to 12 percent before turning up 
again in the 1981 recession. 

July 1981 - Dec. 1982 

It took four and one-half years for 
unemployment to fall below 6 percent. 


to ease recession woe 


Trade deficit 
again passes 
$100 billion 

By John R. Oravec 

T he U.S. foreign trade deficit in 1990 
exceeded $100 billion for the seventh 
year in succession even as the sagging 
economy reduced the demand for 
imports. 

Last year’s shortfall of $101 billion 
was the narrowest since 1983 as 
December’s trade deficit eased to $6.2 
billion, with imports of $39.7 billion 
and exports of $33.5 billion, the Com- 
merce Department reported. 

But in the seven-year span, the United 
States amassed a deficit of nearly $850 
billion — most of it stemming from an 
import flood of manufactured goods. 
The trade gap in manufactured goods 
amounted to $90. 1 billion in 1990, with 
imports of $388.8 billion and exports 
of $298.7 billion. 

On a balance of payments basis, the 
1990 trade deficit was $108.7 billion, 
the Commerce Department said in 
follow-up report. The fourth quarter 
shortfall eased to $28.9 billion from 
$29.8 billion in the third quarter. 

The balance of payments deficit does 
not include the export sales of military 
goods by the federal government and 
makes certain adjustments to the mer- 
chandise trade data. 

The Commerce Department said 
December imports declined by $3.4 
billion, including $1.1 -billion drop in 
oil products, from November for the 
lowest monthly level in several years. 

AFL-CIO economist Mark A. 
Anderson linked the fall-off to the 
deepening recession: “It’s a sad day 
when improvement in the U.S. trade 
imbalance can be brought about by 
higher unemployment and lower weekly 
earnings.” 

Joblessness up, wages down 

American families took a double 
economic blow in the fourth quarter of 
1990: the recession increased the in- 
cidence of unemployment and inflation 
slashed real earnings. 

A Bureau of Labor Statistics report 
showed that nearly 5.2 million families 
had an unemployed member during the 
quarter. That is an increase of 500,000 
from the year-earlier period. 

The proportion of families with an 
unemployed member rose to 7.9 per- 
cent in 1990 from 7.1 percent in the 
fourth quarter of 1989. During both 
periods, BLS said, seven of 10 of such 
families also had one or more employed 
members. 

Median weekly family earnings edged 
up by 2.8 percent to $657 in current 
dollars between the fourth quarters of 
1989 and 1990. But after adjustment for 
the 6.2 percent increase in retail prices 
logged by the all urban consumer price 
index (CPI-U), real earnings dropped 
3.4 percent. 

For families with two or more wage 
earners, median weekly pay rose 2.9 
percent to $850 in current dollars, but 
slipped 3.4 percent after adjustment for 
inflation. For families with unemployed 
members the median weekly earnings 
$428, but fell off to $315 where the hus- 
band of a married couple family was 
jobless, BLS said. 


Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 

U.S. urged 

By John R. Oravec 

T he AFL-CIO Executive Council 
prodded the federal government for 
a speedy economic recovery program 
to aid America’s recession-strapped 
workers, just as it did in coming up with 
the needed resources for the war in the 
Persian Gulf and the bailout of the sav- 
ings and loan industry. 

The council, meeting in Bal Harbour, 
Fla., called on Congress and the Bush 
administration to take immediate steps 
to ease the pain of recession that is grip- 
ping millions of American workers and 
their families. 

Speedy congressional action is need- 
ed on job-creating programs such as the 
renewal of the nation’s infrastructure 
and on an overhaul of the ineffective 
unemployment insurance system that 
locks out millions of jobless workers 
from benefits, the council said in a 
statement. 

The council noted that the savings and 
loan and Persian Gulf expenditures 
were a proper government response, 
but stressed that “the crisis of unem- 
ployment and the need for long-term 
economic recovery is equally urgent 
and should be dealt with promptly.” 
With the economic downturn in its 
eighth month and nearly 15 million 
American workers either unemployed 
or underemployed, there is no decrease 
in unemployment in sight, the council 
observed. And this rising unemploy- 
ment has a dramatic impact on the 
federal treasury, it said. 

“Each 1 percent of unemployment 


R eal weekly pay for the average non- 
supervisory worker fell 1.9 percent 
in January while retail prices rose 0.4 
percent, the Labor Department re- 
ported. Over the year, real weekly earn- 
ings have slipped 2.8 percent as the con- 
sumer price index for urban wage 
earners (CPI-W) jumped 5.5 percent. 

The take-home pay situation is even 
worse over the decade, AFL-CIO 
economist Anne Draper pointed out, 
with average weekly wages 7.8 percent 
below January 1981 after adjustment 
for inflation. 


costs American taxpayers $33 billion 
— $28 billion in lost tax revenues and 
$5 billion in payments for unemploy- 
ment compensation, food stamps, 
Medicaid and similar costs. Workers, 
too, pay a stiff personal toll of lost in- 
come, diminished self-esteem and fami- 
ly turmoil.” 

The economic policies of the past 
decade have benefited a privileged few, 
the council said, “but they have 
decreased the economic security and 
well-being of average Americans. They 
should be replaced now with sound, ef- 
fective programs to counteract the 
recession.” 

Topping the agenda are: 

• Immediate reform of the unem- 
ployment compensation system to pro- 
vide extended benefits, expanded eli- 
gibility and adequate funds for efficient 
administration of the UI program. Only 
one in three unemployed workers gets 
any benefits at all, the council noted. 

• The green light to improve and 
repair the nation’s highways and 
bridges, as well as the transportation, 
sewer and water systems. 

“Equally important is the critical 
need for adequate housing for low- and 
moderate-income families in cities, 
suburbs and rural areas,” it added. 

In discussing the nation’s economic 
problems with the council, House 
Majority Leader Richard Gephardt (D- 
Mo.) pledged to put high priority on 
passage of a jobs-creating highway bill, 
which would draw on the reserve funds 
in the Highway Trust Fund. 


The Bureau of Labor Statistics said 
three key components of the index — 
housing, apparel and food and bever- 
ages — each rose 0.9 percent in Jan- 
uary, although the transportation com- 
ponent eased by 1.4 percent. 

Health care costs increased 0.8 per- 
cent over the month, and are up 9.2 per- 
cent over the year — the sharpest ad- 
vance of any major component. 

Heating oil prices continued to 
decline, dropping 3.6 percent over the 
month, and were down 1 .9 percent over 
the year. Gasoline prices eased by 6.8 


“This bill is very important because 
it allows us to get more money to the 
states to help build up our infrastruc- 
ture and public works industry, which 
desperately need help,” Gephardt said. 
“We also hope to include funds for 
mass transit to help our big cities with 
major problems.”’ 

House Speaker Thomas Foley (D- 
Wash.) joined Gephardt in calling for 
improving national educational perfor- 
mance, including funding for job train- 
ing. Senate Majority Leader George 
Mitchell (D-Maine) told the council he 
considers a national energy policy, 
which would create new jobs, essential 
to maintaining the country’s economic 
strength. 

Mitchell, Foley and Gephardt criti- 
cized President Bush’s proposal for 
reducing the capital gains tax, urging 
instead tax relief for lower- and middle- 
income Americans, particularly through 
reduced payroll taxes. 

The council said the federal govern- 
ment should provide needed funds to 
maintain state and local government 
services that have been crippled by 
revenue shortfalls, including Medicaid 
that has bearing the burden of mass 
unemployment. 

“Many states and cities are facing 
cuts in police, fire and municipal ser- 
vices, and their schools are suffering 
from a shortage of teachers and from 
deteriorating facilities,” the statement 
said. “Families find themselves unable 
to find affordable, adequate child 
care.” 

to rising prices 

percent in January, but were up 18.7 
percent from the year-ago month. Fuel 
gas and electric rates jumped 2.4 per- 
cent in January and were up 3.5 per- 
cent over the year. 

BLS said a 4-percent increase in local 
telephone charges in January more than 
offset lower long distance rates. 

New federal excise taxes triggered 
hikes in alcoholic beverage prices of 4.9 
percent in January and were up 8.7 per- 
cent over the year. Tobacco prices rose 
1.3 percent over the month and were 
12.4 percent ahead of a year ago. 


Workers continue to lose ground 







Council backs prison skills-building program 


Bal Harbour, Fla. 

U nderscoring the rehabilitative effect 
of prison skills-training programs, 
the AFL-CIO Executive Council ex- 
pressed its support for programs that 
provide training without displacing jobs 
of the general population. 

Noting that the nation’s prison popu- 
lation has swelled to more than 
750,000, the council said that the issues 
surrounding the use of prison labor — 
which prisoners should be allowed to 
work, to what purpose and under what 
conditions — have become more ur- 
gent. Badly conceived programs often 
provide unfair competition and take 
jobs from the general population, it 
said. 

The council affirmed its support for 
programs that: 

• Provide training for jobs available 
to convicts after their release. 

• Produce goods and services that 
are exclusively for government use and 
may not be sold to the public. 

• Pay prevailing wages for similar 
work in the private sector, with ap- 
propriate deductions not to exceed 50 
percent for room and board, taxes, and 
contribution to victim restitution funds, 
but with family support deducted from 
the remaining funds. 


• Prohibit the use of prison labor to 
replace strikers or provide services that 
may prolong a strike and bar the dis- 
placement of existing jobs by prison 
labor. 

The council also reaffirmed AFL- 
CIO opposition to constitutional amend- 
ments that would limit the terms of 
federal and state legislators. 

“Such proposals strike at the heart of 
representative government and the es- 
sence of a democratic society by deny- 
ing citizens the right to vote freely for 
the candidate of their choice,” the 
council said. 

The AFL-CIO pointed out that voters 
already have the power to limit terms 
of elected officials by denying them 
re-election. 

“Denying voters the right to re-elect 
worthy public servants deprives the na- 
tion and the states of valuable expertise, 
experience and effective leadership,” 
the council said. 

In other actions, the council extended 
to the federation’s president the right to 
file Article XX internal disputes com- 
plaints, heard a report on its Article 
XXI rules on organizing procedures and 
asked affiliates to write the Postmaster 
General to urge issuance of a George 
Meany commemorative stamp. 


In expanding the Article XX internal 
disputes complaint policy, the council 
gave the federation president authority 
to intervene in Section 5 cases in which 
no affiliate files a complaint. 

The council said that authority was to 
meet the larger purpose of Article XX, 
Section 5, which is, “to prevent the 
breaches in trade union solidarity and 
the long-term harm to the trade union 
movement that eventuate from ‘no holds 
barred’ organizing campaigns.” 
Section 5 prohibits the circulation of 
campaign materials “which are de- 
signed to bring or have the effect of 
bringing another affiliate into public 
disrepute or of otherwise adversely af- 
fecting the reputation of such affiliates 
or the federation.” 

In a report to the council on Article 
XXI’ s organizing reponsibilities pro- 
cedures, AFL-CIO Secretary-Treasurer 
Thomas R. Donahue said that unions 
won the subsequent organizing cam- 
paign in 15 cases — and lost only 
three — out of the first 20 cases in 
which the AFL-CIO process deter- 
mined which affiliate should proceed. 
He also reported continued success with 
cases being settled in the mediation 
phase, without going to a final determi- 
nation. 


Council boosts Red Cross drive, honors Leland 


Bal Harbour, Fla. 

T he AFL-CIO Executive Council 
urged its affiliates and state and local 
central bodies to support Operation 
Stateside, a program established in part- 
nership with the American Red Cross 
to assist the families of military person- 
nel who are serving overseas. 

The council also agreed to award the 
1991 Murray-Green-Meany award for 
humanitarian work to the late Rep. 
Mickey Leland (D-Texas), who was 
killed in a plane crash in December 
1989 while delivering emergency sup- 
plies to starving refugees in Africa. 
Letter Carriers President Vincent 


Sombrotto, chairman of the AFL-CIO 
Committee on Community Services, 
outlined several activities that the 
federation will expand this year, in- 
cluding unemployment assistance, drug 
and alcohol counseling, food drives, 
disaster training and strike assistance. 

“Every day of the year, without any 
fanfare, the unions of the AFL-CIO 
reach into communities and homes all 
across the nation providing a helping 
hand, from emergency assistance dur- 
ing major disasters to rallying donors 
for a local blood bank,” he said. 

In urging union members to contri- 
bute to the Operation Stateside fund, the 


council noted that the Red Cross has 
estimated that $40 million will be 
needed to help the families of troops 
whose call-up has deprived them of in- 
come, to help families keep in touch and 
to monitor the condition of American 
prisoners of war. 

Contributions, made payable to the 
American Red Cross Gulf Crisis Fund, 
can be sent to Operation Stateside, 
American Red Cross, Department 
0499, Washington, D.C. 20073-0499. 

The Murray-Green-Meany award 
will be presented at the AFL-CIO ’s na- 
tional Conference on Community Serv- 
ices in Washington July 21-26. 


Unions help working families 
caught up in housing crunch 


Bal Harbour, Fla. 

U nions are exploring creative and 
innovative ways to help working 
Americans and their communities over- 
come the housing crunch, the AFL-CIO 
Executive Council was -told by its com- 
mitee on housing. 

The committee, chaired by Brick- 
layers President John Joyce, reviewed 
a housing trust program first established 
by Hotel Employees and Restaurant 
Employees Local 26 in Boston. That 
program — authorized after Congress 
approved an amendment to the Taft- 
Hartley Act — allows employers and 
unions to bargain over contributions to 
jointly administered housing trusts. 

Under the plan, covered workers can 
receive a range of housing services, ad- 
ministered through a separate non-profit 
corporation, including home purchase 
assistance, counseling, credit services 
and other aid. 

Another innovation includes the First 
Trade Union Savings Bank, established 
by the Massachusetts Carpenters Union 
Pension and Annuity Funds, which has 
provided acquisition and construction 
financing to build housing for homeless 
women. The bank also lent more than 
$18 million for the construction of 250 
housing units for working families in 
eastern Massachusetts. 

Working with the Massachusetts Bay 
Transit Pension Fund, the Bricklayers 


and Laborers have sponsored three 
projects to offer more than 100 units of 
affordable housing to working families, 
while unions in Phoenix, Kansas City, 
Albuquerque, N.M. and other cities are 
working to shelter to the homeless. 

The committee also reviewed the 
results of a survey of union-sponsored 
housing, completed by the AFL-CIO 
Department of Economic Research, in- 
dicating that unions since 1952 have in- 
itiated 139 projects covering 27,000 
housing units in 29 states and Puerto 
Rico. 

The survey did not cover pension 
fund activities, nor did it include hous- 
ing projects sponsored by the AFL-CIO 
Housing Investment Trust, which has 
financed more than $750 million of 
multi- and single-family homes, as well 
as retirement centers and health care 
facilities over the past 25 years. 

As of January 1990, HIT’s portfolio 
was invested in 88 real estate projects 
nationwide, the committee said. 

Among the programs reported were 
a 2,585 unit, 5-building cooperative for 
middle-income persons in New York 
City; housing for the elderly and han- 
dicapped in Morgantown and other 
West Virginia cities, and an ongoing 
rehabilitation project that restores 
repossessed buildings in Des Moines, 
Iowa, for purchase by low-income 
tenants. 


Iui\ 

Resources 


T he following publications are 
available from the AFL-CIO 
Publications and Materials Office, 815 
16th St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 
20006: 

Labor Law Handbook explains 
various aspects of labor law, including 
unfair labor practice charges, employee 
rights and duty to bargain. Pamphlet 
No. 216. 

Economic Comparisons Between 
Right-to-Work States and Free Bar- 
gaining States provides geographic 
data on poverty rates, various trades 
and professions, wage rates and unem- 
ployment rates in states with right-to- 
work laws and in free bargaining states. 
Publication No. 196. 

AIDS in the Workplace is a stewards 
manual for dealing with the psycho- 
logical, legal, educational and union 
aspects of the AIDS crisis. Publication 
No. 901. 

Child Care is a guide to implemen- 
ting child care laws. This publication 
provides background information on 
child care legislation, an explanation of 
current legislation and a plan of action. 
Publication No. 217. 


The council urged affiliates to write 
the Postmaster General requesting a 
commemorative stamp of George 
Meany, the AFL-CIO’s first president, 
honoring his service to all working 
Americans. It suggested issuance of the 
stamp in 1994, the centennial of 
Meany ’s birth. 

Meany’ s dedication to his beliefs, his 
integrity and his record of accomplish- 
ment have won him “a lasting place of 
honor in the rolls of the trade union 
movement and in the history of the 
United States,” the Executive Council 
said. 

In other business, the council: 

• Created a new ad hoc council 
committee on energy to be chaired by 
Richard Trumka of the Mine Workers. 
Members are John Barry of the Elec- 
trical Workers, Owen Bieber of the 
UAW, Robert A. Georgine of the 
Building and Construction Trades 
Department and George Kourpias of the 
Machinists. 

• Heard a report from its State and 
Local Central Bodies Committee on the 
continuing efforts to increase local af- 
filiation with those AFL-CIO bodies. 

• Set its next meeting for May 8-9 
at the AFL-CIO building in Washing- 
ton. 

Meany Center 
class schedule 

Organizing II (March 3-8) — 
Topics for experienced union staff in- 
clude internal private sector organizing, 
issue-oriented campaigns and recruiting 
and training. 

Newswriting and Editing for Union 
Publications (March 10-15) — For 
union editors who want coaching on the 
basics of union publications. 

Teaching Techniques for Labor 
Education (March 10-15) — A class to 
demonstrate techniques used in labor 
education for those who teach in union 
conferences, summer schools or night 
classes. 

Occupational Health and Safety 

(March 24-29) — A skills-building in- 
stitute to help union officials effective- 
ly respond to workplace hazards. 

Craft of Negotiating (April 
7-12) — A study of negotiating tactics 
that avoid impasses in bargaining, 
grievance, and leadership situations. 

Arbitration: Preparation and 
Presentation (April 14-19) — A 
workshop presenting mock cases before 
professional arbitrators. 

Effective Union Action in Civil 
Rights (April 15-19) — The annual 
conference of the Department of Civil 
Rights for civil rights and women’s 
rights designees of AFL-CIO unions. 

Contract Negotiations in the Con- 
struction Industry (April 28-May 
3) — An institute to improve bargain- 
ing skills of union leaders. 

AFL-CIO affiliates and departments 
using the campus in March for their 
own staff training programs are: 
Human Resources Development In- 
stitute, March 3-8; Flight Attendants, 
March 4-8; Service Employees, March 
4-6; Organizing Institute, March 8-10; 
Amalgamated Transit Union Legislative 
Conference, March 9-12; ATU 
Women’s Conference, March 13-17; 
ATU Leadership Conference, March 
16-21; Bricklayers, March 17-23; 
American Institute for Free Labor 
Development, March 17- April 13. 

For more information contact the 
Registrar’s office, George Meany 
Center, 10000 New Hampshire Ave., 
Silver Spring, Md. 20903. Telephone 
301/431-6400. Fax 301/434-0371. 





Council sets 
health care 
reform plan 


Health care reform is a top priority in the Senate, Majori- 
ty Leader George Mitchell tells the Executive Council. 
From left, AFL-CIO Secretary-Treasurer Thomas R. 


Raymond Crowell/Page One Photography 

Donahue, Mitchell, President Lane Kirkland and Vice 
President Susan Bianchi-Sand. The council outlined ob- 
jectives for universal access to quality care. 


Continued from Page 1 

would build upon the current health 
Care system. 

Foley cautioned that any program 
would have to be realistic in terms of 
cost, but that “there is no doubt of the 
importance of legislation, and we are 
headed toward some type of decision. ” 

Kirkland told the news conference 
that the federation would “pursue any 
and all measures we believe will pro- 
vide health care for all our citizens.” 
The AFL-CIO proposals were projected 
to save $165 billion by the end of the 
decade by Sweeney and AFL-CIO 
Employee Benefits Director Karen Ig- 
nagni during a news media briefing. 

The statement said the AFL-CIO 
would “form coalitions with consumer 
groups, employers, community-based 
organizations and providers to call on 
Congress for expeditious enactment of 
federal legislation.” 

Kirkland noted that one such coali- 
tion member could be the American 
Medical Association, which traditional- 
ly has opposed reform iniatives. 

“(The AM A) now has enunciated the 
proposition that access to health care is 
a basic human right,” Kirkland said. 
“And that represents an extraordinary 
movement. We ought to be prepared to 
move with them and work with them in 
an effort to achieve that.” 

In a speech to the AMA National 
Leadership Conference in Miami Beach 
on Feb. 17, Kirkland said, “Clearly, 
we’ve entered a new era of dialogue and 
cooperation — of open agendas and 
open minds. And those of us who can 
remember back a few years can certain- 
ly appreciate how far both of our organ- 
izations have come in our effort to find 
common ground to do what’s right by 
the working Americans who depend on 
our health care system. 


“We in labor now find ourselves in 
common cause not only with the AMA, 
but with many of our traditional adver- 
saries in the business community — 
including the National Association of 
Manufacturers and some of the nation’s 
biggest corporations,” he said. “Our 
shared goals are a great source of hope 
that the time for real health care reform 
has finally arrived.” 

Other specific objectives outlined by 
the council were: 

• Guaranteeing a core package of 
health care benefits, including prenatal 
and post-natal care; inpatient and out- 
patient hospital services; physicians’ 
services; well-child care; laboratory 
tests; and prescription drug coverage. 

• Continuing the labor movement’s 
goal of a social insurance national 


health care program while recognizing 
that reform may come about in stages. 

• Progressive and equitable finan- 
cing that requires all employers to con- 
tribute. 

• Overhauling the existing admini- 
strative structure to standardize claim 
forms, restrict the number of intermed- 
iaries participating in the system, im- 
prove delivery of care and assure that 
no one is denied coverage. 

• Dropping the Medicare eligibility 
to age 60. 

• Improving quality through a na- 
tional system for technology assessment 
and the establishing a national data base 
on the cost and quality of care. 

• Forming a strategy for long-term 
and home care. 

The Executive Council statement 
calls for guaranteed universal access by 


requiring all employers, including the 
federal government, to contribute fair- 
ly to the cost of care. 

Currently, 37 million Americans are 
without health insurance, with another 
50 million believed underinsured, leav- 
ing nearly one-third of all Americans 
without adequate protection against 
medical expenses and illness. 

Last year, the federation held eight 
regional hearings around the country to 
expose the dimensions of the health care 
crisis, as workers, state and local 
government officials and represen- 
tatives from consumer groups, health 
care providers and insurance companies 
provided testimony. The transcript and 
videotaped highlights from those hear- 
ings, presented to members of Congress 
by Kirkland Jan. 29, were given to 
council members. 



VOLUME 36, NUMBER 5 
MARCH 4, 1991 


INSIDE 

Striker replacement , 
Mexico trade assailed 

The Executive Council tells Democratic 
leaders in Congress that a ban on the 
permanent replacement of strikers and 
full debate on U.S. -Mexico trade are 
essential labor goals. 

High court hears 
hospital unit case 

The Supreme Court heard arguments on 
a labor-backed rule by the National 
Labor Relations Board that established 
eight bargaining units for hospital 
workers. 




Union Privilege offers 
home mortgage plan 

The Union Privilege Benefit Programs 
adds a mortgage and home buyers 
assistance program to its roster and 
broadens eligibility for the Union 
Privilege MasterCard plan. 

Aug. 31 designated 
Solidarity Day ’ 91 

Solidarity Day 1991 will be held the 
Saturday of Labor Day weekend, mark- 
ing the 10th anniversary of the gather- 
ing that brought hundreds of thousands 
of unionists to Washington. 









Large-unit wins 
boost organizing 

New strategies and programs aimed at 
large units featuring Hispanics and 
women help give unions the winning 
edge in campaigns, the Executive 
Council was told. 

AFL-CIO campaigns 
for Cuban democracy 

The AFL-CIO joins a international 
campaign to end the brutal regime of 
Fidel Castro and to help Cuban trade 
unionists restore democracy and human 
rights to their country. 



The AFL-CIO NEWS (ISSN 001-1185) is published every two weeks. 
Second Class postage paid at Washington, D.C. Subscriptions $ 1 0 per 
year. POSTMASTER: Address changes to Room 209, 815 16th Street, 
N.W., Washington, D.C. 20006. 


3 / 4/91 


The AFL-CIO does not accept paid advertising in any of its official publications. No one is authorized 
to solicit advertising for any publications in the name of the AFL-CIO. 






VOLUME 36, NUMBER 6 MARCH 18, 1991 


Unions, Maxwell agree to save Daily News 



Bill Burke/Page One Photography 

AFL-CIO President Lane Kirkland testifies before House Director Robert M. McGlotten. Behind Kirkland is UAW 
panel on striker replacement bill. At right is Legislative President Owen Bieber, who also testified. 

Kirkland: Strikebreakers poison talks 

Labor intensifies campaign to ban ‘permanent replacements' 


By Muriel H. Cooper 

T he willingness of some unscrupulous 
employers to “permanently replace” 
striking workers upsets the balance in 
collective bargaining and threatens the 
economic well-being not only of work- 
ers, but of employers and the local com- 
munity as well, AFL-CIO President 
Lane Kirkland told a House subcom- 
mittee. 

The “permanent replacement” doc- 
trine established by the Supreme Court 
in the Mackay decision “corrupts the 
collective bargaining process itself by 
transforming disputes over the terms of 
the next labor contract into larger, life- 
or-death confrontations over whether 
the parties’ bargaining relationships will 
continue,” Kirkland said. 


Testifying before the Education and 
Labor Committee’s subcommittee on 
labor-management relations, Kirkland 
said that disputes poisoned by the use 
of “permanent replacements” become 
a war of attrition. 

“When one party comes to the table 


Catholic bishops back ban 

See Page 7 


with a desire not to agree but rather to 
force confrontation in the hope of de- 
stroying the other, the prospects for a 
peaceful, honorable and mutually bene- 
ficial settlement are close to zero,” he 
said. 

“That is particularly true when the 


other party has neither the desire nor the 
economic weapons to wage such a 
war,” Kirkland continued. “In such 
situations, the rough balance of bargain- 
ing power that brings reason, modera- 
tion and compromise into the bargain- 
ing process is destroyed.” 

Kirkland’s testimony kicked off a 
parade of labor witnesses — including 
AFL-CIO Secretary-Treasurer Thomas 
R. Donahue, Steelworkers President 
Lynn Williams and UAW President 
Owen Bieber — at several congres- 
sional hearings. The legislation, H.R. 
5 and S. 55, also was endorsed by 
Bishop Frank J. Rodimer on behalf of 
the U.S. Catholic Conference. 

The difference between “firing 
Continued on Page 7 


By James B. Parks 

T he striking New York Daily News 
unions called it “a great victory for 
the labor movement.” The newspaper’s 
new owner, British publisher Robert 
Maxwell, called it “a miracle.” 

By any description, the tentative 
agreements reached March 12 may save 
the newspaper, which has been losing 
$750,000 a day under the union-busting 
Tribune Co. ownership. 

“Now the Tribune Company can 
leave New York and go back to 
Chicago,” said George McDonald, 
president of the Allied Printing Trades 
Council, which represents the nine 
striking unions. “This agreement shows 
that if the labor movement stays 
together, it can overcome these 
obstacles. 

“If management really wants to use 
collective bargaining and really wants 
to talk, then the process will work, ’ ’ he 
said. 

Union members in the Daily News 
units still must ratify the agreements and 
Maxwell also must finalize the sale with 
the Tribune Co., but both parties were 
hopeful that a new page was being 
turned at the historic New York City 
newspaper. 

“We went out together, and we want 
to go in together,” McDonald said. He 
said he hopes to move the ratification 
process as fast as possible under the 
various union constitutions. 

AFL-CIO President Lane Kirkland 
said the federation is “delighted” at the 
news of the settlement. 

“This agreement was made possible 
when Mr. Maxwell removed the issue 
of ‘permanent replacement’ workers 
from the bargaining table,” Kirkland 
said. 

‘ ‘We hope the Tribune Company will 
move expeditiously to reach a final 
agreement with the paper’s new owner 
as we await ratification by the rank-and- 
file.” 

The settlements call for the elimina- 
tion of more than 800 jobs, or about one- 
third of the union jobs at the paper. The 

Continued on Page 2 


Worker involvement crucial to job safety, labor says 


By Arlee C. Green 

A year and a half after employees for 
an outside contractor mistakenly 
crossed two pressure lines on a valve, 
causing an explosion that killed 23 
workers at Phillips Chemical Co. plant 
in Pasadena, Texas, employees still 
have only limited say on plant safety. 

There are no workers on the com- 
pany’s central safety committee or its 
seven subcommittees, said C.T. 
Roberts of the Oil, Chemical and 
Atomic Workers Local 4-227. The 
union’s participation is limited to two 


members who meet with workers on 
safety concerns one day a month. 

“We asked management a number of 
times to form a joint safety committee, ’ ’ 
Roberts said. “They’ve been looking 
into it for years, but their main reason 
for not doing it is they figure the less 
we know, the less trouble we are.” 

Legislation needed 

The involvement of workers in safety 
committees is one of the goals of labor 
in its drive for legislative reform of the 
Occupational Safety and Health Act, 


said federation Safety and Health Direc- 
tor Peg Seminario. 

“The people affected by these prob- 
lems are also the ones most able to 
resolve them,” said Seminario. “Real 
improvement in workplace safety and 
health requires a major effort among all 
three parties — government, manage- 
ment and labor — not just OSHA with 
management alone.” 

The grass-roots push for passage of a 
reform package will be marked this 
April 28 - the third AFL-CIO Work- 
Continued on Page 8 








Strike spotlighted permanent replacements 


Continued from Page 1 

reductions would come through a com- 
bination of buyouts and layoffs, 
McDonald said. 

“If the News expands as we hope 
under the new leadership, eventually 
we’ll have the 800 people back, a lot 
more readers and advertisers than the 
Daily News has ever had before,” he 
said. 

McDonald said he has asked Maxwell 
to set up a family assistance fund to help 
those who are laid off. He also said he 
would seek federal and state assistance 
to bolster the fund. 

Replacement workers hired by the 
Daily News will be let go under the 
agreements, Maxwell said. Union 
members that crossed the picket lines 
to return to work during the strike will 
continue to work and will retain any 
seniority accrued during the strike. 

If any actions are taken against those 
who crossed the lines, it will be taken 
by the various unions according to their 
bylaws, McDonald said. 

The buyouts will total $40,000 each, 
with $50,000 offers for those unions 
that have lifetime contracts, he said. 
The buyouts will be offered in order of 
seniority, with layoffs made in order of 
inverse seniority. 

The agreements also call for the 
unions to drop their National Labor 
Relations Board complaints against the 
paper, if the board agrees. Maxwell’s 
deal with the Tribune Co. calls for the 
company to drop its lawsuits against the 
unions and individual union members. 

The settlements came after six days 
and nights of marathon negotiating be- 
tween Maxwell and representatives of 
the striking unions. Maxwell signed a 
letter of intent March 5 to buy the paper 
if he could reach agreements with the 
unions. 

About 2,300 workers went on strike 


Oct. 25 after working nearly seven 
months without a contract. The Daily 
News management had announced 
plans to close the paper on March 15 
if the paper had not been sold. 

The strike and the Daily News’s use 
of replacement workers spurred a ma- 
jor effort by the AFL-CIO’s Strategic 
Approaches Committee, including a 
local advertising and circulation boycott 
and national corporate campaign. 

It also focused increased attention on 
the need for legislation aimed at cor- 
recting the loophole in federal labor law 
that says it is illegal to fire workers like 
those at the Daily News for exercising 
their legal right to strike, but it is legal 

“The settlement 
shows what can be 
done when an em- 
ployer recognizes 
and accepts the rights 
and role of employees 
and their unions. ” 

— Charles B. Dale, 
President, Newspaper Guild 


to “permanently replace” them. The 
AFL-CIO has made that legislation one 
of its major priorities. 

Maxwell had said he needed more 
than $70 million in cuts in the paper’s 
annual operating budget. Theodore 
Kheel, an adviser to the unions, said the 
concessions will do that. “He got what 
he wanted dollarwise,” Kheel said. 

In addition to saving the paper and 
getting rid of the replacement workers, 
the unions won a major victory when 
Maxwell agreed to reduce the work- 
force through collective bargaining 
rather than through management fiat, as 


the Tribune Co. persistently had 
demanded. 

The unions made it clear throughout 
the strike they would not give the 
Tribune Co. or Maxwell a management 
rights clause that allowed the company 
to set hours, wages and work 
conditions. 

Maxwell emerged after talks 
mediated by former Labor Secretary 
W.J. Usery Jr. broke down. 

Those talks ended when the Daily 
News management demanded that half 
the pressmen’s jobs be eliminated and 
that the wages of those remaining be 
greatly reduced. 

Support for the strikers led to a drop 
in the Daily News’ circulation from its 
pre-strike level of 1.1 million to 
300,000. More than 75 percent of New 
York outlets refused to carry the paper 
and only 20 of the paper’s original 750 
display advertisers remained. 

The Daily News lost $69.3 million in 
the last quarter of 1990, contributing to 
a 99 percent drop in Tribune Co. prof- 
its. The Daily News lost $114.5 million 
in 1990, compared with $2.2 million in 
1989. 

Maxwell will assume about $150 
million of Daily News liabilities, in- 
cluding $25 million in pension pay- 
ments, in return for a $60 million pay- 
ment from the Tribune Co., according 
to a report in the New York Times. 

Along with the various unions, AFL- 
CIO Secretary-Treasurer Thomas R. 
Donahue and the AFL-CIO Strategic 
Approaches Committee, chaired by 
Lynn Williams of the Steelworkers, 
guided the multi-union assistance to the 
Daily News workers. The federation 
provided staff for organizing, legal 
work and community services. The fed- 
eration and many affiliates provided 
money for strike funds and for services 
to the families of the strikers. 


Ministers decry 
strike breaking 

M ore than 100 religious 
leaders have called the per- 
manent replacement of striking 
workers at the New York Daily 
News “morally unjustifiable and 
reprehensible.” 

In a statement, the leaders said 
“the central moral issue” of the 
strike “is the right of workers to 
strike without recriminations.” 
The decision by the Daily 
News’ parent Tribune Co. to 
replace all striking workers is a 
“moral outrage,” they said. The 
leaders named the Tribune Co. ’s 
top executives and board of direc- 
tors and challenged them “to 
justify their employment of per- 
manent replacements for the New 
York Daily News strikers on 
moral and ethical grounds.” 
Among the signers of the state- 
ment were the Most Rev. Ed- 
mond Browning, presiding 
bishop of the Episcopal Church; 
Rabbi Allan Kaplan of the New 
York Federation of Reformed 
Synagogues; two Roman Catholic 
bishops, three Episcopal bishops, 
three United Methodist bishops, 
one bishop of the Evangelical 
Lutheran Church, and others. 

Cardinal John O’Connor of 
New York previously told a hear- 
ing on strikebreaker legislation 
that if management knows it can 
permanently replace workers, 
this “makes a charade of collec- 
tive bargaining and a mockery of 
the right to strike.” 

AFL-CIO liaison with the 
religious community is coor- 
dinated by Michael Szpak of the 
Department of Organization and 
Field Services. 


UAW Mazda workers win wage parity in three-year pact 


By Arlee C. Green 

U AW members at Mazda’s Flat 
Rock, Mich. , plant approved a new 
three-year agreement that will provide 
them pay parity with workers at the Big 
Three automakers — Ford, General 
Motors and Chrysler — plus cost-of- 
living adjustments and bonuses. 

Under the agreement, the 2,900 
members of UAW Local 3000 will see 
their hourly wage go up by $1.01 for 
assembly workers and to $1 .50 an hour 
for skilled maintenance workers. In- 
cluded in that is a 3 percent pay 
increase, 30-cent skilled trades adjust- 
ment and a COLA float of 39 cents. 

A lump-sum bonus equal to 3 percent 
of the prior year’s qualified earnings 
will be paid on April 19, 1992, and 


April 18, 1993. Pro-rated Christmas 
bonuses of up to $600 will be paid each 
December, based on the number of 
weeks worked during the year. And the 
quarterly COLA will be continued, the 
union said. 

The profit-sharing plan will be based 
on the same formula used in the UAW’s 
Big Three agreements, with the payout 
percentage increasing from 6 percent to 
17 percent as the rate of profits over 
sales increases. 

Mazda agreed not to lay off any 
workers unless compelled to do so “by 
economic conditions and financial cir- 
cumstances so severe that its long-term 
financial viability is threatened.” The 
union also bargained a stronger voice 
in the company’s outsourcing of work 


and outside contracting, and will 
receive advance notification of any 
plans to introduce new technology, so 
that appropriate training programs can 
be set up to retrain workers. 

The agreement added significant new 
safety and health language, providing 
for a full-time union ergonomics rep- 
resentative, and a full-time safety 
representative on the afternoon shift. 

Mazda and the UAW agreed on the 
framework for establishing a joint 
safety and health committee and pro- 
vided a complaint procedure to resolve 
safety issues. 

New language also covers work in 
confined spaces and precautions to be 
taken for those who must work alone. 

The pension plan was improved by 


setting the UAW-Ford basic pension 
benefit as the minimum for Mazda 
workers, providing full benefits at age 
62, establishing an early retirement 
benefit of $300 a month payable from 
age 55 to 62, and increasing benefits for 
future retirees. 

Health care gains included provisions 
for well-baby care, a higher maximum 
dental benefit, a wider scope for home 
health care coverage, removal of deduc- 
tibles for physical therapy, improved vi- 
sion, hearing and hospice benefits pro- 
grams and extension of full dental and 
vision benefits to retirees. 

A bonus of $225 will be paid for each 
quarter of perfect attendance and four 
days of paid discretionary leave was 
added. 



Director of Information: Rex Hardesty 

Editor: Michael Byrne 

News Editor: John R. Oravec 

Assistant Editors: Arlee C. Green, 

Candice Johnson, James B. Parks 

Staff Writers: Muriel H. Cooper, Mike Hall, 
Colleen M. O’Neill, Sharolyn A. Rosier 

Graphics /layout: Stan Hitt 


AFL-CIO Headquarters: 815 Sixteenth St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20006 
Telephone: (202) 637-5010 


Vol. 36, No. 6 



MONDAY, MARCH 18, 1991 


m 


The AFL-CIO News (ISSN-001-1 185) is issued every two weeks at 815 Sixteenth St.. N.W., Washington, D.C. 
The AFL-CIO does not accept paid advertising in any of its official publications. No one is authorized to solicit 
advertising for any publications in the name of the AFL-CIO. 


Official Publication 
of the 


American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations 

Lane Kirkland, president 


Thomas R. Donahue, secretary-treasurer 


EXECUTIVE COUNCIL 


Albert Shanker 
William H. Wynn 
Joyce D. Miller 
Richard I. Kilroy 
William H. Bywater 
John T. Joyce 
Robert A. Georgine 
Jay Mazur 
John J. Barry 
Susan Bianchi-Sand 
John N. Sturdivant 


Edward T. Hanley 
John DeConcini 
John J. Sweeney 
Vincent R. Sombrotto 
Marvin J. Boede 
Lynn R. Williams 
Milan Stone 
Lenore Miller 
Sigurd Lucassen 
Moe Biller 
Richard L. Trumka 


Angelo Fosco 
Wayne E. Glenn 
James E. Hatfield 
Gerald W. McEntee 
Owen Bieber 
Morton Bahr 
Gene Upshaw 
Jack Sheinkman 
William J. McCarthy 
George J. Kourpias 
Frank Hanley 






LEGISLATION 



Steve Yarmola/AFL-CIO News 

Ralph Neas, executive director of the Leadership Con- workplace discrimination. They are (from left), Patricia 
ference on Civil Rights, introduces several victims of Carroll, Sidney Williams and Patricia Swanson. 

bill makes headway 


Civil rights 

By Mike Hall 
and James B. Parks 

L abor-endorsed civil rights legislation 
cleared several legislative hurdles last 
week as civil rights advocates launched 
a national campaign to ensure its pass- 
age. 

The House Education and Labor 
Committee and Judiciary’s subcommit- 
tee on civil and constitutional rights 
marked up the bill on March 12, the 
same day the Bush administration in- 
troduced its weaker version of a civil 
rights bill. 

The administration’s bill falls short of 
the remedies needed to restore civil 
rights protections, AFL-CIO Legisla- 
tive Representative Jane O’ Grady said 
in reiterating labor support for the 
House bill. 

House Majority Leader Richard Gep- 
hardt (D-Mo.) predicted that the 
stronger bill would pass the House 
soon. 

During the markups, several guaran- 
tees against sexual discrimination were 
added to the bill, now known as the 
Civil Rights and Women’s Equity in 
Employment Act of 1991 . It is H.R. 1 . 

The bill would clarify the intent of 
law following several recent Supreme 
Court decisions that made it more dif- 
ficult for individual workers to sue 
employers who discriminate in the 
workplace. The bill would allow 
women and the disabled to sue employ- 


By Mike Hall 

A nother battle is brewing between 
Congress and the White House over 
AFL-CIO-backed family and medical 
leave (H.R. 2). 

President Bush vetoed similar legisla- 
tion last year even though it won bipar- 
tisan support in both the House and 
Senate. The bill has earned bipartisan 
House support again this year, gaining 
169 co-sponsors. The Senate version, 
S. 5, has 39 co-sponsors. 

“It is my hope and belief, that after 
years of hard work, this will be year 
that American families receive the 
much-needed support that the passage 
of the Family and Medical Leave Act 
will provide,” said Rep. Pat Williams 
(D-Mont.), chairman of the House 
labor-management relations subcom- 
mittee. 

Two House subcommittees have 


ers for damages for intentional job bias. 

The bill is similar to the Civil Rights 
Act of 1990 passed last year and vetoed 
by President Bush. 

“Equal opportunity is a basic Amer- 
ican principle, and we should pass civil 
rights legislation in order to take a 
strong stand against discrimination,” 
said Rep. William Ford (D-Mich.), 
chairman of the Education and Labor 
Committee. “Any American who is 
willing to work hard deserves legal pro- 
tection against discriminatory treatment 
by employers who put corporate prof- 
its ahead of basic fairness.” 

He also said the added provisions and 
name change reflect the fact that civil 
rights “is not just a matter of race, but 
involves gender and ethnicity as well. ’ ’ 

Grass-roots campaign 

Civil rights leaders agree. In a Capi- 
tol Hill press conference, the Leader- 
ship Conference on Civil Rights 
(LCCR), which includes some 170 civil 
rights, consumer and labor groups, 
launched a national grass-roots effort to 
persuade Congress to pass the bill. 

“Working Americans should be able 
to find the jobs for which they’re 
qualified,” said Antonia Hernandez, 
LCCR vice president. “They should be 
able to move as far in their careers as 
their talents can take them; they should 
be able to support their families . . . And 
they should be able to do all these things 


marked up H.R. 2, and the bill is 
scheduled for a March 19 markup 
before the full Education and Labor 
Committee. Introduced by Reps. 
William Clay (D-Mo.) and Margaret 
Roukema (R-N.J.), the legislation 
would: 

• Allow up to 12 weeks per year of 
unpaid leave for childbirth, adoption or 
the serious illness of an immediate fami- 
ly member (child, parent, spouse or 
self). 

• Be available to employees who 
have worked at least 12 months and 
1,000 hours for a public or private 
employer with 50 or more workers. 

• Guarantee the worker the same or 
equivalent job upon return. 

• Continue any pre-existing health 
benefits during the leave. 

• Require the employee to give 
reasonable notice and, when possible, 


without being held back by any form of 
discrimination.” 

“The President’s bill protects 
employers who discriminate,” said 
Ralph Neas, LCCR’s executive direc- 
tor. 

The practical effect of the 1989 
Supreme Court rulings is that working 
Americans who are discriminated 
against on the job have fewer and 
weaker avenues of redress. The rulings 
reduce a victim’s options in seeking 
relief from discrimination and, in some 
situations, deny any relief at all. 

The bill reaffirms the prohibition 
against both intentional discrimination 
and discriminatory practices. It also 
prohibits racial discrimination at all 
stages of a contract. 

The labor-backed bill would return to 
a 1971 standard that requires businesses 
that use practices that have a discri- 
minatory effect to justify those practices 
on the basis of “business necessity.” 
Congressional research shows this test 
was well understood by employers and 
employees, and did not result in quotas. 

The bill also would extend the same 
remedies for discrimination to women 
and religious minorities that are now 
only available to racial minorities. 

The added provisions would establish 
a “glass ceiling” commission to study 
the underrepresentation of women and 
minorities in top level jobs and to study 
the issue of pay equity. 


schedule the leave to accommodate the 
employer. 

“Workers should not be forced to 
stay on the job when they are needed 
at home to help a mother with a broken 
hip, a husband going for chemotherapy 
or a child facing surgery,” Bishop 
James W. Malone of the U.S. Catholic 
Conference in testified before the labor- 
management relations subcommittee. 

About two dozen states have some 
sort of maternity, parental or family 
leave policies. But, as former New 
Jersey Gov. Thomas Kean testified, 
“For every state the laws look dif- 
ferent. . . . That’s just not fair.” 

The business community has geared 
up an anti-leave campaign, claiming the 
legislation would be too costly and in- 
trusive — despite a General Accounting 
Office study showing it would cost only 
$5.30 a year per employee. 


i 


Capitol Digest 


T he House beat back an attack on the 
Davis-Bacon Act that could have cost 
the jobs of 40 percent of the workers 
covered by the law. 

The House rejected, by a 244-173 
vote, an amendment to the Emergency 
Supplemental Appropriations bill that 
would have allowed the Labor Depart- 
ment to implement helper and appren- 
ticeship regulations that the AFL-CIO, 
Congress and courts have fought. 

The regulations, developed in 1981, 
would have allowed contractors on 
federally funded projects to replace the 
laborers and journeymen covered by 
Davis-Bacon with “helpers.” The 
helpers would receive no formal train- 
ing and have little of hope of advance- 
ment in the construction industry. 
Estimates indicated some 40 percent of 
laborers would have been replaced, 
many of whom are minorities. 

A federal appeals court in 1983 struck 
down those regulations saying they 
undermined the purpose of the Davis- 
Bacon Act. Congress also has repeat- 
edly rejected efforts to repeal or water 
down the act. 

The proposal would have abolished 
the employer-employee apprenticeship 
councils in 26 states and the District of 
Columbia, and it would have allowed 
out-of-state contractors to import 
apprentices. 

In other congressional developments: 
AIRLINE EMPLOYEES - 
Unions representing airline workers 
asked Congress to develop programs to 
keep the industry from devouring itself. 
Pilots, Flight Attendants and Machinists 
officials told the committee that regula- 
tions against foreign control of airlines 
should not be relaxed. They also said 
workers who lose their jobs when 
airlines are sold or merged should have 
a chance to follow their work to the 
company which acquires the old firm 
or its routes. 

A coalition of flight attendant unions, 
including the Transport Workers, 
Teamsters and the AFA, also testified 
in favor of H.R. 14, which would 
establish duty time limits and minimum 
rest breaks. 

WORKPLACE MONITORING - 

Bills backed by the AFL-CIO to prevent 
abuses from secret electronic monitor- 
ing in the workplace were introduced 
in the House and Senate. The bills (S. 
516 and H.R. 1218) would ban secret 
monitoring and require notification to 
workers of any type of surveillance. 

RECESS — The Congress will take 
its annual two-week Easter recess 
March 25-April 8. The AFL-CIO’s 
Legislative Department asks state 
federations, central labor councils and 
legislative action committees to meet 
during the recess with members of Con- 
gress to press them for support on four 
major issues: anti-strikebreaker legisla- 
tion (H.R. 5 and S. 55); denying “fast 
track” authority for a U.S. -Mexico free 
trade agreement; civil rights legislation, 
and family and medical leave legislation 
(H.R. 2 and S. 5). 


Battle lines drawn in family leave fight 







Labor: ‘Fast-track’ authority slights trade issues 


By John R. Oravec 

L abor members of the federal Ad- 
visory Committee for Trade Policy 
and Negotiations urged Congress to re- 
ject President Bush’s bid to extend fast- 
track procedures on both multilateral 
and bilateral trade agreements, par- 
ticularly in dealing with the controver- 
sial U.S. -Mexico free-trade pact. 

The White House wants to extend to 
mid- 1993 the fast-track authority that 
limits Congress to an up-or-down vote 
on trade accords without amendments. 
Under current law, that rule would ter- 
minate June 1 . 

The trade advisory panel’s labor con- 
tingent reiterated the AFL-CIO’s con- 
cerns that the fast-track rule seriously 
limits public and congressional involve- 
ment in any discussions with Mexico, 
while diluting the lawmaking authority 
of Congress. Serving on the panel are 
AFL-CIO Vice President Jack Sheink- 
man, president of the Clothing and Tex- 
tile Workers, and Economic Research 
Director Rudy Oswald. 

“The U.S. -Mexico free-trade pro- 
posal has serious and far-reaching con- 
sequences for the two countries, and in 
particular for workers in both coun- 
tries,’’ the labor members stressed. 

“Such an initiative requires a full and 
open debate to identify its effect on 
economic growth, wages, income dis- 
tribution, the environment, and the 
quality of life in both countries.’’ 

The majority of the 44-member trade 
advisory committee (ACTPN), com- 
prised of high officials from major U.S. 
corporations who were appointed by 
Bush and former President Reagan, 
recommended that Congress approve 
Bush’s petition for extending the fast- 
track rule on trade negotiations. 

Many of the companies represented 
on the panel have major manufacturing 
operations in the border maquiladora 



Bill Burke/Page One Photography 


AFL-CIO Secretary-Treasurer Thomas R. Donahue outlines labor's opposition 
to fast-track U.S. -Mexico free trade pact. At right is K. R. Whitmore, chair- 
man of Eastman Kodak Co., who supported the administration's plan. 


complex, as well as in other plants in 
Mexico. 

In underlining labor’s concerns, 
AFL-CIO Secretary-Treasurer Thomas 
R. Donahue told the Congressional 
Competitiveness Caucus that fast-track 
approval of the Mexico trade pact 
amounts to “buying a pig in a poke.’’ 

Enactment of the proposed free trade 
agreement would be an economic and 
social disaster for U.S. workers and 
their communities, while doing little to 
help the vast majority of Mexican 
workers, Donahue said. 

Citing the wide wage disparity be- 
tween the two countries, Donahue noted 


that U.S. companies are already flock- 
ing to the maquiladora plants across the 
border to exploit Mexican workers who 
earn less than $1 an hour at the expense 
of U.S. jobs. 

What Mexico needs is economic de- 
velopment assistance, much like the 
European Economic Community’s ef- 
forts to help Portugal and Greece, and 
not a further drain on U.S. jobs, he 
stressed. 

The prospects of a free-trade accord 
generating demand for U.S. exports to 
Mexico are unlikely, Donahue told the 
congressional caucus, dismissing claims 
by the administration’s trade negotiators 


that there are 90 million new consumers 
in Mexico clamoring to buy U.S. prod- 
ucts. 

In Mexico, only about 10 million 
people are able to buy much of anything 
at all, Donahue said. Because of the 
severe wage disparity, the other 80 
million gripped in poverty are merely 
trying to survive. 

Donahue warned that fast-track au- 
thority could result in an agreement that 
would ignore serious problems that ex- 
ist between the two nations. 

The economic impact on U.S. work- 
ers is not addressed in the Bush ad- 
ministration proposal, nor are the con- 
cerns of environmental damage, dismal 
living conditions around the maquila- 
doras and worker rights, Donahue said. 

Congressional leaders warned the 
White House that the failure of its trade 
negotiators to address the social and 
economic impact of the Mexico trade 
pact jeopardizes its bid for extending the 
fast-track rule. 

In a letter to President Bush, Senate 
Finance Committee Chairman Lloyd 
Bentsen (D-Texas) and House Ways 
and Means Committee Chairman Dan 
Rostenkowski (D-Ill.) specifically cited 
the issues of environmental hazards, job 
safety and worker rights. 

Whether a free-trade accord is ap- 
proved by Congress “will depend on an 
assessment of whether the agreement 
has a net positive effect on jobs and 
wages in the United States,’’ Bentsen 
and Rostenkowski wrote. 

In February, the AFL-CIO Executive 
Council noted that hundreds of 
thousands of U.S. workers have lost 
their jobs to the maquiladoras. 

“Hundreds of thousands more would 
see their jobs exported to plants 
throughout Mexico with the advent of 
a free-trade agreement,’’ the council 
said. 


Low-wage competitors bring down U.S. standards, study says 


By John R. Oravec 

L ow wages in newly industrialized 
countries like Mexico are not only 
undercutting the earnings of American 
workers and the ability of U.S. 
manufacturers to compete in world 
markets, but they now threaten to 
stagnate international trade, an 
Economic Policy Institute study warns. 

An immediate consequence of low- 
wage, high-productivity countries is the 
menace to the U.S. standard of living 
with the slippage of workers’ real earn- 
ings, writes Walter Russell Mead in his 
treatise, “The Low-Wage Challenge to 
Global Growth.’’ 

Mead said evidence is lacking that 
wages are on the rise in developing 
countries — the raises that would be 
needed to narrow the labor cost gap and 
diminish the competitive advantage of 
low- wage producers. Instead, wages in 
advanced countries will decline to close 
the gap — a trend already under way. 

“We now have concrete evidence to 
show that real wages have been declin- 
ing in the United States since 1973 — 
clearly, the effect of manufacturing 
shifts to low-wage countries is a partial 
explanation of this trend,’’ said Mead. 

In testimony before the Senate, EPI 
President Jeff Faux cited the Mead 
report as evidence that a U.S. -Mexico 
free-trade agreement the Bush ad- 
ministration is trying to ram through 
Congress would undermine investment 
and wages in the United States while 
failing to improve pay or living stan- 
dards of Mexican workers. 

Mead’s study shows that workers in 
developing countries continue to suffer 


from persistently depressed wages and 
poor working conditions. Because of 
the pay imbalance, workers in low- 
wage countries cannot afford to buy the 
manufactured goods imported from 
economically advanced countries, thus 
stifling trade. Both advanced and 
developing countries would suffer from 
the oversupply of unsold products, 
Mead observed. 

It was a problem that Henry Ford ad- 
dressed in 1914 with the advent of 
mass-produced autos. Stating that it 
didn’t make any sense to mass produce 
cars if the “mass’’ of citizens couldn’t 
afford to buy them, Ford raised the pay 
of skilled workers to $5 a day, about 
double the going wage, so they could 
buy the Model T they produced. The 
sticker price was about $825. 

Not enough customers 

“If workers in Mexico earn only a 
fraction of the wages of Ford workers 
in Detroit, but produce as many engines 
as Detroiters, then potentially we have 
a problem that Henry Ford would 
understand: too many Fords, not 
enough customers,” Mead said. 

Proponents of open-door trade policy 
have contended that low-wage countries 
also have low levels of output per 
worker, and thus do not undermine 
world competitiveness. But Mead 
points out that developments in 
technology have enabled the low-wage 
countries to increase output in key 
manufacturing sectors to about the same 
levels as advanced countries. 

As an example, Mead shows that pro- 
ductivity in iron and steel making in 


Korea and Brazil have risen to about 60 
percent of U.S. levels, but wages re- 
mained around 10 percent of the U.S. 
rate. As a result, the unit labor cost for 
iron and steel in the two countries 
averages about 17 percent of the cost 
for U.S. firms. 

Mead also made these points: 

• Imports of manufactured goods 
from developing countries grew 240 
percent between 1980 and 1988, two- 
thirds faster than from developed 
countries. 

• Output per employee in Mexico 
rose 2.2 percent per year from 1967 to 
1985 while pay dropped 0.5 percent a 
year. Meanwhile, General Motors is 
doubling its work force in Mexico and 
Chrysler is already the country’s second 
largest exporter. 

• From 1975 to 1986, raw steel pro- 
duction per worker rose 38 percent in 
Japan, 83 percent in the United States, 
76 percent in France and 266 percent 
in Korea. At the same time, steel in- 
dustry employment rose 44 percent in 
Brazil and 87 percent in Korea, but fell 
62 percent in the United States, 53 per- 
cent in France, 36 percent in Germany 
and 23 percent in Japan. 

“The economic consequences of unit 
labor cost disparities will be serious for 
both developed and developing econ- 
omies without an appropriate response 
from policy-makers,” Mead cautions. 
“The long-term persistence of these 
unit labor cost differentials will have a 
profound and dangerous effect on the 
world economy.” 

Instead of assuming that market 
forces automatically would correct the 


problems, Mead calls for the adoption 
of a comprehensive economic strategy 
keyed to internationally recognized 
labor standards, including the prohibi- 
tion of child labor, an appropriate 
minimum wage and the right of workers 
to unionize. 

“Strong and free trade union move- 
ments in developing countries would 
serve as an important element of a 
stable international trade regime,” 
Mead stressed. 

Dismal labor standards 

He notes that a garment worker in 
Bangladesh earns about 10 cents for a 
shirt that retails in the United States for 
$16. Hours are longer and holidays 
fewer for workers in developing coun- 
tries. A Korean factory worker 
averages about two days off per month. 
“In Morocco, children as young as 7 
years old work in Oriental carpet 
factories. 

“Continued economic growth in a 
liberal trading order requires increased 
consumption and higher real wages 
among newly productive workers of the 
developing world.” 

Mead said that “balanced growth” 
would create new export markets for in- 
dustries in advanced countries while ex- 
pediting growth in the developing 
world. 

“The alternative — continued reli- 
ance on export-led growth in develop- 
ing countries and increasing sentiment 
for protection in advanced industrial- 
ized countries — serves the interests of 
no one and exposes all countries to 
serious risks.” 





Bill Burke/Page One Photography 

Jobless workers in Prince George's County, Md., stand in line to file claims 
for unemployment benefits. Because of administrative fund shortfall, 
unemployment offices in many states have cut staff and services. 


House bill would fix 


inadequate III system 


By Candice Johnson 

A bill introduced in the House would 
reform the nation’s unemployment 
compensation system, including the ex- 
tended benefit program that now falls 
far short of meeting the needs of the 
unemployed. 

The proposal, introduced by Rep. 
Thomas Downey (D-N.Y.) and sup- 
ported by the AFL-CIO, calls for a 
federally funded extended benefit pro- 
gram to replace the combined state- 
federal system now in place. It also 
would limit state restrictions on 
eligibility and change employer 
financing. 

Changes in the extended benefit pro- 
gram during the 1980s have made it dif- 
ficult for states to “trigger” the addi- 
tional 13 weeks of benefits for jobless 
workers. As the recession worsens, 
with more than 8.2 million workers 
jobless, just five states currently are 
eligible for extended benefits. 

Under Downey’s plan, jobless work- 
ers could receive nine weeks of extend- 
ed benefits when a state’s total 
unemployment rate reaches 6 percent, 
18 weeks at a 7 percent state jobless 
level, and 26 weeks if unemployment 
hits 8 percent. 

Changing the ‘trigger’ 

Currently, workers can receive ex- 
tended benefits only when a state’s in- 
sured unemployment rate is above 6 
percent — or when unemployment hits 
5 percent and is at least 120 percent of 
the average of the past two years. 

The insured rate counts only those 
workers actually collecting unemploy- 
ment compensation — a much lower 
figure than the total number of jobless 
workers, which includes workers 
unemployed for longer than 26 weeks 
as well as those working in jobs not 
covered by the state unemployment 
system. 

Michigan, for example, just “trig- 
gered on” to the extended benefit pro- 
gram, although total joblessness, now 
at 9.3 percent, has been above 6 per- 
cent for more than two years. 

The federal extended benefit plan 
would be financed by an increase in the 
unemployment tax paid by employers. 
The program would increase the taxable 
wage base from the current $7,000 to 
the same base as the Social Security 
payroll tax, now $53,400, but would 
reduce the tax rate from 0.8 percent to 
0.3 percent by 1997. 

The proposed tax changes would 
bring in about $27 billion, while the 


program and benefits would cost about 
$24 billion. 

Downey’s plan also includes a federal 
job search assistance program, admin- 
istrative funding reforms and limits on 
a state’s ability to arbitrarily restrict 
eligibility for benefits. 

Meanwhile, the House on March 7 
voted 365-43 to approve an appropria- 
tion of $200 million to cover the ad- 
ministrative shortfall that is forcing state 
unemployment offices to curtail ser- 
vices. The Senate is expected to follow 
suit before the March 25 Easter recess. 

Offices swamped 

As the recession worsens, state job- 
less offices have been swamped by 
unemployed workers filing claims. The 
Labor Department reported that the 
number of new applications filed in the 
week ended Feb. 23 was more than the 
508,000, the highest number in eight 
years. 

The Bush administration had re- 
quested only $100 million for the sup- 
plemental payment, an amount that 
would not cover the shortfall, said Sen. 
Paul Sarbanes (D-Md.), chairman of 
the Joint Economic Committee. 

“Waits of four to six weeks for 
benefit checks are not uncommon,” 
Sarbanes said. “In many states, 
decreased staff and increased workload 
has resulted in waiting lines of up to six 
hours.” 

Jobless workers attested to the failure 
of the current unemployment insurance 
system during recent JEC hearings. 

Joseph Cichowicz had worked for 1 1 
years at the Georgia-Pacific Corp. plant 
in Reading, Pa., when he was laid off 
last June. When his jobless benefits ex- 
pired in January, he was no closer to 
finding work, despite applying for more 
than 50 jobs. Cichowicz said people in 
his area were suffering and that job pro- 
spects seemed limited. 

Frank Ortis and Mike Flynn, long- 
time Eastern Airlines workers and 
Machinists local union presidents, told 
the committee of their members ex- 
periencing lengthy delays or unfair 
denial of benefits, as program ad- 
ministrators seemed more concerned 
with limiting claims than meeting the 
needs of jobless workers and their 
families. 

And despite the local’s paying into 
the jobless compensation fund as an 
employer, those employees the union 
was forced to lay off experienced delays 
of more than six weeks in obtaining 
benefits, Flynn said. 


AFL-CIO plans united 
endorsement procedure 


By Michael Byrne 
Bal Harbour , Fla. 

W hile noting the dearth of presiden- 
tial candidates this year, the AFL- 
CIO Executive Council approved the 
same general procedure for presidential 
endorsements for 1992 that the federa- 
tion used for the 1984 and 1988 elec- 
tions. 

That careful, deliberative process is 
designed to keep labor unified and 
focused before consensus is reached on 
an endorsement. 

The council in 1987 agreed that labor 
is best served by developing a consen- 
sus and that “it is in no one’s interest 
for different affiliates to jump on some- 
one ’s bandwagon before the AFL-CIO 
has a chance to make a decision,” AFL- 
CIO President Lane Kirkland said. 

Before the 1984 election, the AFL- 
CIO unions reached an early and over- 
whelming consensus for Walter Mon- 
dale and endorsed him for president at 
General Board and convention gather- 
ings in October 1983. With no such 
consensus in 1988, the AFL-CIO en- 
dorsed Democrat Michael Dukakis after 
the Democrats and Republicans had 
both chosen their candidates. Prior to 
1984, affiliated unions made their own 
choices and the General Board met only 
after the party nominating conventions. 

The 1991 endorsement process “is 
subject to refinement and improve- 
ment,” Kirkland said. “The important 
thing is that we work toward a collec- 
tive decision.” He pointed out that the 
federation took great pains to assure 
unity in 1987, reviewing the steps taken 
that year: 

• Candidates from both parties were 
asked to respond to questions, both 
written and videotaped. By May 1987, 
the responses of all participants — 
seven Democrats and six Republicans 
— had been videotaped. 

• The responses were printed in the 
AFL-CIO News and distributed to af- 
filiates and state and local central 
bodies, for use in COPE and other 
union meetings. By October 1987, 
13,000 copies of the videotape had been 
distributed and the printed responses 
had been circulated widely by the labor 
press. 

• COPE tracked and developed 
materials on the delegate selection pro- 
cess for both the Democratic and 
Republican conventions. Since no con- 


sensus had developed before the con- 
ventions, labor delegates ran on various 
delegate slates, and ran uncommitted 
where possible. 

• In August, after the party conven- 
tions, the AFL-CIO called a meeting of 
the General Board, which consists of 
the AFL-CIO Executive Council plus 
the president or principal officer of each 
AFL-CIO union and of the trade and in- 
dustrial departments. The General 
Board votes its membership, that is, 
each union’s per capita. The board en- 
dorsed Dukakis by the necessary two- 
thirds vote. 

Unlike four years ago, when the 
arena was crowded with candidates 
from both parties, no one has yet to 
emerge to challenge President Bush, 
who is riding a wave of popularity in 
the wake of the Persian Gulf War 
triumph. With 19 months to go before 
the general election, however, the mood 
of the electorate could swing as the na- 
tion confronts its economic problems. 

In his report to the council, COPE 
Director John Perkins noted that voters 
last year sent a message to incumbents: 
“not necessarily to throw them out, but 
certainly to make them sweat.” Some 
incumbents were turned out, but many 
more were given very narrow margins 
of victory. In addition, three states — 
Oklahoma, Colorado and California — 
voted to limit terms of their represen- 
tatives, as did the cities of Kansas Ci- 
ty, Mo., and San Jose, Calif. 

The council reaffirmed its opposition 
to constitutional amendments or ballot 
initiatives that would limit the terms of 
legislators, noting that it denies “citi- 
zens the right to vote freely for the can- 
didate of their choice.” 

Perkins reported on the results of a 
survey that showed “one of the highest 
levels ever of electing COPE-endorsed 
candidates.” Union members voted 70 
percent for endorsed House candidates, 
74 percent for endorsed Senate can- 
didates and 69 percent for endorsed 
gubernatorial candidates, Perkins said. 

He pointed out that COPE success 
continues to depend on up-to-date 
membership lists of AFL-CIO affiliates, 
predicting that “1992 will be a tough 
election year.” Besides the presidential 
election, control of the Senate will be 
at stake, and many House seats may be 
open due to reapportionment and 
retirements. 


Striker replacement, trade 
top IAM legislative goals 


A bill to ban the use of permanent re- 
placement workers and trade and 
health care reform were high on the 
agenda of the Machinists legislative 
conference, held March 3-5 in Wash- 
ington. 

More than 300 IAM members dis- 
cussed their union’s legislative priorities 
with key labor and political leaders, 
then met with members of Congress in 
afternoon lobbying sessions. 

IAM President George Kourpias 
called on union members to use their 
political and communications skills, as 
well as legislative tools, to even the 
playing field between labor and man- 
agement. 

“Your work here is the opening shot 
in a battle to win the 1990s back for 
workers,” he stressed. “Yours are the 
voices that members of Congress will 
listen to, because you can vote them in 
or vote them out,” he added. 


AFL-CIO President Lane Kirkland 
told the delegates that the federation 
launched its grass-roots campaign to 
convince Congress to end the contradic- 
tion in the law “that says you can lose 
your job for exercising your legally pro- 
tected right to strike.” 

That educational effort is beginning 
to pay off, he said, as nearly half of the 
House and a third of the Senate have 
signed on as co-sponsors. 

Before heading out to congressional 
offices, IAM members heard from 
Senate Majority Leader George Mitch- 
ell (D-Maine), Sen. Edward M. Ken- 
nedy (D-Mass.), Sen. Howard Metzen- 
baum (D-Ohio) and Rep. Marty Russo 
(D-Ill.). 

Among other members of Congress 
who spoke or joined in grassroots 
workshop sessions were House Majori- 
ty Leader Richard Gephardt (D-Mo.) 
and Rep. William Clay (D-Mo.). 




Teachers: War heroes can lead education revival 


By Candice Johnson 

T he Teachers are looking for a few 
good service men and women who 
are ready to move from the Persian Gulf 
War zone to the head of the classroom. 

The more than 200 AFT delegates at- 
tending the union’s legislative/political 
conference also discussed proposals for 
reform of the nation’s education and 
health care systems. 

AFT President Albert Shanker, not- 
ing that nearly half the nation’s public 
school teachers will retire or leave the 
profession over the next seven or eight 
years, called for a comprehensive feder- 
al program to assist returning service 
men and women interested in becoming 
teachers. 

The diverse backgrounds of the serv- 


ice personnel, the high numbers of 
minorities serving and their depth of ex- 
perience and training make them attrac- 
tive recruits to the teaching profession, 
Shanker said. 

“Given that some of our returning 
soldiers will be looking to start a career, 
it just makes sense to bring their talents 
and energies into our schools,” he 
added. 

The AFT proposal calls for recruit- 
ment incentives to help service person- 
nel learn about teaching as a career. 
These could include scholarships, loan 
programs or additional retirement bene- 
fits, including credit in the public retire- 
ment system for years served in the 
military. 

The men and women who have 


served in the Persian Gulf can “con- 
tribute to the wave of innovation and 
vigor” needed to help tranform public 
education, Shanker said. 

In the area of education reform, the 
AFT’s legislative goals call for: 

• A voluntary certification process 
for experienced teachers through the 
National Board for Professional Teach- 
ing Standards. 

• Improved in-service teacher 
education, assessment and research. 

• Expanded student loan and finan- 
cial aid programs for needy students. 

• Expanded early childhood educa- 
tion programs and Head Start. 

The nation must turn its “ideas and 
energy to the home front” and work to 
realize the national goals for education 


laid out by President Bush at the 1989 
national education summit, Shanker 
said. 

Besides national health care reform, 
the AFT’s legislative agenda includes: 
job protection for workers under a fam- 
ily and medical leave program; a ban 
on permanent replacement of strikers; 
extension of the tax exemption for 
employer-paid education and legal 
benefits, and a program to repair public 
facilities, including schools, offices and 
hospitals. 

Among the conference speakers were 
House Majority Leader Richard 
Gephardt (D-Mo.), Sens. Arlen Specter 
(R-Pa.) and Kent Conrad (D-N.D.), 
and Democratic National Committee 
Chairman Ron Brown. 



UFCW targets strikebreakers, health care, OSHA reform 


Bush assailed 
for abandoning 
states, cities 

By Sharolyn Rosier 

A FSCME criticized the Bush ad- 
ministration’s failure to meet the 
needs of state and local governments 
and endorsed legislation to create a na- 
tional health insurance system during its 
biennial legislative conference. 

AFSCME President Gerald McEntee 
also cited passage of civil rights legisla- 
tion and the Family and Medical Leave 
Act as among the union’s top legislative 
priorities. 

The administration has been unre- 
sponsive to the problems created by the 
deepening recession for state and local 
budgets, McEntee said. 

“Bush’s block-grant proposal is 
nothing more than a ploy to cash in on 
the fiscal desperation of so many state 
governments,” he said. Under the Bush 
plan, states would get money now given 
directly to cities for specific programs, 
and could spend the money as they see 
fit. 

“That’s fine with the governors, but 
for the mayors unable to raise the ad- 
ditional revenues it’s more like a 
political death sentence,” McEntee 
said. “It is certainly a death sentence 
for many essential city services.” 
Municipal officials blame the federal 
government for their fiscal chaos. The 
federal government has decreased the 
amount of city revenue it provides from 
17.7 percent in 1980 to 6.4 percent in 
1990. 

In calling for national health care 
reform, McEntee noted that 37 million 
Americans have no health insurance and 
three-fourths of those are workers and 
their families. 

“The state of our current health care 
delivery system is a national shame,” 


McEntee said. “Only the United States 
and South Africa have no national 
health care program for their citizens.” 

Senate Majority Leader George Mit- 
chell (D-Maine) and House Speaker 
Thomas Foley (D-Wash.) told the 250 
AFSCME activists that the nation’s 
unmet domestic needs no longer can be 
ignored. 

The United States spends over $600 
billion annually on health care, more 
than any other country in the world, ac- 


cording to Mitchell. “Yet, more than 
37 million Americans don’t have health 
insurance and the number is rising by 
more than a million a year; two-thirds 
of them are persons who are employees 
or their dependents.” 

“The president says he seeks a new 
world order,” Mitchell said. “We say, 
‘Join us in putting our own house in 
order.’” 

Morning sessions during the three- 
day conference included a panel discus- 


sion on state and local fiscal crises, a 
workshop on reform of the Occupa- 
tional Safety and Health Act and lob- 
bying. Conferees spent afternoons on 
Capitol Hill, meeting with their 
representatives and senators to make 
labor’s positions clear. 

Other speakers included Sens. Ed- 
ward M. Kennedy (D-Mass.) and J. 
Robert Kerrey (D-Neb.), and Reps. 
Patricia Schroeder (D-Colo.) and Ma- 
jor Owens (D-N.Y.). 


Rep. Patricia Schroeder (D-Colo.) tells AFSCME delegates 
that cities are "taking it on the chin." She said mayors 


Rick Reinhard/AFSCME 

ask of her, "What do we do to get more money out of 
Washington — declare war?" 


By Arlee C. Green 

T he Food and Commercial Workers 
political and legislative conference 
agreed to turn up the heat on Congress 
and the administration to gain enact- 
ment of measures banning permanent 
striker replacements, national health 
care and occupational health and safety 
reforms. 

The more than 250 conference par- 
ticipants lobbied face-to-face on Capitol 
Hill for labor issues. They spent four 
days attending workshops on political 
education and labor’s legislative goals 
and heard assessments of upcoming Hill 
action from members of Congress. 

UFCW President William H. Wynn 
emphasized that “involvement in 
politics is an important part of citizen- 


ship. We have to get involved in all 
aspects of members’ lives. We have to 
go beyond bargaining and get involved 
in politics. We need to protect our 
members on all fronts — in the state 
house, on Capitol Hill, and in the 
courts.” 

Wynn said it would take a “grass- 
roots effort that involves all workers to 
help create a new society for the 21st 
century,” one where everyone is 
treated more humanely and where fair- 
minded people are elected to office. 

AFL-CIO President Lane Kirkland 
stressed to the conference that union 
legislative activity is not strictly an 
inside-the-Beltway function. It’s the 
“grass-roots support we get from our 
members in communities across the na- 


tion” that determines labor’s clout in 
Washington. 

“Labor’s legislative challenges have 
never been greater,” Kirkland told the 
group. 

He pointed out that “our government 
responded to the crisis in the Middle 
East and it has responded to the savings 
and loan crisis — in both cases without 
moaning about budget deficits and 
who’s going to pay the tab. Now it’s 
time to address the hardships faced by 
millions of unemployed workers with 
something other than promises of tax 
cuts for the rich.” 

Kirkland called the judicially created 
paradox in the law that says workers 
cannot be fired for exercising their 
legally protected right to strike, but can 


be permanent replaced, a “distinction 
without a difference.” 

He urged too that the conference par- 
ticipants work to scuttle the Bush ad- 
ministration’s push to put the U.S.- 
Mexico free trade agreement on a fast 
track, thereby eliminating the oppor- 
tunity for amendment or debate. 

Guest speakers included House 
Speaker Thomas Foley (D-Wash.), 
House Majority Whip William Gray 
(D-Pa.), and Reps. Charles Hayes (D- 
111. ), John D. Dingell (D-Mich.), and 
William Ford (D-Mich.), who chairs 
the House Education and Labor Com- 
mittee. Also speaking were Sens. Bar- 
bara Mikulski (D-Md.), Robert 
Packwood (R-Ore.), and Paul 
Wellstone (D-Minn.). 




‘Permanent replacements’ 
chill bargaining process 


Continued from Page 1 

strikers and replacing them is too 
mystical for me to appreciate,” Bieber 
said in describing the judicially created 
loophole that says it’s illegal to fire 
workers for engaging in a legal strike, 
but okay to permanently replace them. 
“It’s just not fair,” he said. 

Testifying before the Senate subcom- 
mittee on labor, Donahue disputed a 
Bush administration contention that 
passing the legislation would undercut 
“stiff competition in global markets.” 

Eight out of the 10 major industri- 
alized countries “prohibit by law or 
custom the permanent replacement of 
strikers,” Donahue noted. “Among 
that eight are Japan and Germany, each 
of which is certainly holding its own in 
world markets.” 

Tilt to management 

Donahue also challenged the claim by 
Secretary of Labor Lynn Martin that 
striker replacement legislation would 
upset a delicately balanced collective 
bargaining system that has remained in- 
tact for 50 years. 

“The assertion that S. 55 would upset 
a fair and well-established balance be- 
tween management and labor is fiction. 
The truth of the matter is that S. 55 is 
but a single small step toward restor- 
ing some of the balance between em- 
ployers and organized employees that 
obtained in 1938.” 

Donahue traced the history of “at 
least four major changes” in the law — 
either judicially or legislatively — that 
shifted the balance toward management: 
stripping from unions the right to sup- 
port each other with a variety of strike 
and boycott weapons; changing the 
definition so an employer no longer is 
required to bargain with a sincere desire 
to reach a settlement; undercutting 
picket solidarity by permitting resigna- 
tions from the union and granting legal 
status to employer lockouts. 

The endorsement of the legislation by 
the Catholic conference reflects general 
concern within various communities on 
the impact of “permanent replace- 
ment” workers. 

Another community representative 
addressing the Senate panel was Charles 
Noonan, town manager of Jay, Maine, 
who testified of the devasting effect that 
replacement workers had in his town 
when, in 1987, the new owner of the 
International Paper Co. plant replaced 
striking workers. 

“The permanent replacement work- 


ers weren’t from Jay,” Noonan said. 
“Most of the former workers were, and 
had a $60 million impact on the econ- 
omy. I don’t see where socially or 
economically we will get back to where 
were were at least for a generation.” 

Williams, testifying before the Senate 
panel, also disputed Martin’s contention 
that “the balance, as it exists today, has 
proven to be well-placed and in the pub- 
lic interest.” 

“It is ironic that critics claim that the 
prohibition of permanent replacements 
will destroy a careful balance in our 
labor laws,” Williams said. “The op- 
posite is true.” 

The Senate hearing was the fifth held 
by Congress on permanent replacement 
legislation in less than 10 months. 
Grass-roots efforts are under way 
among trade unionists to push for both 
bills. H.R. 5, which has 202 co- 
sponsors, was marked up March 13. S. 
5, with 31 co-sponsors, hasn’t been 
scheduled for mark up. 

The importance of passing the legisla- 
tion is not lost on Karen Behnke, who 
worked at Curtis Industries in Ohio for 
23 years before being replaced during 
a strike. 

“I worked hard to earn enough to 
raise my kids, to build up a small pen- 
sion, and to have self respect,” she 
said. “I am in danger of losing 
everything I worked for because the 
company decided to get rid of its 
workforce. I just don’t understand why 
after 50 years of cooperating with the 
union, Curtis Industries suddenly de- 
cided to try to get rid of us.” 

Issue of honesty 

Williams said the issue comes down 
to honesty on the part of employers. 
“Employers, aided by union-busting 
management consultants, have become 
increasingly adept at disguising what is 
impermissible — a lack of good faith in 
bargaining — to make it appear per- 
missible — simple hard bargaining.” 

The evolution of the professional 
union-busting industry has served to 
“poison the well,” Kirkland said. 

“Some of the poison that has entered 
the picture in recent years has been the 
emergence of hired guns who look for 
these little loopholes and these little op- 
portunities for union avoidance,” he 
said. “They have been encouraged and 
promoted by the organs of business 
enterprise — like the Chamber of Com- 
merce, the institutional bodies that help 
in this process.” 



Lane Kirkland testifies before House subcommittee. 

‘There ought to be a law’ 


REP. JOHN BOEHNER (R- 
Ohio): The example that you used 
about running an ad prior to negotia- 
tions beginning, isn’t that an unfair 
labor practice? 

KIRKLAND: No, not under the 
present law. It should be but it is not. 

BOEHNER: But wouldn’t it in- 
dicate an intent to bargain in bad 
faith, which is in fact an unfair labor 
practice? 

KIRKLAND: By reason it is, by 
law it is not. In common sense it is. 
And I say to you it is. But the law 
does not say that. 

BOEHNER: Obviously, union 
busting is an unfair labor practice. 

KIRKLAND: No, it is not. Not 
under the Supreme Court’s inter- 
pretation in die Mackay doctrine. 
That is precisely what I am here to 
tell you. 

BOEHNER: There was a point 
made earlier that I wanted to get 
your reaction to. There have been 
fewer strikes. In my own mind, there 
have been strikes because of this 
judicially created permanent strike 
replacement doctrine, which is re- 
placing the earnest desire for better 
working conditions and wages with 
fear. I would like you to respond to 
the question, of what is the reason 
for fewer strikes now. 

KIRKLAND: I don’t know if 
there is one generic explanation for 
the statistical trends in the number 
of settlements and the number of 
strikes. I suspect there are a variety 
of reasons. 

Clearly, in the case of the in- 
dustrial sector, one reason for fewer 
strikes is the damage that has been 
done to our industrial base, by the 
decline of our industrial capacity — 
the fact that more and more com- 


panies have found themselves in 
difficulties. 

In many of those cases, when the 
trade union has come to the table and 
examined the facts and the cir- 
cumstances, they have gone far 
above the call of duty in trying to 
help that company stay alive. We 
have had what i s commonly called 
“concession bargaining,” because 
of that. I can cite you case after case 
where the trade union went to great 
lengths to rescue a company. 

Chrysler could not have been 
saved and would not exist had it not 
been for the sacrifices and the invest- 
ment of time and deferred wages that 
the UAW provided. The union 
joined with management in coming 
down to try and seek some help, a 
little assistance, in the form of 
guarantees, together with manage- 
ment and the Congress. 

That is the kind of cooperative 
relationship and the kind of collec- 
tive bargaining that we believe in. 
Collective bargaining is not a gravy 
train for trade unions, it is not a 
candy tree. Collective bargaining is 
a problem-solving process and when 
there are real problems it is a way 
to address them mutually, where 
each side can make appropriate con- 
tribution to the resolution of those 
problems. It does not always yield 
great increases or continual improve- 
ments for workers. It frequently has 
to address the problem of what do 
we have to do to save this place of 
employment and to save these jobs. 

I regret to say that in many sec- 
tors of the American economy in re- 
cent years that has been the practical 
situation that we have had to face and 
deal with. We have gone to great and 
extraordinary lengths to do that. 


Catholic Conference endorses ban on striker replacements 


By Muriel H. Cooper 

T he U.S. Catholic Conference, the 
public policy agency of the nation’s 
Catholic bishops, added its voice to the 
call for legislation to ban the hiring of 
“permanent replacements” for striking 
workers. 

“The right to strike without fear of 
reprisal is fundamental to a democratic 
society,” said the Rev. Frank Rodimer, 
bishop of the Paterson, N.J., diocese, 
in testimony before the Senate subcom- 
mittee on labor. 

“I think we have to decide whether 
we will be a country where workers’ 
rights are totally dependent on the good 
will of employers or whether we will 
be a country where the dignity of work 
and the rights of workers are protected 
by the law of the land,” Rodimer said. 

Rodimer reiterated the church’s 
century-long recognition of the impor- 


tance of unions and said it is especially 
appropriate for the Conference of 
Catholic Bishops to speak out on this 
issue because the Church is celebrating 
the 100th anniversary of Rerum 
Novarum, the first papal encyclical on 
modern Catholic social teaching. One 
hundred years ago the Church pointed 
out that protecting workers rights not 
only benefits the workers, but protects 
society as a whole. 

“In previous generations, labor 
unions were the bridge to economic and 
social participation for newcomers, and 
union wages gave the kind of security 
families needed to raise children and 
build communities,” he said. “We 
believe workers need them now more 
than ever.” 

Rodimer told the panel that he has 
watched with displeasure the erosion of 
the balance of power between manage- 


ment and labor. The bishop said eco- 
nomic and social changes have tom apart 
the cohesiveness of many communities. 

“Forty years ago, when I became a 
priest, it would have been unthinkable 
for an employer in my community to 
respond to a strike by hiring permanent 
replacements. I am told that because of 
a Supreme Court decision in 1938, it 
would have been legal to do so. But 
employers then knew better. Union 
values permeated the community. 

“Economic restructuring and social 
change have undermined the cohesive- 
ness of our communities, and devotion 
to the common good is often sacrificed 
in pursuit of personal gain,” Rodimer 
continued. “In such an atmosphere, 
some employers feel free to use strikes 
as an opportunity to get rid of the union 
and collective bargaining and their 
union workforce.” 


The bishop was one of several wit- 
nesses urging the Senate committee to 
quickly pass S. 55. The companion bill 
in the House is H.R. 5. 

“When employers are allowed to of- 
fer permanent jobs to strikebreakers, 
strikers lose their jobs. It’s that sim- 
ple,” Rodimer said. 

Borrowing the words of Monsignor 
John A. Ryan, the first director of the 
organization that preceded the Catholic 
conference, Rodimer said: 

“Effective labor unions are still by 
far the most powerful force in society 
for the protection of the laborer’s rights 
and the improvements of his or her con- 
dition. No amount of employer benevo- 
lence, no diffusion of a sympathetic at- 
titude on the part of the public, no in- 
crease in beneficial legislation, can ade- 
quately supply for the lack of organiza- 
tion among the workers themselves.” 




Workers seek 
OSHA reform 
20 years later 

Continued from Page 1 

ers Memorial Day and the 20th anniver- 
sary of the law’s enactment. By that 
time, labor-backed legislation will be 
introduced in Congress that would pro- 
vide workers the opportunity to take an 
active role in job safety. 

The legislation should require 
employers to have a worksite safety and 
health committee that provides full 
union and worker participation, Semi- 
nario said. The committee would have 
the right to meet, conduct inspections, 
investigate accidents and gain access to 
safety and health information. 

Workers should have the right to act 
on job hazards, Seminario said. Trade 
unions fought the battle to win the right 
for workers to know about the toxic 
chemicals used on the job. Now, they 
need the right to act on what they know 
and the right to refuse dangerous work 
that threatens their lives, without fear 
of employer retaliation for exercising 
those rights. 

OSHA’s legacy 

Since OSHA’s enactment, more than 
245,600 workers have died from 
traumatic injuries received on the job, 
according to the National Safety Coun- 
cil. More than 100 million have been 
hurt on the job, Bureau of Labor 
Statistics show— despite chronic under- 
reporting by many businesses. And up- 
wards of 2 million more may have died 
from occupational diseases, according 
to figures derived from NIOSH data. 

In 1989, the NSC estimated more 
than 1 1,000 workers died from traumat- 
ic injuries received on the job. BLS 
statistics collected only from businesses 
with more than 10 employees showed 
that 6.5 million workers were injured. 
Perhaps another 100,000 died from oc- 
cupational illnesses, according to 
government estimates, as data collec- 
tion in this area is hampered by the lack 
of a uniform reporting requirement. 
Throughout the years, however, the 
figures have remained nearly static 
despite OSHA’s efforts to make work- 
places safer. 

Through four Republican administra- 
tions and one Democratic, OSHA’s list 
of achievements has been sorely out- 
stripped by its shortcomings and reluc- 
tance to act, Seminario said. The 
agency takes years to issue even 
moderate standards, prodded all the 
while by unions and often by the courts. 

Even with that pressure, OSHA to- 
day has issued only a handful of com- 
prehensive standards. Once issued, 
many of the rules are subjected to court 
review. The result is more dealy, with 
workers’ lives awaiting the outcome. 

Understaffed from the beginning, 
OSHA often seems to be walking a 
political tightrope, trying to meet its 
mandate without upsetting employer 
groups. 

Ronald Reagan rode to victory in 
1980 on a pledge to bury OSHA, 
Seminario noted. “While he didn’t ac- 
tually kill it, his budget cuts and direc- 
tives so paralyzed the agency that it has 
not recovered yet.’’ OSHA’s perfor- 



Arlee C. Green/AFL-CIO News 

0CAW committeeman C.T. Roberts reviews the record on the 1989 explosion at a Phillips petrochemical plant. 


mance remains far short of the goals 
Congress envisioned in 1970, she said. 

Enforcement has been hamstrung by 
inadequate staffing, weak penalties, the 
need to rely on the general duty clause 
in the absence of specific standards and 
the lack of unhampered access to job 
sites, Seminario said. Legislation pro- 
posed by the AFL-CIO would bring 
OSHA penalties and enforcement into 
line with other federal environmental 
and safety and health laws, she said. 

To further beef up enforcement, 
criminal sanctions against employers 
should be increased, she said, and 
OSHA should have the right to shut 
down jobs where there is imminent 
danger to workers. Special inspection 
programs should be mandated for high 
hazard industries and employers should 
be required to correct hazards that pose 
serious risks to workers, even though 
they have contested the citations. 

A right to act 

Workers and their representatives 
should have the right to contest all 
aspects of OSHA citations, including 
the failure to issue a citation, Seminario 
said. The unions also should have equal 
rights with management in OSHA set- 
tlement conferences, she said. 

Despite OSHA’s woeful record, 
OSHA Administrator Gerard F. Scan- 
ned recently told a House labor ap- 
propriations panel that the budget 
requested by the Bush administration is 
“adequate for our needs.” The 47,000 
planned worksite inspections for the 
next fiscal year are somewhat less than 
for the current year. But Scanned 
assured the panel that inspections would 
be of higher quality — “compre- 
hensive, well-targeted inspections.” 

Further, Scanned declared that 
reform of the OSHA law would be 
“counterproductive,” and that ad- 
ministrative measures may be ad that 


is needed to improve the way OSHA’s 
responsibilities are carried out. 

“This is an argument nearly every 
OSHA administrator has used to blunt 
efforts to reform the act,” Seminario 
said. “Time has exposed the act’s and 
the agency’s shortcomings. Now Con- 
gress must make the correction neces- 
sary to achieve the goals it set for the 
OSHA in 1970. 

Updating the act 

“Twenty years after passage of the 
act, there is stid nothing that specificady 
covers the types of catastrophic ac- 
cidents that have occurred lately in the 
petrochemical industries,” she said. 
“After the explosion and deaths at 
Phillips, the company was cited by 
OSHA mainly under the general duty 
clause which remains a weak catchall. 
Workers must be empowered to act. 
There is no other answer.” 

Seminario said the act should be ex- 
panded to cover ad workers. Millions 
of workers, including many state and 
local public employees and workers in 
transportation, agriculture and federal 
nuclear facilities, have little or no legal 
protections under the OSHA law. 

Likewise, the law should direct 
OSHA to act quickly on serious job 
hazards and should limit political in- 
terference in the standard-setting proc- 
ess by the White House Office of 
Management and Budget, Seminario 
said. OMB reviews OSHA standards 
and regulations under the authorization 
of the Paperwork Reduction Act. 

The continuing lack of complete and 
accurate statistics on occupational in- 
juries, dlnesses and deaths also must be 
addressed, Seminario said. New sys- 
tems of reporting must be established 
so this data can be used in standard set- 
ting, inspection targeting and program 
evaluation, she said. Further, employ- 
ers should be required to immediately 


report fatalities, serious injuries and 
catastrophes to OSHA. 

To augment the data collection, 
statistics on injuries and illnesses col- 
lected by state workers’ compensation 
systems should be coordinated with 
OSHA reporting, Seminario said. Com- 
pliance with the recommendations of 
the National Commission on Workers’ 
Compensation also should be evaluated 
and legislation enacted at the state and 
federal level to address deficiencies in 
workers’ compensation programs. 

Life or death issue 

The federation also is seeking im- 
proved monitoring of state OSHA pro- 
grams and improved status and funding 
for the National Institute for Occupa- 
tional Safety and Health (NIOSH), the 
research arm of OSHA. Workers at 
high risk of disease should be notified 
and a National Surveillance Program 
for Occupational Diseases should be set 
up, Seminario said. 

Separate pending legislation would 
establish an OSHA Office of Construc- 
tion Safety. The bill, introduced in the 
House by Rep. Joseph Gaydos (D-Pa.), 
would set up a system of multi- 
employer oversight and coordination 
for construction projects, require con- 
tractors to implement safety and health 
programs and maintain accurate rec- 
ords. It also would establish an academy 
to train OSHA inspectors and develop 
an inspection targeting system. 

With workers’ lives at stake, the bat- 
tle for OSHA reform is a vital mission 
for labor, Seminario said. No one 
knows that more than C.T. Roberts, 
who lost friends in the explosion at 
Phillips and who has spent the past year 
working with the law firm that is han- 
dling worker suits against Phillips. 
“We want a voice in determining how 
safe our jobs are,” he said. “Our lives 
hang in the balance.” 



W orkers around i 
April 28? the 
Memorial Day^payi 
injured or disced 6 
tention on the jseed tc 
Safety and Health A 
Major events are b 
at four sites — Lot 
N.C., Philadelphia, 
stressing the theme 
Right,” said federal 
Seminario. 

But numerous oth( 
case every year, will 
tion of unions, state 
bodies in organizing 
their communities ai 


Variety of activ 

Activities at the 1 
scores of others will 
memorial services, < 
moments of silence, 
tional workshops. 

Perhaps the most e 
forts by individual > 
own workplace com 
“We are ur gin g ^ 
inspections, to lool 
hazards,” she said. 1 
done jointly with 
However, the main 
to emphasize that th 
job safety, a primary 
tion sought by the / 
Many unions perse 
brance by developing 
in the workplace. Th 
are then read at mem 
on permanent memo 
Unions may obtair 
or killed on the job f 
sonal injury or wc 
torneys, state worke 
and federal, or stat 
agencies. 

The Occupational 
ministration requires 
maintain records oi 
deaths. Most employ 
tain an OSHA 200 I 
all injuries and iilnes: 
workdays, medical 
sciousness, job rest) 
The Log is posted 
be made available up< 
their unions. Failure 
cident to the Log is ai 
led to million-dollar : 
panies have failed to 

Widespread safe 

The events in Faye 
Angeles and Lansing 
safety problems that 
those communities. 

Mark Forrest of 
Labor Council can a 
reform. He remembe 
their lives this yea 
Philadelphia building 
not comply with heal 
“We hear this san 
Forrest said. “We he 
Workers Memorial I 
the need for greater e 
safety laws 



Fe Jobs 


■J 


S OUR RIGHT. 


Workers to dramatize 
need to change law 


By Sharolyn Rosier 
ind the nation will rally this 
the >third annual Workers 
paying tribute to those killed, 
edlSrthe job and focusing at- 
sd to reform the Occupational 
th Act. 

Lre being planned by unionists 
Los Angeles, Fayetteville, 
hia, and Lansing, Mich. — 
leme “Safe Jobs. It’s Our 
leration Safety Director Peg 

other events, as has been the 
will depend on the participa- 
state federations and central 
izing events and activities in 
ss and workplaces. 

rtivities 

he four designated sites and 
will include marches, rallies, 
es, candlelight vigils, public 
ice, proclamations and educa- 
s. 

ost effective action will be ef- 
lal Workers to improve their 
conditions, Seminario said. 
'grz&ons to conduct workplace 
look for and document job 
id. These inspections could be 
r ith management or alone, 
ain purpose is for employees 
it they need a right to act on 
lary goal in the reform legisla- 
he AFL-CIO, she said. 
>ersonalize the annual remem- 
ping a list of the workers killed 
. The names of fallen workers 
nemorial services or engraved 
lemorials, Seminario added. 
[>tain names of persons injured 
ob from their employers, per- 
workers’ compensation at- 
orkers compensation records, 
state job health and safety 

onal Safety and Health Ad- 
lires that employers collect and 
is on workplace injuries and 
lployers are required to main- 
00 Log, a complete listing of 
lnesses that result in death, lost 
ical tre atment, loss of con- 
restriction or transfer. 

>ted every February and must 
e upon request to workers and 
lure to accurately report an in- 
is an OSHA violation and has 
liar fines in cases where com- 
d to record multiple incidents. 

safety problems 

Fayetteville, Philadelphia, Los 
ising will call attention to the 
that have become epidemic in 
ies. 

of the Philadelphia Central 
an attest to urgency of safety 
mbers the firefighters who lost 
year fighting a blaze in a 
Iding where the occupants did 
health and safety regulations, 
same story year after year,’’ 
r e hope the events surrounding 
ial D^y will alert the public to 
iter enforcement of health and 


In California, the number of workers’ com- 
pensation claims has continued to climb as a 
result of injuries on the job, according to the 
California Workers’ Compensation Institute. 
The rising claims, in many instances, are the 
result of employer non-compliance with health 
and safety laws, said AFL-CIO Regional Direc- 
tor David Sickler. 

Companies with good safety training, em- 
ployee assistance and modified-work programs 
had one-fourth fewer workers’ compensation 
claims than those without such programs, 
according to a recent study of Michigan 
employers conducted by the Upjohn Institute 


for Employment Research in Kalamazoo, 
Mich. 

Companies with lower than average workers’ 
compensation claim rates offered wellness pro- 
grams or fitness resources, vigorous monitor- 
ing and correction of unsafe behavior, safety 
training for new or transferring employees and 
modified job assignments. 

Dick Whitwam, Michigan AFL-CIO health 
and safety director, said workers in his state 
cannot hope to overcome mounting safety prob- 
lems without the right to act and the right to 
refuse work that endangers the workers. “We 
gained the right to know in 1985,” he noted, 



Right 


*° Know 


^ight 


Right 


Planning an event, getting supplies 


A Workers Memorial Day kit is available for 
affiliates. The kit includes a poster, 
brochure, proclamation, camera-ready ad and 
clip sheet, suggested activities list, vendor list, 
a letter from AFL-CIO President Lane Kirk- 
land, an order form and a sheet on which to 
report activities to the federation before April 
28. Sponsors should send information and in- 
quiries to Workers Memorial Day, AFL-CIO, 
815 16th St., N.W., Room 303, Washington, 
D.C. 20006 or call 202/637-5366. 

A videotape and radio public service an- 
nouncement (PSA) also are available for the af- 
filiates. The 10-minute videotape produced by 
the Labor Institute of Public Affairs features 
footage from previous Workers Memorial Day 
activities. The radio PSA has additional space 


on the tape for each affiliate to tailor the 
message to their community. The videotapes 
are $10 and the radio PSAs are $5. 

The videotape and radio PSA are broadcast 
quality. Their use gives event sponsors an op- 
portunity to reach a much larger audience. 

Previous sponsors have used a wide variety 
of vehicles like educational workshops to call 
attention to job safety. Some have invited 
elected officials as well as members and leaders 
from community and religious groups, natural 
allies in the quest for safer workplaces and a 
cleaner environment. 

AFL-CIO industrial hygienist Diane Factor 
(202/637-5210) and Sharolyn Rosier of the In- 
formation Department (202/637-5010) are 
available to help sponsors with questions. 


“but without the right to act and refuse, our 
mission cannot be accomplished.” 

Time for right to act 

Health and safety at work is one of the 
greatest environmental concerns of the general 
public, a 1988 Roper poll conducted for the En- 
vironmental Protection Agency showed. For 
union members, that concern has translated into 
fights for health and safety provisions during 
contract negotiations. 

The Clothing and Textile Workers recently 
secured an agreement with Sheldahl Corp. in 
Northfield, Minn., providing for the elimina- 
tion from the workplace within two years of 
80 percent of the methylene chloride, a cancer- 
causing chemical. In 1989, EPA listed Sheldahl 
as the 45th worst polluter in the United States, 
emitting more than 600 tons of methylene 
chloride into the air in one year. 

The union had long suspected the presence 
of toxic chemicals at the facility, which 
manufactures electronic circuitry and laminated 
products. Even though workers complained of 
a chemical haze hanging over entire depart- 
ments, OSHA was ineffective because of in- 
adequate legal limits for many chemicals. 

“OSHA’s current standard-setting approach 
is inefficient and subject to too much political 
influence,” said Dr. Linda Murray, an occupa- 
tional health and safety physician in South 
Oglesby, 111. 

“I think it’s absurd to have standards for air 
levels of toxics that we know don’t really pro- 
tect workers but are the result of political 
negotiation,” she said, citing the substance-by- 
substance rule-making procedure as an exam- 
ple of the OSHA inertia. 

At the beginning of this century, she notes, 
people went to work and accepted a certain 
level of accidents and diseases as part of their 
job. People did not think that they could do 
anything about changing the risks that jobs 
presented. “We’re approaching this new cen- 
tury now, and clearly we can do something 
about it,” she said. 

Deadly industries 

Workers killed on the job annually come 
from every economic sector. The deadliest in- 
dustries, according to government statistics, are 
transportation, construction, mining and 
agriculture. 

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, 
occupational injuries in the construction in- 
dustry have increased by 100,000 over the past 
10 years. Injuries in the service sector have 
increased from 650,000 in 1980 to approx- 
imately 1.1 million. 

The increase in the service sector could be 
traced to the influx of workers in the industry. 
However, the construction industry has not 
made much progress in terms of improving 
health and safety regulations, said Seminario. 

Younger, less experienced workers who may 
not be adequately trained are particularly at 
risk. Workers aged 20 to 24 have the highest 
injury rate and more than 40 percent of those 
injuries occur during the first year on the job, 
BLS figures show. 

Estimates on the annual number of workplace 
fatalities vary from the BLS figure of 3,300 — 
a figure covering only the private sector and 
workplaces with more than 10 employees — 
to the National Safety Council’s (NSC) estimate 
of more than 11,000 workers. Since 1971, the 
first year in which workplace injuries and 
deaths were recorded, the National Safety 
Council estimates there have been approxi- 
mately 245,600 fatalities. 

BLS figures are based on employers’ injury 
and illness records, which OSHA audits have 
shown are subject to gross underreporting. The 
NSC uses state workers’ compensation records 
and data from the National Center for Health 
Statistics. 




OSHA chemical rule plan seen upholding status quo 



Arlee C. Green/AFL-CIO News 

Steven Tunbridge, safety chairman for USWA Local 7340, explains how his 
committee has gotten the company to buy the proper gloves for handling 
chemicals, and to replace paper masks with air-supplied ones. At right 
is Pat Flannery, president of USWA Local 8578 in Syracuse, N.Y. 


By Arlee C. Green 
Houston 

U nless the Occupational Safety and 
Health Administration’s proposed 
standard for the petrochemical indus- 
tries gives workers a role in job safety 
and requires adequate training for con- 
tractor employees, it simply will be 
upholding the status quo, unions told an 
OSHA field hearing. 

Workers as well as union officials 
testified for the Oil, Chemical and 
Atomic Workers and the Steelworkers, 
whose testimony also included the com- 
ments of the Chemical Workers 
(ICWU). Underscoring the proposal’s 
shortcomings, the witnesses gave first- 
hand testimony on job safety problems 
in an industry where accidents have the 
potential to devastate entire communi- 
ties. 

At a similar hearing last fall, con- 
struction and industrial unions urged 
that workers be given a role in job 
safety, as well as other proposals for 
change. 

Explosions continue 

The Houston area has been the site 
of numerous industrial accidents, many 
cause by contractor employees. Explo- 
sions in August and October 1989 at the 
Phillips Chemical Co. in Pasadena, 
Texas, killed 25 workers and injured 
262. A July 1990 blast at the Arco 
Chemical Co. in Channelview, Texas, 
killed 17. 

Since the unions testified Feb. 27, six 
workers have been killed and 46 injured 
in accidents at four petrochemical plants 
in Texas and Louisiana. 

The proposal says little about contrac- 
tor employees, despite their widespread 
use in the industry, OCAW Vice Presi- 
dent Robert Wages noted. Critical 
safety questions regarding contractors 
are reduced to one paragraph, he said, 
and “nothing in it references a single 
shred of the extensive and shocking 
evidence revealed during the one-year 
investigation of the industry by the John 
Gray Institute” — a study commis- 
sioned by OSHA. 

“Essentially it is a ratification of the 


status quo,” he said, arguing that 
petrochemical companies should be 
responsible for contractor employees’ 
safety training or skills proficiency. 

Four labor representatives have 
withdrawn from the 15-member steer- 
ing committee set up to aid Lamar 
University’s John Gray Institute in 
studying the use of contract workers in 
the petrochemical industry. 

In a letter to OSHA Administrator 
Gerard Scannell, the union members 
protested efforts to divert and dilute the 
study and accused Scannell of holding 
secret meetings with industry 
representatives. 

Wages objected to industry sugges- 
tions that management be allowed to 
handpick workers to serve on joint 
safety committees if OSHA requires 
such joint participation. 

Since 1984, explosions and fires at 


OCAW-represented facilities have 
caused 81 deaths and 364 injuries. 
Wages provided the panel with a copy 
of the OCAW video, “Out of Control,” 
which points out the underlying causes 
in many accidents — poorly trained 
contractor employees, an emphasis on 
profits before safety and the lack of 
worker input into safety. The panel 
viewed the tape following the day’s 
testimony. 

Jim Harrington, secretary-treasurer 
of the Beaumont, Texas, Local 4-243, 
works at Mobil Oil Co.’s refinery 
where, he said, steep maintenance cut- 
backs have led to the taking of “cal- 
culated risks.” 

He told of poor workmanship from 
contractor employees who are trained 
for six weeks, contrasting that with 42 
to 48 months of apprenticeship for 
refinery craftsmen. 


W.E. Sanders, secretary-treasurer of 
OCAW Local 4-449 in Texas City, told 
of contractor misdeeds, including faulty 
wiring of warning alarms. He urged 
that contractors be required to show 
proof they have completed a Labor 
Department-approved apprenticeship 
program, and that no contractor be 
allowed to perform work on a running 
process unit. 

USWA safety director Michael J. 
Wright likewise scored OSHA’s pro- 
posal for lacking worker participation 
and requirements for outside contrac- 
tors and training. 

A chemical process change at the 
Neville Chemical Co. plant near Pitts- 
burgh, he said, caused problems that 
eventually led to a fire that killed 
Steelworker James G. Thompson in 
September 1989. Although the com- 
pany knew of the problems, it did 
nothing, Wright said. OSHA cited it for 
an electrical violation, with a penalty of 
$420. 

Had an adequate chemical industry 
standard been in effect, Thompson pro- 
bably would be alive today, Wright 
contended. 

Workers make a difference 

USWA safety specialist James J. 
Valenti said workers think job safety is 
too important to be left to managers. He 
urged that workers have the right to take 
appropriate steps when a process begins 
to exceed safe operating limits, even if 
it means shutting down the process. 

Workers also should be allowed to 
participate in development of the hazard 
analysis, incident investigations and all 
safety audits, Valenti told the hearing 
panel. 

Steven Tunbridge, safety chairman 
for USWA Local 7340 in Reading, Pa. , 
highlighted the need for worker par- 
ticipation by telling how his committee 
initiated an investigation of toxic fumes 
that blew down from a rusted vent pipe 
onto the workers. 

While the problems were corrected, 
he said, a 42-year-old operator died six 
months after discovering he had con- 
tracted cancer. 


Educational effort seeks to cure worker concerns on AIDS 


By Arlee C. Green 

T he fear and phobias generated by the 
AIDS epidemic are a greater pro- 
blem than actual exposure to AIDS in 
the workplace, the AFL-CIO said. 

The federation is conducting an 
education program, attempting to pro- 
tect members from discrimination while 
providing health and safety solutions to 
workers exposed to infected blood on 
the job. 

AIDS is a union issue because it is 
a workplace issue, AFL-CIO industrial 
hygienist Diane Factor stressed. 

“In protecting the occupational rights 
of HIV-infected workers, in educating 
members about AIDS, and in providing 
information and support to the front-line 
workers whose jobs may expose them 
to contaminated blood, unions can make 
a difference,” Factor said. 

Nearly one million persons in North 
America are infected with the human 
immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that 
causes the disease, according to World 
Health Organization estimates. 

The virus is spread solely by sexual 
or blood-to-blood contact, Factor em- 
phasized, noting it also can be passed 
on from an infected pregnant woman to 
her baby. 

Through a five-year grant from the 
Centers for Disease Control, the AFL- 
CIO and several affiliates have worked 
to develop a trade union program that 


includes a pamphlet detailing labor’s 
concerns about AIDS in the workplace, 
a shop stewards’ manual on AIDS, a 
two-day training seminar and a 
15-minute video. 

“Workers who develop HIV infec- 
tion or AIDS still need to earn a living, 
receive continued health benefits and be 
productive,” Factor said. 

Information about risk 

Workers who may be at risk of ex- 
posure to infected blood on the job also 
need information about how to protect 
themselves, Factor said. Workers in the 
health care industry, corrections facili- 
ties, mental health institutions and 
emergency response jobs may face this 
risk. 

In 1989, an AFL-CIO convention 
resolution stressed the need for 
educating workers and the public about 
AIDS. It committed the federation to 
work for increased health protections 
for those workers whose jobs put them 
at risk. 

The AFL-CIO also pledged to lobby 
for increased funding for AIDS 
research, education and social and 
health services. 

The resolution also urged the Oc- 
cupational Safety and Health Ad- 
ministration to issue a standard on 
blood-borne infectious diseases, noting 
that a number of unions had petitioned 


the agency in 1986 for an emergency 
standard. 

Just recently, OSHA revised its 
timetable for issuing such a standard, 
moving the date back from May 1991 
to September 1991. Union safety and 
health directors think that date too may 
slip out of reach if the White House Of- 
fice of Management and Budget’s 
review becomes excessive. 

Further, the convention resolution 
said that testing for HIV should be of- 
fered to those who want it, but only on 
a voluntary basis. 

On Feb. 22, Jordan Barab, assistant 
director for health and safety at 
AFSCME, testified at a Center for 
Disease Control hearing in Atlanta that 
testing and restrictions for health care 
workers “simply will not be an effec- 
tive public health tool to minimize the 
risk of worker to patient transmission 
of HIV.” 

Any such testing, whether voluntary 
or mandatory, would have to be con- 
tinual, Barab noted, because of the time 
lag before someone registers HTV-posi- 
tive. 

He urged the agency to work toward 
developing safer surgical and other 
medical procedures and devices, and 
encouraging training programs for 
health care providers on new infection- 
control techniques and universal 
precautions. 


A study conducted recently by the 
Service Employees-affiliated San Fran- 
cisco Interns and Residents Association 
showed that 25 percent of all medical 
interns were stuck by HIV-infected 
needles in a 12-month period. 

SEIU, AFSCME and other unions 
representing health care workers have 
urged health care and nursing home 
facilities to use self-sheathing needles 
to reduce the instances of needlesticks. 

Popular misconceptions 

The AFL-CIO pamphlet, “AIDS in 
the Workplace — Labor’s Concern,” 
details how the virus is transmitted and 
answers the popular misconceptions 
about HIV and AIDS, Factor said. 
Basic information is provided on how 
workers whose jobs expose them to in- 
fected blood can protect themselves. A 
chart explains what happens to the 
health of someone who has been in- 
fected with the virus. 

A two-day train-the-trainer program 
has been developed for local union 
educators, shop stewards and health and 
safety committee members. It is con- 
ducted by two AIDS educators hired 
under the grant, Factor said. 

Information is available on the 
pamphlet, steward’s manual, video and 
training program from the AFL-CIO 
Department of Occupational Safety and 
Health. Call 202/637-5210. 





Right- to -work’ laws put states at disadvantage 


By Sharolyn Rosier 

T he 21 states with “right-to-work” 
laws continue to lose ground to free 
collective bargaining states in per capita 
income, average hourly earnings and 
unemployment compensation, an analy- 
sis of government figures reveals. 

The compulsory open-shop states also 
lag behind the rest of the nation when 
it comes to fair employment practices 
laws, state minimum wage legislation, 
spending on public schools and infant 
mortality, according to the study, which 
is based on 1989 statistics compiled by 
the U.S. Labor and Commerce Depart- 
ments. 

In free collective bargaining states, 
the average per capita income is $3,120 
more than in “right-to-work” states. 
The average per capita income of the 
29 free collective bargaining states and 
the District of Columbia, at $18,689, 
is higher than the national average per 
capita income of $17,596. 


Bal Harbour, Fla. 

T he AFL-CIO’s Food and Allied 
Service Trades Department endorsed 
legislation prohibiting the Department 
of Defense from buying food and 
related products not packaged in the 
United States or its territories. 

The annual board meeting also heard 
from Alan McMillan, deputy 
undersecretary of labor for OSHA, who 
noted the agency’s new civil penalties 
took effect March 1. Under the new 
penalties, willful violations carry a 
minimum fine of $5,000. 

Although OSHA won the praise of 
FAST President Robert Harbrant for its 


Bal Harbour, Fla. 

C alling the nation’s education and 
training system “seriously flawed,” 
the AFL-CIO Committee on Education 
called for major reform in its report to 
the Executive Council. 

The committee, chaired by President 
Marvin Boede of the Plumbers and Pipe 
Fitters, commended the traditional ap- 
prenticeship programs of the building, 
metal and printing trade unions which, 
through a combination of on-the-job 


Of the 21 “right-to-work” laws now 
in existence, only two — Louisiana and 
Idaho — have been enacted in the 28 
years since 1963. The per capita income 
in those states has decreased since they 
adopted “right-to-work” laws. 

Louisiana’s per capita income was 
$1,163 below the national average in 
1976, when it passed a “right-to-work” 
law. In 1989, the per capita income was 
$4,675 below the national average. 

Idaho’s “right-to-work” law went 
into effect in 1986. The state’s per 
capita income dropped from $3,079 
below the national average in 1985 to 
$3,889 below the average in 1989. 

Similarly, the per capita income in 
Kansas fell from just above the national 
average in 1958, when it passed a 
“right-to-work” law, to $1,098 below 
the national average in 1989. 

Wyoming passed its “right-to-work” 
law in 1963, when the state’s per capita 
income was $6 above the national 


cooperation with the department on 
several issues, and the board supported 
the greater use of criminal penalties, 
FAST expressed its wariness of 
OSHA’s current initiative to establish 
model safety programs in hazardous in- 
dustries such as meatpacking. 

In other business, the board heard 
reports on the department’s activities on 
behalf of several legislative initiatives, 
including family leave, national health 
care reform, strikebreaker legislation 
and fish inspection. 

The board also called for the filling 
of vacancies in the Labor Department 
and expressed concern over continued 


training and classroom instruction pro- 
vide real opportunity for thousands of 
young workers. 

In contrast, most young adults under 
age 25 who do not continue their 
schooling after high school “lack the 
opportunity to be trained for more than 
a dead-end job,” Boede said. 

Constantly changing technology, the 
structuring of the U.S. economy and in- 
tense competitive pressures require a 
major overhaul in the nation’s training 


average. By 1989, per capita income 
was $3,088 below the average. 

While millions of workers sought 
unemployment benefits in 1989, “right- 
to-work” states provided only 14 per- 
cent of its jobless benefits at or above 
the national average of 33 percent. 
Among free states, 53 percent of the 
unemployed were provided benefits at 
or above the national average. 

Idaho, Kansas and Tennessee were 
the only “right-to-work” states to pro- 
vide unemployment benefits to the 
jobless at or above the national average. 

Although productivity rose 4.9 per- 
cent in 1989 in manufacturing, the 
average hourly earnings of production 
workers was $9.50 in “right-to-work” 
states, compared with $10.94 in the free 
bargaining states. The national average 
was $10.47. 

In addition, “right-to-work” states 
lagged far behind free states on social 
indicators. For example, only 5 percent 


U.S. imports from the People’s 
Republic of China. 

Danny Beagle, information officer of 
the Longshoremen and Warehousemen, 
previewed for the board a PBS pro- 
gram, “We Do The Work,” which 
depicts the lives of workers. 

The board also received a report on 
the anticipated impact of the unified 
European economy on workers in the 
food and allied trades. 

Finally, the board discussed its efforts 
to assist the Council on Economic Pri- 
orities develop a workplace issues 
category for its best-selling “Shopping 
For a Better World Guide.” 


and education system, the report said. 
But existing training programs that have 
proven effective “should not be 
harmed” by initiatives, the committee 
stressed. 

“On-the-job training and related 
classroom instruction must provide 
workers already on the job, as well as 
those in training, with adequate 
safeguards against employers seeking 
low- wage, disposable workers,” the 
committee added. 


of the “right-to-work” states are above 
the national average of expenditures per 
pupil in public schools. Fifty-seven per- 
cent of the free states are at or above 
$4,557, the national average. 

High infant mortality rates usually are 
associated with poverty, poor nutrition 
and lack of access to prenatal health 
care services. In 1987, 67 percent of the 
free states had rates at or below the na- 
tional average of 10. 1 deaths per 1,000 
live births. By contrast, only 48 percent 
of the “right-to-work” jurisdictions 
were at or below the national average. 

The report, “Economic Comparisons 
between Right-to-Work States and Free 
Collective Bargaining States,” is a 
regular study of government data by the 
AFL-CIO Department of Economic 
Research. Copies of the 1991 edition 
may be obtained by writing the AFL- 
CIO Publications and Materials Office, 
815 16th St. N.W., Washington, D.C. 
20006. 

ACTWU fight 
saves jobs 
at Health-Tex 

By Candice Johnson 

A yearlong campaign by the Clothing 
and Textile Workers to block the 
forced liquidation of Health-Tex Inc. 
until a buyer could be found has paid 
off. ACTWU recently reached a collec- 
tive bargaining agreement with the new 
owner, VF Corp. 

As part of that agreement, VF Corp. 
will keep open the company’s remain- 
ing manufacturing plants and will con- 
tinue to produce Health-Tex brand 
clothing in the United States. ACTWU 
represents about 1,500 Health-Tex 
workers in three states. 

Final arrangements of the sale are ex- 
pected to be completed over the next 
several weeks. 

“Health-Tex employees showed that 
workers and their unions can and will 
fight to keep their jobs,” ACTWU 
President Jack Sheinkman said. “We 
made the banks take responsibility for 
fixing the shaky restructurings that were 
thrust upon healthy companies in the 
buy-out mania of the 1980s.” 

Once one of the nation’s largest 
manufacturers of children’s clothing, 
Health-Tex faced deep debt after it was 
taken over by Chesebrough-Pond’s Inc. 
in a leveraged deal in 1985. When 
banks began pushing for liquidation last 
spring, ACTWU and union members 
began a concerted campaign to find a 
buyer and save their company. 

Delegations of Health-Tex workers, 
working with other unions, held 
demonstrations at offices of the consor- 
tium of 10 banks holding Health-Tex 
loans, and mobilized support from other 
depositors. Union demonstrators set up 
informational picket lines and sought 
meetings with officials at NCNB Corp. 
in Charlotte, N.C., Ameritrust Corp. 
in Cleveland and other banks. 

The effort also won the support of 
employee pension funds, public of- 
ficials and other pension fund investors 
who called on the banks to give the 
buyout search more time. 

ACTWU ’s position from the outset 
was that “Health-Tex is fundamentally 
a solid company, despite the debt prob- 
lems of the 1985 leveraged buyout,” 
Sheinkman said, adding, “we just 
needed the time to find the right buyer. 
VF Corp. brings a new set of strengths 
to Health-Tex and we are pleased by the 
sale.” 



Steve Yarmola/AFL-CIO News 

States and municipalities are reeling from massive fiscal the PED mid-winter meeting in Bal Harbour, Fla., the 
crises because of the "fend-for-yourselves" policies that Ohio Democrat called for federal programs to address 
the Reagan and Bush administrations had dumped on the problems of gaps in health care coverage, under- 

them, Sen. Howard Metzenbaum tells the Public funded schools, shifting tax burdens and the nation's 

Employee Department's executive council. Speaking at crumbling infrastructure. 


FAST: DOD should buy American food products 


Panel describes need for major educational reform 





In Denver, unionists remember Bob Waterhouse, a Greyhound striker killed last year by a scab driver. 



Elizabeth Wilson/Georgia AFL-CIO 


Greyhound striker supporters | picket at the 
Atlanta bus terminal. 


Greyhound: A year of injustice 


By Muriel H. Cooper 

T rade unionists from AFL-CIO unions 
joined Amalgamated Transit Union 
workers March 2 in six regional rallies 
marking the first anniversary of the 
ATU’s strike against Greyhound Lines 
Inc. 

More than 9,000 drivers and clerks 
were forced to strike last year over 
Greyhound’s demands for wage cut- 
backs, and benefit reductions for newer 
workers. 

More than 700 strikers from Mil- 
waukee, Denver, Atlanta, Syracuse, 
N.Y., Dallas and Portland, Ore., 
walked picket lines, listened to speeches 
from union supporters, shared hard- 


ship stories and offered family support. 

“My husband drove for almost 
18-and-a-half years,” said Jann Duff, 
wife of Dennis Duff of Vancouver, 
Wash. “It’s been difficult for him to get 
a job because of his age. They look at 
the age factor. It’s almost like 
discrimination, but how do you deal 
with that? 

“Financially, it’s been very, very dif- 
ficult for the last year, with him not be- 
ing able to get a job and having to take 
odd jobs. It’s hard trying to find 
something that will bring in even three- 
fourths of his original income,” she 
said. 

Strikers and their spouses have 


described the past year as a test of faith. 
“I married my husband for richer, for 
poorer, for sickness and in health, good 
times and bad, and I stand by that,” said 
Duff. “It’s not the drivers fault. They 
took a cut in wages eight years ago to 
keep the company going.” 

Striking bus driver John Schauer of 
Milwaukee noted that “once legislation 
is passed, companies will have to 
bargain with the people who helped 
build these companies. I didn’t think the 
strike was going to last this long, but 
now I think they are out to bust the 
union,” said the 15-year veteran of 
Greyhound. 

Atlanta bus driver Helen Withers- 



SUPPORTS THE 

GREYHOUND BUS 
STRIKE 


Ed Barr/ ATU Local 1610 






i 

SIJMFaa, 


TO BE A LAWf 


AULW CTV I. 


'oumcjl souoAjyfv comm 


Officials from the A. Philip 
Randolph Institute join in a 
solidarity rally at the Greyhound 
bus terminal in Syracuse, N.Y. 
(left). In Milwaukee, unionists 
block the exit of an airport-bound 
bus (right). 


Elizabeth Wilson/Georgia AFL-CIO 

Unionists confront a scab-driven Greyhound bus in Atlanta (above left), while Milwaukee demonstrators march in front of the terminal. 


Milwaukee Labor Press 


poon also said she was surprised the 
strike lasted so long. “I had hoped to 
make a settlement,” she said. “I loved 
my job and would like it back. More 
of us are in the age bracket where we 
can’t get a job past 40.” 

And even those under 40 are finding 
it hard to secure a job. ‘‘I’ve become 
Mr. Mom,” said 27-year-old Texas 
driver Curt Elliott. “My wife works 
and I stay home and take care of the 
kids. 

“I really liked my job at Greyhound. 
It devastated me because you train so 
hard to drive, get a job that you really 
enjoy and then the rug is jerked from 
underneath you.” 


Milwaukee trade unionists rally for a ban on "permanent replacement" workers. 


Milwaukee Labor Press 


Milwaukee Labor Press 





Jobless rate jump signals deeper recession 


By John R. Oravec 

N early 450,000 workers joined 
unemployment lines in February as 
the nation’s jobless rate surged to 6.5 
percent, the highest level in four years. 
The jump from 6.2 percent in January 
was the sharpest one-month increase 
since 1986, the Bureau of Labor 
Statistics said. 

According to the BLS household 
survey, 8.2 million workers were 
counted as unemployed last month. 
That is an increase of 1 .6 million since 
the onset of the Bush recession last 
June, when the rate was 5.3 percent. 

“The February unemployment fig- 
ures clearly indicate a worsening reces- 
sion,” the AFL-CIO said in statement, 
“not the near-end to a mild downturn 
that is portrayed by the Bush ad- 
ministration.” 

The federation called on Congress 
and the Bush administration to institute 
new job recovery programs, as well as 
to address the “the suffering of millions 
of jobless workers and their families by 
reforming the extended benefits pro- 
gram and establishing standards to in- 
crease coverage for jobless workers.” 
In addition to the 8.2 million offici- 
ally jobless, AFL-CIO chief economist 
Rudy Oswald noted, another 7 million 
were affected by partial or total 
unemployment — 6.1 million in part- 
time jobs because they could not find 
full-time work and 900,000 discouraged 
workers who have given up looking for 


work because of the depressed jobs 
market. 

Over the month, the number of in- 
voluntary part-time workers jumped by 
550,000, BLS said, and is 1.2 million 
above the number that prevailed 
throughout the first half of 1990. 

Before seasonal adjustment, BLS 
said, 8.9 million workers were counted 
as unemployed in February. But be- 
cause of severe limitations in the 
federal-state unemployment insurance 
system, only 4.1 million jobless 
workers were drawing benefits last 
month. That left 4.9 million others 
without benefits. 

Manufacturing hit hardest 

Employers in non-farm industries 
slashed payrolls by 185,000 in 
February, including a drop of 125,000 
in the manufacturing sector. More than 
1 million factory jobs have been wiped 
out since January 1989, BLS noted. 

Most of February’s losses came in the 
better-paying durable goods jobs — 
industrial machinery, autos, transpor- 
tation equipment and fabricated metals. 

In the services sector, employment in 
retail trade fell by 70,000 and in 
transportation by 35,000 — stemming 
largely from airline job terminations 
and layoffs. Employment also declined 
by 25,000 in wholesale trade and by 

10,000 in finance, insurance and real 
estate. 

There was a slight pickup in construc- 


tion of 27,000 jobs after a long string 
of losses totaling about 425,000 since 
last May. Health care jobs increased by 
30,000, BLS said. 

BLS Commissioner Janet L. Nor- 
wood told the Joint Economic Commit- 
tee of Congress that February was the 
seventh consecutive month in which 
more industries posted job losses than 
increases. She said adult men bore the 
brunt of the unemployment surge as 
their rate jumped 0.7 of a percentage 
point over the month to 6.3 percent — 
up 1.7 points from February 1990. And 
as job opportunities deteriorated in the 
services sector, the rate for adult 
women edged up to 5.4 percent, climb- 
ing 0.7 of a point from a year-ago. 

Harder-hit by the slumping economy 
were minorities as the February rate for 
blacks was 11.9 percent and 9.5 percent 
for Hispanics, Norwood noted. 

Six large states logged jobless rates 
above the 6.5 percent national average. 
Slumping auto production drove up 
Michigan’s rate 2.6 to 9.8 percent, 
while the rate in Massachusetts rose 0.7 
of a point to 9.3 percent. The rate 
climbed 0.4 to 7.4 percent in Califor- 
nia; 1 point to 7.1 percent in Florida; 
1 . 1 points to 7 percent in Ohio, and 0.4 
to 6.7 percent in Pennsylvania. 

Those six states accounted for 3.1 
million of nation’s more than 8 million 
jobless workers. 

Meanwhile, the three major auto- 
makers — General Motors, Ford and 


Chrysler — disclosed plans to lay off 
more than 57,000 workers at assembly 
plants in the United States and Canada 
for one week or more starting March 
18. Industry analysts said the auto com- 
panies are concerned about the long- 
term impact of the sales slump, despite 
the end of hostilities in the Persian Gulf 
region. Administration economists have 
contended that the recession would 
taper off when the shooting stopped. 

Public sector furloughs 

But recovery from the rising unem- 
ployment situation is a long way off, 
even for public employees who are now 
facing layoffs and unpaid furloughs in 
many states and municipalities. New 
York has laid off 1 ,000 state employees 
and Pennsylvania has removed 1,500 
workers from its payrolls. New York’s 
budget for the next fiscal year targets 

18,000 more state jobs. 

Similar reductions are expected in 
other northeastern states as governors 
encounter severe budget crunches with 
the faltering economy. AFSCME esti- 
mates that at least 50,000 state and local 
jobs could be wiped out nationwide by 
layoffs and early retirements. 

Several states are putting employees 
on unpaid leave. Rhode Island shut 
down most state offices and instituted 
its first of 10 unpaid holidays March 15 
for its 18,000 employees in 1991. That 
translates into pay cuts of hundreds of 
dollars for each state worker. 


Current account trade gap 
narrows; U.S. debt worsens 


T he U.S. current account deficit — a 
broad measure of foreign trade in 
goods, services and investments — 
widened in the fourth quarter of 1990 
to $27.8 billion. However, the Com- 
merce Department reported, the deficit 
for the entire year slipped to $99.3 
billion. That is the first time it has been 
below the $100-billion mark since 1984. 

Even so, the deficit in merchandise 
trade remained above $100 billion, with 
manufactured goods accounting for 
more than $90 billion of the 1990 
shortfall. 

Despite the improvement in the cur- 
rent account ledger, the U.S. position as 
the world’s largest debtor nation wor- 
sened. At the end of the year, the net 
difference of what American interests 
owe to foreigners totaled more than $760 
billion. At the current pace, the debt 
could climb over $1 trillion in less than 
three years. 

The United States had been a leading 
creditor nation until the mid-1980s, after 
it began piling up huge trade deficits. 
In other developments: 

• The government’s index of leading 
economic indicators dropped 0.4 percent 
in January, the sixth monthly decline in 
succession. The gauge of future 
economic activity has not advanced 
since a 0.1 percent rise in June. It was 
flat in July. 

Six of the 11 components that com- 
prise the index contributed to January’s 
decline. The sharpest drop was in the 
average workweek, followed by falling 
building permits, vendor performance, 


money supply and stock prices. Five 
components rose. The strongest gain 
was in factory orders for consumer 
goods and materials. 

• Housing starts plunged 12.8 per- 
cent in January to an annual rate of 

850,000 units, the lowest level since the 
Reagan recession in 1982, Commerce 
Department reported. The January 
starts were 45 percent below the year- 
ago month. 

• The skyrocketing gas pump prices 
following Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait 
brought booming profits for U.S. oil 
companies. A roundup by the Wall 
Street Journal showed that fourth 
quarter net income for the nine major 
U.S. integrated oil companies was 666 
percent over the comparable 1989 
period. 

• Nonfarm business productivity 
edged up 0.1 percent in the fourth 
quarter, but dropped 0.8 percent over the 
year, the Labor Department said. Fourth 
quarter output fell at an annual rate of 
2.7 percent, paralleling the decline in 
work hours. For the year, hourly pay 
rose 3.5 percent, but real earnings drop- 
ped 1.8 percent after adjustment for 
inflation. 

In the manufacturing sector, which 
has been hit the hardest by the reces- 
sion, productivity declined at an annual 
rate of 1.6 percent in the October- 
December period while factories 
slashed work hours 8.6 percent. 

But for all of 1990, manufacturing 
productivity rose 3 percent even though 
work hours fell 2.1 percent. 



Chrysler's pace-setting prototype Viper V-10 roadster. 


UAW-made Viper to pace Indy 


T o the cheers of union members, 
the American-made Dodge Viper 
took the checkered flag as the official 
pace car for this year’s Indy 500. 

Citing a surge of national 
patriotism, Chrysler Corp. said it 
was sidelining the Japanese-made 
Dodge Stealth in favor of the Viper 
for the 500-mile Memorial Day race 
at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway. 

The shift was welcomed by 
William Osos, director of UAW 
Region 3 in Indianapolis, who was 
among the first and most vocal pro- 
ponents for running a U.S. -built 
pace car. UAW members make the 
prototype V-10 Viper roadster. 

“Having the Dodge Viper pace 
the Indy 500 showcases the pride 
taken by UAW members in the 
workmanship and their commitment 


to quality,” Osos said. “We think 
that’s entirely appropriate for this 
premier American sporting event. ” 

Race organizers had given 
Chrysler the green light some time 
ago to provide the pace car for the 
1991 Memorial Day event, but they 
ran into sharp criticism when the 
Stealth was tapped last September. 
The Stealth is built by Chrys- 
ler’s Japanese affiliate, Mitsu- 
bishi. 

As pressure mounted, Chrysler 
and speedway officials got the 
message. They agreed to shift gears. 

Tony George, president of the In- 
dianapolis Motor Speedway said, 
“IMS’s philosophy continues to be 
to support domestic manufacturers 
as they compete in today’s global 
automotive industry.” 





10 Y£ARS OF 



Steve Yarmola/AFL-CIO News 

Visitors view a photo exhibit of the history of the Polish Solidarity movement. 
The exhibit will be shown at the George Meany Center through March 29. 


Kirkland and Havel lauded 
for advancing democracy 


W herever people seek democratic 
and human rights, “they can 
always count on the men and women 
of the American labor movement as 
a tested and proven resource in their 
struggle,” AFL-CIO President Lane 
Kirkland told the National Demo- 
cratic Institute for International 
Affairs. 

In accepting NDI’s W. Averell 
Harriman Democracy Award, Kirk- 
land said that budding new 
democracies validate labor’s deeply 
held conviction that free interaction 
of social institutions is the real foun- 
dation of rights and liberties. 

Kirkland was honored along with 
Czechoslovak President Vaclav 
Havel, the playwright turned leader 
of his country who is architect of its 
social reforms. 

“The emerging triumph of the 
human spirit in Eastern and Central 
Europe, and elsewhere in the world, 
vindicates those of us who have en- 
dured the criticism that we were 
blind to ‘geopolitical realities’ and 
oblivious to ‘national interests’ that 
leave little or no room for such fan- 
tasies as social justice and human 
rights,” Kirkland stressed. 

“It proves that there is no more 
enduring reality than the universal 
craving to breathe free and no in- 
terest stronger than its service,” he 
said. 


Kirkland commended Havel for 
his role in ushering a new era of 
freedom and democracy for the 
Czechoslovak people, “who risked 
insult and injury to keep alive the vi- 
sion of a decent, humane society 
under the most oppressive condi- 
tions.” 

Freedom does not take root and 
grow among the governing classes 
and the elite, Kirkland said. Rather, 
its nurturing sources “are in the 
streets, workplaces and wherever 
plain people rise to their feet and 
assert and demand their rights.” 

“We have seen this demonstrated 
with stunning effectiveness at the 
shipyard in Gdansk, at Wenceslaus 
Square, in the factories of Santiago, 
by black trade unionists in South 
Africa, and by the workers and 
students who gathered in Tiananmen 
Square to look down the barrel of a 
gun.” 

Kirkland cited similar, current ac- 
tions by miners in the Soviet Union 
and by people in the streets of the op- 
pressed Baltic states. 

In presenting the award to 
Kirkland, former Vice President 
Walter F. Mondale praised the AFL- 
CIO ’s support of workers struggling 
for freedom around the world. 

Czechoslovak Ambassador Rita 
Klimova accepted the award for 
Havel. 


Federation pledges to mobilize 
support for Soviet coal strikers 



Dick Warden, the UAW’s legislative 
director, will retire on April 30. He will 
be succeeded by Alan Reuther, the 
union’s associate general counsel who 
has worked in the legislative department 
since 1982. Warden was named assis- 
tant legislative director in 1972 and 
became director three years later. He 
joined the Carter administration as an 
assistant secretary of what is now the 
Department of Health and Human Ser- 
vices. In 1980, he returned to the UAW 
as legislative director. Prior to joining 
the labor movement, Warden held staff 
positions in both the House and Senate, 
and was a lobbyist for the civil rights 
movement. 

Economist Sheldon Friedman joined 
the AFL-CIO Department of Economic 
Research March 4. He will be respon- 
sible for economic policy issues, in- 
cluding finance, banking and related 
topics. Friedman, 42, worked 15 years 
with the UAW, serving since 1981 as 
its research director. He studied 
economics at the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology and has written widely 
on a variety of economic topics. Fried- 
man currently serves on the executive 
board of the Industrial Relations 
Research Association. 

AWARDS 

Heidi Evans won both the 
Newspaper Guild’s 1990 Heywood 
Broun Award and the George Polk 
award for a series of articles in the New 
York Daily News revealing that thou- 
sands of tests for cervical cancer were 
going unexamined for a year and more 
in a city laboratory. A member of the 
Guild that went on strike at the Daily 
News Oct. 25, Evans’ work was sub- 
mitted for the Broun award by her col- 
league, Tom Robbins, who has been 
editing the Guild Strike News. Evans 
will receive the Polk award, given by 
Long Island University, in a ceremony 
on April 17. The Broun award, named 
for the Guild’s founding president, will 
be presented April 23. 

The National Football League 
Players Association and the Muscular 
Dystrophy Association presented its 
Service Award to Alfred K. 
Whitehead, president of the Fire 
Fighters, and the 185,000 IAFF 
members for their efforts on behalf of 
MDA. Over the past 80 years, the IAFF 
has raised more than $80 million to help 
MDA. Through various fundraising ac- 
tivities, including the “fill-the-boot” 
campaign, the members raised $8 
million in 1990. AFL-CIO Secretary- 
Treasurer Thomas R. Donahue, who 
serves on MDA’s board of directors, 
noted that the IAFF is the largest con- 
tributor to the organization. 

DEATHS 

Gregory J. Bardacke, for 25 years 
the executive director of the American 
Trade Union Council for Histadrut 
before his retirement in 1978, died Feb. 
22. He was 80. 

Bardacke was a union organizer for 
four different unions and for the 
American Federation of Labor before 
World War II. He carried a Machinists 
card for 49 years. 

Bardacke was born in China in 1910 
of Russian emigre parents. His parents 
met and married in China after his 
father had escaped Tsarist Russia dur- 
ing the 1905 uprising. 


He served as an organizer for the 
Ladies’ Garment Workers, Hatters, 
Machinists and Retail, Wholesale and 
Department Store Union and during 
World War II was chief of the labor sec- 
tion in a division of the War Produc- 
tion Office. He was also a director for 
the United Nations Appeal for Chil- 
dren. His wife Beatrice died in 1986. 

Nathan Ehrlich, a founder and presi- 
dent of the Cake Bakers Local 51 in 
New York City, died of a heart attack 
Feb. 22 after attending a ceremony in 
Palm Desert, Calif., marking his 69th 
wedding anniversary. He was 87. 

Erlich, born in Poland, came to 
America as a young man and was hor- 
rified at conditions in U.S. bakeries, 
where rats, polluted air and 18-hour 
work days were common. He suffered 
from “baker’s emphysema” through- 
out his life. 

He served as president of the local 
union for 41 years before retiring in 
1973. 

He was instrumental in the founding 
of the City of Hope Hospital in Duarte, 
Calif. , and was the unofficial baker to 
several U.S. presidents. He made birth- 
day cakes for John Kennedy and 
Richard Nixon and an inaugural cake 
for Lyndon Johnson. 

Erhlich was also active in raising 
money for Israeli independence in the 
1940s and helped build the first com- 
mercial bakery in the new Jewish state. 

John Gates Ramsay, a former direc- 
tor of community services for the CIO 
and a founder of the National Religion 
and Labor Foundation, died Feb. 26 in 
Berea, Ky. He was 89. 

Ramsay was the first president of the 
Steelworkers local in Bethlehem, Pa., 
in what was then the Steel Workers 
Organizing Committe (SWOC) of the 
CIO. He worked on organizing cam- 
paigns for the USWA in a number of 
cities, prior to joining the CIO’s 
southern drive in 1945. As director of 
community services, based in Atlanta, 
he worked throughout the south organ- 
izing workers in textile, lumber and 
other industries. 

He was involved in many church ac- 
tivities. In 1957, he was named Layman 
of the Year in Washington, where he 
was an elder in the National Presby- 
terian Church. In 1981, Ramsay and his 
wife, the late Gertrude Martin Ramsay, 
received the Pennsylvania Labor 
History Society’s Mother Jones Award 
for leadership and service in the labor 
movement. 

Dr. Lorin E. Kerr, a black lung 
relief pioneer and longtime director of 
occupational health for the Mine 
Workers, died of emphysema March 9 
in Chevy Chase, Md. 

Kerr, who was 81 , headed the UMW 
occupational health department from 
1969 until his retirement in 1986. He 
joined the UMW staff in 1948 and 
served as an area medical officer with 
the union’s welfare and retirement fund. 

Kerr had a major role in the passage 
and implementation of the Federal Coal 
Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969 — 
landmark legislation that established 
benefits for mine workers stricken by 
black lung disease. 

“Because of Dr. Lorin E. Kerr, 
thousands and thousands of coal miners 
have received compensation and work- 
ing miners today are better protected,” 
said UMW President Richard Trumka. 
“No other single individual has done 
more than Lorin Kerr to protect the 
health of our nation’s coal miners.” 

A native of Toledo, Ohio, Kerr 
received his medical degree from the 
University of Michigan in 1935. He 
was a senior surgeon with the U.S. 
Public Health Service during the 
mid- 1940s. He also as a past president 
of the American Public Health Associ- 
ation. 


A FL-CIO President Lane Kirkland 
pledged to striking Soviet miners 
that support for their efforts would in- 
clude mobilizing world trade unionists 
to bring “an immediate stop to the ex- 
port of any Soviet coal to the industrial 
democracies.” 

Strikes by Soviet miners for better 
economic conditions and more voice in 
government started March 1, with the 
Associated Press estimating that 100,000 
miners were taking part in at least 100 
mines. 

Kirkland expressed outrage over legal 
actions against the strikers and noted 
that the threats to shut off electricity to 


mining communities “would threaten 
their familes and their children.” He 
called such action “a crude violation of 
legal norms and International Labor 
Organization Conventions . ’ ’ 

In a letter to Pavel Shushpanov, 
chairman of executive committee of the 
Independent Trade Union of Miners of 
the USSR, Kirkland promised March 8 
to respond to his request for a visit from 
a delegation from the International Con- 
federation of Free Trade Unions, of 
which the AFL-CIO is a member. 
Kirkland requested appointment of such 
a delegation from John Vanderveken, 
general secretary of the ICFTU. 




Retirees worried about loss of health care 


By Colleen M. O’Neill 

i t’s every worker’s nightmare: after 
giving your most productive years to 
a company that promises you a secure 
retirement, you are left high and dry 
when the promises prove to be empty. 

Fred Fields, who worked for Inger- 
soll Products in Illinois, described the 
frustration and fear that accompanied 
losing his health insurance three months 
before retirement. 

“My wife and I went without health 
insurance for over two years until we 
were finally able to join an HMO,” 
Fields testified during an AFL-CIO 
health care hearing in Chicago last fall. 
“We were fortunate. . .neither one of 
us got sick or needed medical atten- 
tion.” 

In a survey published in 1990 of 
11,417 retirees from 14 unions, more 
than 60 percent voiced a great concern 
over personal' health, with close to half 
showing concern over long-term care. 
A Gallup Poll conducted nationally last 
August showed that loss of medical in- 
surance was the major worry for 30 
percent of the 1,038 adults responding; 
19 percent of respondents cited personal 
payments as their major worry. 

The union retirees also told surveyors 
that health care and medical insurance 
coverage were by far their greatest 
need. Almost half of those interviewed 
identified specific needs, such as den- 
tal coverage and better in-home care. 

However, more and more retirees 


face the dangerous prospect of disap- 
pearing health benefits because of 
changes in the law. New rules pro- 
mulgated by the Financial Accounting 
Standards Board likely will have the ef- 
fect of making retiree health care look 
like a bad prospect for management 
because of their impact on company 
ledgers. FASB is a private board whose 
rulings carry the weight of law. 

Disappearing benefits 

Currently, most companies that 
promise to pay for retirees’ health care 
do so on a pay-as-you-go basis; they 
don’t set aside funds in advance of ex- 
penses, but deal with bills as they come 
in. FASB Order 106, which is to take 
effect in late 1992, seeks to rectify this 
situation by requiring those companies 
to carry a portion of the value of health 
benefits they provide to current retirees 
and benefits promised to future retirees. 

This pre-ftmding notion is similar to 
the way pension funds are handled. 
Beginning in 1997, companies will have 
to record the “minimum liability” of 
retiree health care costs — the value of 
health benefits due to retirees and those 
eligible to retire. 

Rather than comply with the new 
order — which experts say would raise 
expenses and lower profits and 
dividends — companies may slash or 
drop retiree health care altogether. 

Taft-Hartley plans, while not re- 
quired to comply with Order 106, still 


face the same prospect as every plan of 
dealing with rising costs. In fact, such 
multiemployer plans may be forced to 
cut benefits if costs are too great, since 
there are no corporate treasuries back- 
ing them up, experts say. 

Aside from the FASB order, there are 
four factors contributing to the finan- 
cial crisis in retiree health care: 

• Americans are living longer. In 
the year 2020, one in five citizens will 
be over 65. 

• Older people need more medical 
care. 

• Health care costs are rising 
significantly. Medicare eligibility has 
become more and more restricted, and 
Congress has shifted costs from Medi- 
care to company plans. 

• Workers are retiring earlier. 

Retirees bear rising costs 

The rising cost of health insurance 
coverage for retirees has been brought 
home dramatically to members of Local 
400 of the Food and Commercial 
Workers. In 1990, the monthly 
premium for coverage was $80; in 
1991, the premium jumped 115 percent 
to $171.95 per month. The jump in out- 
of-pocket costs laid a severe burden on 
the retirees. 

“(It was) an extremely high and 
unexpected cost increase for retir- 
ees, ’’said Jim Lowthers, secretary- 
treasurer of Local 400. “It has the ef- 
fect of driving people out of the fund, 


as some of them will not be able to pay 
that kind of increase.” 

Local 400 ’s contract calls for retirees 
to pay a greater share of their health 
care costs, but the premiums are much 
higher than the union had anticipated. 
Lowther said that approximately 10 per- 
cent of retirees had dropped their health 
and welfare coverage. He pointed out 
that, as costs escalate, a greater number 
of retirees will be priced out of cover- 
age, thus raising costs even higher for 
those remaining. 

Lowther said Local 400 was working 
toward a midterm solution to deal with 
the situation. 

Access to health care becomes nearly 
unattainable for the retiree without 
benefits and without Medicare. The 
AFL-CIO Executive Council’s Feb. 19 
statement on health care reflects the 
problem: “(The federation seeks to) 
reduce employment-based retiree health 
costs by dropping Medicare eligibility 
to age 60, putting the program in line 
with the average retirement age.” 

The council also called for cost con- 
tainment, universal access and admin- 
istrative overhaul. 

The AFL-CIO ’s Karen Ignagni, di- 
rector of employee benefits, says the 
lowered age requirement for Medicare 
“better matches the age at which 
workers are retiring.” She also points 
out that “the current Medicare system 
leaves retirees without coverage until 
they reach 65.” 


VOLUME 36, NUMBER 6 
MARCH 18, 1991 







Civil rights hill 
advances in House 

Civil rights advocates kick off a national 
campaign to gain passage of labor- 
backed legislation to restore protections 
against employer discrimination; two 
House committees review the proposal. 

House hill would 
reform HI system 



Labor gears up 
for WMD activities 

Major events are planned at four sites, 
and activities will occur around the na- 
tion this April 28, Workers Memorial 
Day, focusing on the theme, “Safe 
Jobs. It’s Our Right.” 

‘Right to work ’ 
means lower pay 

States with “right-to-work” laws have 
lower per capita income, average hour- 
ly earnings and jobless compensation 
than free bargaining states, a review of 
government data shows. 


The AFL-CIO NEWS (ISSN 001-1185) is published every two weeks. 
Second Class postage paid at Washington, D.C. Subscriptions $10 per 
year. POSTMASTER: Address changes to Room 209, 815 16th Street, 
N.W., Washington, D.C. 20006. 









The Japan trade lobby machine is 
fueled by cash paid to former U.S. 
government officials. See Pages 6-7. 


VOLUME 36, NUMBER 7 APRIL 1, 1991 


Labor celebrates new era at Daily News 


By James B. Parks 

T he presses rolled out the first edition 
of the New York Daily News under 
new owner Robert Maxwell after union 
workers scored a major victory in the 
settlement of the 146-day strike. 

“This is a great day, not only for the 
employees of the Daily News but also 
for the whole labor movement,” said 
George McDonald, president of the 
Allied Printing Trades Council, which 
represented the striking workers. 

Speaking at a rally to celebrate the 
end of the strike, AFL-CIO Secretary- 
Treasurer Thomas R. Donahue said 
“the victory really belongs to 2,300 
people who understood what solidarity 
was and knew it was their only salva- 
tion. They fought the union-busters to 
a standstill and were successful.” 


Maxwell made “a success of the 
negotiations” and restored “the faith of 
a lot of people in this country in collec- 
tive bargaining,” Donahue said. 

“In a free society, if collective 
bargaining is destroyed, you destroy 
democracy and, in due course, pros- 
perity,” said Maxwell, a British pub- 
lisher who announced that he would 
stay in New York to devote most of his 
time to resurrecting the Daily News. 

“The negotiations . . . have been 
tough, exhausting and at times ex- 
asperating,” he said. “But what mat- 
ters in the end is ... we not only re- 
stored your jobs, but we proved that 
naked capitalism cannot win if it goes 
about destroying true collective bar- 
gaining.” 

Maxwell pledged to do his “utmost” 


to work with the unions to make the 
paper successful. 

About 2,300 workers from nine 
unions went on strike Oct. 25 after 
working almost seven months without 
a contract. 

All nine striking unions ratified the 
agreement. The Machinists approved 
the contract just hours before the March 
20 rally. The three largest striking 
unions — the Newspaper Guild, the 
Newspaper Delivers and the Mailers 
— ratified their contracts the previous 
day after a late-afternoon meeting to 
iron out details. 

The GCIU’s Photoengravers were the 
first to ratify on March 15, followed by 
the Pressmen on March 17. The Paper- 
handlers, Stereotypers and Electrical 

Continued on Page 2 



Robert Maxwell says "Union Yes" 


Mexico trade 
doubts raised 
in Congress 



Bill Burke/Page One Photography 


Sen. Howard Metzenbaum (D-Ohio), who has introduced a dresses the concerns of trade unionists who rallied for 
measure to ban permanent replacement of strikers, ad- the legislation at the U.S. Capitol. 

Strikebreaker ban seen as moral issue 


By John R. Oravec 

C ongressional leaders are voicing 
deep reservations over the Bush ad- 
ministration’s attempts to ram through 
a so-called free trade agreement with 
Mexico under “fast-track” authority. 

As the White House turns up the 
pressure on Congress in its campaign 
to secure blanket trade treaty authori- 
ty, key members of the Senate and 
House have raised concerns about the 
impact of the open-ended U.S. -Mexico 
proposal on the economy and American 
jobs. 

Resolutions have been introduced in 
both chambers to terminate the fast- 
track rule on trade agreements. The 
procedure, which bars Congress from 
amending trade accord proposals, 
would be extended automatically for 
two years if neither body adopts the 
resolution before June 1. 

The congressional response came 
after a series of hearings in which union 
witnesses documented the exodus of 
American factory jobs to maquiladora 
plants across the border, where U.S. 
multinational companies exploit Mex- 
ico’s working poor with wages of less 
than $1 an hour. 

Senate Commerce Committee Chair- 
man Ernest F. Hollings (D-S.C.) 
charged that the White House was at- 
tempting to hogtie debate and effective- 
ly nullify Congress’s duty under the 
Constitution to “regulate commerce 
with foreign nations.” 

The fast-track rule covers all trade 
pacts, including the pending multilateral 
Uruguay Round of the General Agree- 
ment on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). 

Continued on Page 5 


By Muriel H. Cooper 

A group of Protestant, Jewish and 
Roman Catholic religious leaders 
announced their solidarity with labor in 
supporting a ban on the use of perma- 
nent replacements for striking workers. 

The Interfaith Impact for Justice and 
Peace, a multi-denominational organiza- 
tion seeking to advance justice, peace 
and stewardship in the public policy 
arena, told a Washington news confer- 
ence that it has formed the Religious 
Campaign for Workplace Fairness to 
support passage of H.R. 5 and S.55 bills 
to ban the permanent replacement of 
strikers. 

“The religious community supports 
the rights of working people on the 
basis of moral issues,” said the Rev. 
Theodore H. Erickson, co-chair for the 
campaign. 

‘ ‘In an era when a spirit of meanness 


and bottom-line economics appears to 
dominate many corporate approaches to 
labor relations, we must again be 
reminded of our common humanity and 
our democratic ideals,” Erickson said. 

President Richard Trumka of the 
Mine Workers, who enlisted the assis- 
tance of community and religious lead- 
ers during the union’s yearlong dispute 
against the Pittston Coal Group, told the 
religious leaders that the issue was one 
of basic morals: “Thou shall not covet 
anything that is thy neighbor’s proper- 
ty,” including the jobs of striking 
workers, he said. 

“You don’t have to look any further 
than the 10th Commandment to know 
that,” Trumka said. “There isn’t any 
more important piece of property you 
or any working man or woman is ever 
going to have than the job that puts food 
on our table. It’s a moral issue.” 


It was the second time in as many 
weeks that the religious community has 
voiced strong support for outlawing the 
practice of hiring permanent 
replacements. 

In testimony before the Senate sub- 
committee on labor, Bishop Frank J. 
Rodimer, representing the National 
Conference of Catholic Bishops, called 
for the passage of the legislation. 

The religious leaders are calling on 
their congregations “to reach out to 
workers who have been denied their 
jobs, their respect, and their livelihoods 
and to join with them in their struggle 
for justice,” Erickson said. 

Said Trumka, “The labor movement 
and the religious community have a 
shared dedication to the elevation of the 
human condition.” 

Delegates to several union legislative 
Continued on Page 12 







Jack Miller/Miller Photography 


AFL-CIO Secretary-Treasurer Thomas R. Donahue addresses a rally celebrating the Daily News contracts. 

Maxwell, unions pledge to rebuild paper 


Teamsters 
weighing 
freight pact 

M ore than 160,000 Teamsters are 
voting on a new three-year contract 
with the Trucking Management Inc. 
that, if approved, will serve as the 
union’s National Master Freight Agree- 
ment. 

The proposed package provides im- 
provements in wages, job security, 
equipment safety and employer pay- 
ments to pension and health and wel- 
fare, the union said. 

“This settlement represents signifi- 
cant gains for our members,” com- 
mented IBT President William J. Mc- 
Carthy, “and it certainly has to be 
ranked as one of the best since the in- 
ception of the National Master Freight 
Agreement.” McCarthy is chairman of 
the union’s National Freight Industry 
Negotiating Committee. 

IBT Vice President R.V. Durham, 
co-chairman of the National Freight 
Committee, said the accord “is the 
largest monetary settlement in the 
freight industry since deregulation.” 

Local issues addressed 

It covers drivers, warehouse, office 
and maintenance shop employees of in- 
terstate and local motor carriers. The 
31 supplemental agreements spell out 
local wage rates, work rules and opera- 
tional aspects. 

The package represents a 12.3 per- 
cent increase over three years, or an an- 
nual rate of 3.95 percent. The accord 
breaks down to hourly wage increases, 
$1.40 an hour; mileage, 3.5 cents; 
vacation improvement, 5 cents; and 
employer contributions to pensions and 
health and welfare, $1.05 a hour, the 
IBT estimated. The package thus totals 
$2.50 an hour. 

Pact endorsed 

The tentative contract with TMI, 
reached March 14, received near unani- 
mous approval from representatives of 
266 IBT locals at a March 19 meeting 
in Chicago. 

Ballots, mailed to members covered 
by the agreement, will be tallied in late 
April with majority approval required. 
The current contract was extended un- 
til balloting is completed. 

At press time, a tentative settlement 
was reported between the IBT and 
Yellow Freight System Inc., covering 
21,000 workers. 

Negotiations are continuing with two 
other employer groups, Regional Car- 
riers Inc. and Motor Carrier Labor Ad- 
visory Council. 


Continued from Page 1 

Workers ratified the agreement on 
March 19. 

The ratifications cleared the way for 
Maxwell to complete the deal to buy the 
paper from the Tribune Co. 

The end of the strike came eight days 
after the unions had tentatively agreed 
to eliminate 800 jobs, or about one-third 
of the union jobs at the paper. It came 
on the day the Tribune Co. had said it 
would close the Daily News unless 
there was a settlement. 

“All of labor followed this strike 
very intently because they knew collec- 
tive bargaining was at stake, and the 
business community watched because 
they knew labor-management coopera- 
tion was at stake,” said New York State 
AFL-CIO President Edward J. Cleary. 

Others speaking at the rally included 
Charles Dale, president of the News- 
paper Guild; James Norton, president 
of the Graphic Communications Union, 
and George Kourpias, president of the 
Machinists. 

The strike spurred a major effort by 
the AFL-CIO ’s Strategic Approaches 


A Virginia state appeals court has 
vacated more than $31 million in 
contempt-of-court fines levied by a 
Virginia county judge against the Mine 
Workers during its 1989 strike against 
Pittston Coal Group. 

“The UMWA is obviously relieved 
with this decision, and we trust that 
what has been a very difficult period for 
all concerned is now behind us,” said 


Committee, including a local advertis- 
ing and circulation boycott and a na- 
tional corporate campaign. 

It also focused increased attention on 
the need for federal legislation to ban 
the permanent replacement of striking 
workers, a major legislative priority of 
the AFL-CIO. Donahue noted that, if 
that law had been in effect, owners of 
the News would not have had the op- 
portunity to try and remove the union 
by forcing a strike and replacing the 
union members. 

“Quite possibly, we could have had 
a constructive settlement during the 
seven months between the expiration of 
the union agreement and the Oct. 25 
date when the owners finally got the 
strike they wanted,” he said. “The time 
the workers stayed on the job certainly 
proves a settlement, not a confrontation, 
is what they wanted all along.” 

AFL-CIO President Lane Kirkland 
had said earlier that the tentative agree- 
ment was “made possible when Mr. 
Maxwell removed the issue of ‘perma- 
nent replacement’ workers from the 
bargaining table.” 


UMWA President Richard Trumka. 

The appeals court said the fines by 
Russell County Circuit Court Judge 
Donald McGlothlin Jr. were civil fines 
designed to coerce the UMWA into 
complying with his injunctions laying 
down rules for picketing. His ruling 
provided a formula for doubling the 
fines for each day of noncompliance. 

McGlothlin imposed $64.5 million in 


The Strategic Approaches Commit- 
tee, chaired by Lynn Williams of the 
Steelworkers, and the federation’s 
Department of Organization and Field 
Services guided the multiunion as- 
sistance program for the Daily News 
workers. 

The federation set up a boycott office 
to assist in organizing, legal work and 
community services and national unions 
hired Samuel McKnight, a Detroit at- 
torney, as the legal architect of the win- 
ning union boycott strategy. 

William Hauenstein, Northeast 
Regional Director of the AFL-CIO 
Community Services Liaison, United 
Way of America, coordinated the com- 
munity services programs. 

Support for the strikers led to a drop 
in the Daily News’ circulation from its 
pre-strike level of 1.1 million to 
300,000. More than 75 percent of New 
York outlets refused to carry the paper 
and only 20 of the paper’s original 750 
display advertisers remained. 

The strikers and their supporters will 
celebrate their victory with a reception 
and fund-raiser April 3. 


fines, believed to be the largest in U.S. 
labor history, but the appeals court ad- 
dressed only $31.3 million of the total. 

About $12 million was dropped at the 
request of Pittston and the UMWA after 
the strike was settled. Another $21 
million is still pending. 

The court also reversed another cir- 
cuit judge’s imposition of $600,000 in 
criminal fines against the union. 


Virginia appeals court vacates contempt fines against UMWA 



Director of Information: Rex Hardesty 

Editor: Michael Byrne 

News Editor: John R. Oravec 

Assistant Editors: Arlee C. Green, 

Candice Johnson, James B. Parks 

Staff Writers: Muriel H. Cooper, Mike Hall, 
Colleen M. O’Neill, Sharolyn A. Rosier 

Graphics /layout: Stan Hitt 


AFL-CIO Headquarters: 815 Sixteenth St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20006 
Telephone: (202) 637-5010 


Vol. 36, No. 7 ®« ^§glfe - >3 MONDAY, APRIL 1, 1991 


The AFL-CIO News (1SSN-001-1 185) is issued every two weeks at 815 Sixteenth St.. N.W., Washington, D.C. 
The AFL-CIO does not accept paid advertising in any of its official publications. No one is authorized to solicit 
advertising for any publications in the name of the AFL-CIO. 


. kft0 acoMMt mica , . 

t rip 


Official Publication 


of the 

American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations 

Lane Kirkland, president 
Thomas R. Donahue, secretary-treasurer 


EXECUTIVE COUNCIL 


Albert Shanker 
William H. Wynn 
Joyce D. Miller 
Richard I. Kilroy 
William H. By water 
John T. Joyce 
Robert A. Georgine 
Jay Mazur 
John J. Barry 
Susan Bianchi-Sand 
John N. Sturdivant 


Edward T. Hanley 
John DeConcini 
John J. Sweeney 
Vincent R. Sombrotto 
Marvin J. Boede 
Lynn R. Williams 
Milan Stone 
Lenore Miller 
Sigurd Lucassen 
Moe Biller 
Richard L. Trumka 


Angelo Fosco 
Wayne E. Glenn 
James E. Hatfield 
Gerald W. McEntee 
Owen Bieber 
Morton Bahr 
Gene Upshaw 
Jack Sheinkman 
William J. McCarthy 
George J. Kourpias 
Frank Hanley 







LEGISWTON 


Congress refuses to gut Davis-Bacon 


By Mike Hall 

A 10-year campaign by non-union 
construction firms to gut important 
parts of the Davis-Bacon Act was over- 
whelmingly turned back in the House 
and Senate. 

Both houses defeated amendments to 
the Emergency Supplemental Ap- 
propriations bill for fiscal year 1991 that 
would have expanded the use of low- 
wage and untrained helpers and, thus, 
destroy the nation’s long-standing ap- 
prenticeship system. 

“America’s construction unions have 
won a major victory in Congress that 
will best serve construction in particular 
and the nation in general,” said Robert 
A. Georgine, president of the AFL-CIO 
Building and Construction Trades De- 
partment. 

The defeated amendments would 
have stripped language from the ap- 
propriations bill that forbids the Depart- 
ment of Labor from spending any binds 
on its new “helper” and apprenticeship 
regulations. 

“The sweeping impact of ‘helper’ 
and apprenticeship regulations would 
severely weaken the Davis-Bacon Act, 
cause serious job loss for construction 
workers and undermine a 44-year-old 
national and state apprenticeship pro- 
gram which is operating efficiently and 
not in need of change,” said AFL-CIO 
Legislative Director Robert M. 

Meatpacking 
workers attest 
to safety woes 

By Arlee C. Green 

T he testimony of packinghouse work- 
ers before a House subcommittee 
brought living proof of the “national 
epidemic” of injuries and illnesses in 
their industry. 

On March 20, four workers from the 
Monfort Inc. plants in Grand Island, 
Neb., and Greeley, Colo., and one 
from a Wilson Brands plant in Mar- 
shall, Mo., told the House subcommit- 
tee on employment and housing of the 
injuries they had received at work and 
of the treacherous conditions workers 
face daily from poorly designed equip- 
ment, slippery floors, and production- 
line speedups. 

At the hearing, subcommittee Chair- 
man Thomas Lantos (D-Calif.) decried 
OSHA’s foot-dragging in issuing an 
ergonomics standard to help reduce the 
high incidence of repetitive motion ill- 
nesses in the meatpacking industry, in 
which more than a third of the workers 
are injured each year. 

When OSHA Administrator Gerard 
Scannell said the agency was “on the 
threshold” of proposing a standard, 
predicting it would be out by year’s 
end, Lantos declared, “That’s not good 
enough. We’re dealing with a national 
epidemic.” 

A week later, OSHA cited the Grand 
Island plant for 197 safety violations — 
more than 100 of which were judged 
willful — and recommended a fine of 
$1,092,100. The citations followed an 
OSHA investigation into the second 
worker death there in 18 months. 

At the subcommittee hearing, Food 


McGlotten in letters to members of the 
House and Senate urging rejection of 
the amendments. 

The amendments were offered by 
longtime Davis-Bacon foes Rep. 
Charles Stenholm (D-Texas) and Sen. 
Donald Nickles (R-Okla.). Stenholm’s 
amendment was defeated 244-173 and 
Nickles’ was turned down 63-37. 
Because the Davis-Bacon language is 
the same in both the House and Senate 
versions, it cannot be changed in 
conference. 

Georgine said the regulations would 
have created “a caste system of second- 
class workers” and called the votes “a 
victory for integrity over exploitation 
and greed.” 

The Davis-Bacon Act requires that 
workers be paid the prevailing wage for 
work on federal and federally assisted 
construction projects. It prevents con- 
tractors from winning bids by undercut- 
ting wage rates and also guarantees a 
trained and professional workforce for 
these projects. 

The new regulations would have 
allowed contractors to employ untrain- 
ed and low- wage “helpers” to take the 
place of qualified construction workers. 

Up to 40 percent of the current Davis- 
Bacon work force would have been 
replaced by the regulations. In addition, 
the use of helpers would have hit 
minority and female construction 


and Commercial Workers Vice Presi- 
dent Phillip Immesote warned that 
OSHA is about to repeat its earlier 
mistake in designing a program of ex- 
emptions and voluntary compliance in 
the nation’s packinghouses. 

“Meatpacking is a poor choice for an 
experiment in voluntary compliance,” 
Immesote said. The industry suffers 
from a staggering rate of repetitive 
strain disorders and injuries in general, 
he said, and has racked up record fines 
for safety and ergonomic hazards and 
egregious record-keeping violations. 

The workers showed the subcommit- 
tee their injuries and described the pain 
endured by workers and the indiffer- 
ence of their employers. 

UFCW Local 576’s Dorothy Wein- 
rich, 44, said that since starting work 
at Wilson Brands in 1980, she has 
undergone surgery on her shoulder, 
elbow and both hands to help alleviate 


workers especially hard, Georgine said. 
Also the lack of required safety and 
health training for these “helpers” 
could have resulted in increased deaths 
and injuries at construction sites. 

The DOL “helper” regulations are 
the department’s latest attempt in a 
decade-long fight to “establish a new 
class of workers who, unlike laborers, 
would work with no formal training and 
no hope of advancement within the con- 
struction industry and will become a 
permanent underclass toiling at very 
low wages,” McGlotten said in the 
letters. 

The regulations were first issued in 
1981, then struck down by the courts 
in 1983 because they undermined the 
Davis-Bacon Act. The DOL reissued 
the regulations in 1987. An injunction 
against implementing the rules was 
lifted in 1990, but the case is before a 
federal appeals court. 

The regulations would abolish state 
apprenticeship councils, eliminate 
states’ rights to set higher than federal 
standards, abolish the apprenticeship- 
to-joumeymen ratio requirements, and 
allow contractors to bring into a state 
an unlimited number of apprentices. 

The regulations also would eliminate 
the 144-hour annual instruction require- 
ment in the construction industry and 
cut in half the term of apprenticeship in 
the industry. 


the pain caused by repetitive motion 
injuries. 

A single parent, Weinrich is looking 
for another way to earn a living, but 
“not very many places will hire you 
when your hands and arms are all scar- 
red up like mine,” she said. 

The workers at Monfort’s plants are 
trying to unionize. Mateo Martinez, 
who has worked at Monfort’s Greeley 
plant since 1987, recently underwent 
surgery to replace the ball in his 
shoulder socket with a metal one. Becky 
Muransky-Martinez testified for her 
husband, Mateo, who speaks little 
English. She worked at Monfort until 
she was fired last October for alleged- 
ly trimming fat from a piece of meat 
incorrectly. 

Other testimony came from victims 
with carpal tunnel syndrome, tendinitis 
and a worker whose hand was ampu- 
tated after a dozen operations failed. 


i 


Capitol Digest 


A Senate child labor bill that strength- 
ens regulations on hazardous work- 
ing conditions, strengthens civil and 
criminal penalties and links education 
and labor has won the backing of the 
AFL-CIO. 

S. 600, introduced by Sen. Howard 
Metzenbaum (D-Ohio), would amend 
several provisions of the Fair Labor 
Standards Act. 

“The AFL-CIO’s long-standing posi- 
tion has been that the principal occupa- 
tion of our nation’s young people ought 
to be their education,” said AFL-CIO 
Legislative Director Robert M. 
McGlotten. “However, those that must 
work should be able to work in condi- 
tions that further their education, are 
safe and healthful and generally con- 
ducive to the development of young 
people.” 

The AFL-CIO has sought, through 
the Department of Labor’s Child Labor 
Advisory Committee, to strengthen the 
law covering young workers and haz- 
ardous conditions, but the DOL has 
failed to issue new regulations. The 
bill’s consideration of these concerns 
“is a step in the right direction,” 
McGlotten said. 

Elsewhere on Capitol Hill: 
FAMILY LEAVE — Family and 
medical leave legislation, H.R. 2, was 
approved by the House Education and 
Labor Committee by a voice vote and 
could be headed to the House floor in 
late April or early May. Meanwhile, the 
bill’s supporters were cheered by a 
Small Business Administration study 
that shows that it would cost companies 
more to hire and train a replacement 
than to allow the worker to take leave. 
Also, the Service Employees have 
begun a postcard campaign to boost the 
legislation. Postcards are available by 
calling Karen Skrabut at 202/898-3360. 

CIVIL RIGHTS - The House 
Judiciary Committee reported out civil 
rights legislation, H.R. 1, after turning 
back several GOP attempts to weaken 
the bill. Committee Chairman Jack 
Brooks (D-Texas) charged the Bush ad- 
ministration’s plan, also rejected by the 
committee, was “a wolf in sheep’s 
clothing. . .(and) an employers’ rights 
bill masquerading as civil rights.” 
HEALTH CARE - The Senate 
could have a comprehensive health care 
package ready later this spring, Sen. 
Edward Kennedy (D-Mass.) told the 
National Health Forum. The AFL-CIO 
is seeking a legislative proposal that 
addresses the problems of affordabili- 
ty, access, cost and quality. Kennedy 
also said he expects major health care 
reform to pass in this Congress. The 
House Ways and Means Committee 
will begin a series of five hearings on 
health care reform beginning April 16. 

JUDGE — The AFL-CIO joined the 
NAACP and the Leadership Confer- 
ence on Civil Rights in opposing the 
nomination of Judge Kenneth Lee 
Ryskamp to the 1 1th Circuit U.S. Court 
of Appeals, challenging his record on 
civil rights issues. 



Steve Yormola/AFL-CIO News 


Mateo Martinez displays scar from shoulder surgery for a House subcom- 
mittee investigating repetitive motion injuries in the meatpacking industry. 








‘Fetal protection’ win 
boosts women, safety 


By James B. Parks 

T he Supreme Court’s decision to 
strike down Johnson Controls Inc.’s 
“fetal protection” policy is a major vic- 
tory not only for working women, but 
for safety in the workplace as well, 
unions said. 

“What the court did means employ- 
ers now have to deal with the hazards 
in the workplace,” said Peg Seminario, 
director of die AFL-CIO Department of 
Safety and Health. “They can no longer 
remove the workers. Now they are go- 
ing to have to remove the hazards.” 
The ruling is “a vindication of our 
belief that women should have every 
right to the same employment oppor- 
tunities as men,” said UAW President 
Owen Bieber and Vice Presidents 
Odessa Komer and Stan Marshall in a 
statement. Komer directs the union’s 
Women’s Department and Marshall the 
Johnson Controls Department. 

“If the court had ruled the other way 
it would have given the green light for 
employers to broaden the use of exclu- 
sionary practices against other classes 
of workers,” Seminario said. 

She said the decision is the latest vic- 
tory in a long “ongoing battle” by 
many unions against a host of exclu- 
sionary practices in various com- 
panies — a battle that is not over. 

Johnson Controls, which manufac- 
tures automobile batteries, excluded 
fertile women from certain jobs out of 
fear that lead exposure could cause birth 
defects in unborn children and leave the 
company vulnerable to lawsuits. The 


UAW challenged that policy. 

The unions argued that the policy 
discriminated against women by barring 
them from high-paying jobs in various 
industries. 

Johnson Controls gave fertile women 
the option of being sterilized or 
transferring to jobs where they are not 
exposed to lead, the principal material 
used in making batteries. 

The decision means “women cannot 
be relegated to second-class status in the 
work force,” the AFL-CIO said. 

The court ruled in UAW vs. Johnson 
Controls that the policy violated Title 
VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and 
the 1978 Pregnancy Discrimination Act 
that amended Title VII. 

Because studies show lead also harms 
men’s reproductive systems, “the bias 
in Johnson Controls’ policy is ob- 
vious,” said Justice Harry Blackmun. 
“Fertile men, but not fertile women, 
are given a choice as to whether they 
want to risk their reproductive health 
for a particular job.” 

As many as 20 million women could 
be affected by the ruling, according to 
women’s groups. 

Blackmun said the court rejected the 
argument that gender was a bona fide 
occupational qualification (BFOQ) for 
the jobs. The case law clearly shows 
that an exception to the discrimination 
ban can only be justified if the preg- 
nancy actually interferes with the 
woman’s ability to perform the job, he 
said. 

AFL-CIO attorney Marsha Berzon, 


Earl Dotter 

Johnson Controls excluded women from working in jobs that would have 
exposed them to lead. 


who argued the case, said the Supreme 
Court’s interpretation of the BFOQ ex- 
ception was consistent with what lower 
federal courts have determined in the 
past. 

“Had the court said something else, 
it would really have opened up an enor- 
mous can of worms,” she said. 


Johnson Controls first implemented 
the fetal protection policy in 1982. The 
UAW filed a class-action suit against 
the ban in Wisconsin in 1984 on behalf 
of women excluded from jobs. Federal 
district and appeals courts had upheld 
the policy overturned by the Supreme 
Court. 


Cuba releases trade unionist imprisoned for 22 years 


By Colleen M. O’Neill 

C uba announced the release March 23 
of one of two trade unionist political 
prisoners detained since the 1960s. 

The U.S. Department of State con- 
firmed the release of Ernesto Diaz 
Rodriquez, a transport worker and 
fisherman imprisoned since Dec. 4, 
1968. 

Mario Chanes de Armas, leader of a 
brewery workers union who has been 
in a Cuban jail since July 16, 1961, is 
scheduled to be released this coming 
July 16. However, that date is not final. 

The AFL-CIO and its Labor Commit- 
tee for a Free Cuba made the release 
of Chanes and Diaz a primary goal of 
its campaign to expose worker rights 
abuses in Cuba. The two are thought to 
be the longest-held political prisoners 
in the world. 

In a letter to Diaz’ father, Pedro, on 
March 25, the chairman of the AFL- 
CIO Free Cuba committee offered the 
panel’s help in arranging for Diaz to 
come to the United States. 


“It is my understanding that Ernesto 
suffers from health problems resulting 
from his long prison stay,” wrote John 
DeConcini, president of the Bakery, 
Confectionery and Tobacco Workers 
Union, “and that if he is allowed to 
enter the U.S. soon, he will need 
clothing, food, a place to stay and a 
thorough medical exam to assess his 
health needs. Our committee is pre- 
pared to help meet these emergency 
costs if you find you need such help.” 

DeConcini also told the elder Diaz 
that the State Department had promised 
to give priority to the necessary paper- 
work to allow his son to enter the 
United States. 

Ernesto Diaz opposed the Batista 
government as a student, fisherman and 
a bus driver. After the revolution, he 
opposed Fidel Castro’s regime and 
became active in the resistance move- 
ment. He was captured in 1968 and 
sentenced to 15 years in prison. In 
1974, he was sentenced to an additional 
25 years in prison for “conspiring 


against the state” from his prison cell. 

“We are delighted with die news of 
Diaz’ release,” said AFL-CIO Presi- 
dent Lane Kirkland. “The AFL-CIO 
Labor Committee for a Free Cuba is 
working very hard to lift the burden of 
oppression from that nation. We are 
eager to welcome Ernesto Diaz into the 
freedom he so richly deserves.” 

The AFL-CIO established the Labor 
Committee for a Free Cuba in August 
1990 to help Cuban workers give 
democracy a foothold through free trade 
unionism. 

Since its inception, the panel has 
compiled extensive documentation on 
worker rights violations by the Cuban 
government. Through the International 
Confederation of Free Trade Unions, 
the federation has submitted its infor- 
mation to the International Labor 
Organization in Geneva, Switzerland. 

In February of this year, the AFL- 
CIO Executive Council spelled out the 
abuses: 

“Fidel Castro’s obsessive adherence 


to a failed totalitarian system is a blight 
on the poor and exploited working 
masses of that Caribbean island prison. 
Today, Cuban workers lack the most 
fundamental freedoms. 

The council cited “forced labor, 
speedups, excessive hours of work, 
religious and ideological discrimination 
in employment, child labor and relent- 
less pressures to produce more” as part 
of Cubans’ daily working lives. 

In remarks at a “Free Cuba Day” 
luncheon Feb. 21 in Bal Harbour, 
Kirkland said “We are convinced that 
given the choice ‘Communism or 
death,’ the working people of Cuba will 
choose life — a decent, democratic life 
that respects liberty and justice and the 
dignity of every man and woman.” 

In addition to the call for release of 
Diaz and Chanes, Kirkland said the 
federation would “organize and agitate 
for democratic elections, freedom of 
association for workers and full amnes- 
ty for the other 30,000 political 
prisoners held in Cuba’s jails.” 


Unions offer $137 million giveback to keep TWA intact 


U nions at Trans World Airlines have 
arranged a $ 137-million package of 
cost reductions in an effort to facilitate 
a buyout that would keep the airline 
intact. 

To help prevent the carrier from be- 
ing stripped of its international routes, 
the Air Line Pilots, Machinists and an 
unaffiliated flight attendants federation 
agreed to offer Tracinda Corp., owned 
by investor Kirk Kerkorian, the $137 
million in cost cutbacks to help shore 
up a bid for TWA. 

Kerkorian had said he was interested 
in buying only a carrier with interna- 
tional routes. 


The reductions would be shared by 
all employees of TWA in exchange for 
ownership of up to one-third of the 
stock of a newly capitalized TWA, the 
unions said, while Kerkorian would 
hold about 50 percent and creditors the 
remaining stock. 

Under the agreement, the IAM is to 
contribute $47 million, or 34 percent of 
the total, ALPA $40 million, or 29 per- 
cent and the IFFA, $19 million, or 14 
percent. The remainder, about $31 
million, will come from all other 
employees. 

The cost savings will be realized 
through some reductions in pay rates 


and benefits, work rule changes, an ear- 
ly retirement program and other means. 

The Department of Transportation 
had set a March 25 deadline for objec- 
tions to the sale of TWA London routes 
to American Airlines. In objecting to 
the sale, ALPA said the American take- 
over of the routes would not be in the 
public interest, because it “would lead 
directly to the demise of TWA.” 

ALPA also pointed to an earlier DOT 
filing that “demonstrated that TWA’s 
current owner is letting the carrier 
waste away and may well be using the 
sale to squeeze out a final cash dividend 
before the carrier collapses.” 


TWA’s unions have charged that 
owner Carl Icahn, while demanding 
deep concessions from workers, has 
used TWA resources for his own gain, 
refusing to reinvest in the carrier. 

DOT regulators have tentatively ap- 
proved some portions of the sale, but 
have denied American’s bid to buy 
TWA’s London routes to three cities — 
Philadelphia, Baltimore and St. Louis. 

The AFL-CIO said that the efforts of 
the three unions in putting together the 
$137 million package of cost reductions 
followed a pattern of workers and their 
unions making good faith efforts to bail 
out an employer. 





Tributes and added benefits greet returning troops 



Tom Matthews/Transport Workers 


Mourners gather at funeral services for Joseph Murphy, a member of 
Transport Workers Local TOO in Roosevelt, N.Y., who was killed in Saudi 
Arabia after volunteering to serve with his Army reserve unit. His wife, 
Dorothy, is escorted from the church along with other family members. 


By Candice Johnson 

A grateful nation is greeting service 
members returning home from 
Operation Desert Storm with cheers and 
tributes. 

In Congress, that has translated into 
quick passage of added benefits — in- 
cluding some health care and job guar- 
antees for reservists and their families. 

Differences in the House and Senate 
versions were resolved through an in- 
formal conference, with the final ver- 
sion sent to President Bush just before 
Congress left for the Easter recess. 

The benefits would be financed from 
funds pledged by the United States’ 
allies in the Desert Storm effort. The 
measure would increase GI Bill educa- 
tion benefits to $350 a month, raise 
combat and family separation pay and 
increase life insurance benefits. 

The bill also provides for one 
month’s health care coverage for re- 
servists and their families. 

Under a bill introduced by Rep. Bob 
Davis (R-Mich.), merchant seaman 
who joined the Persian Gulf operation 
would be given the same re-employ- 
ment rights as military reservists. 
“Because the federal government could 
not guarantee their civilian jobs when 
the Gulf war ended, the United States 
lost out on a major pool of trained and 
licensed seagoing expertise,’’ Davis 
said. 

A separate measure signed by the 
president requires that reservists return- 
ing to their old jobs be granted im- 
mediate coverage under employer- 
sponsored health insurance plans and 
prohibits any waiting period. 

Under federal law, employers are re- 
quired to rehire reservists and National 
Guard members sent to the Persian 
Gulf. But some reservists and their 
families are still facing difficult times. 

Many employers — like Goodyear 
Tire and Rubber Co. and Bridge- 
stone/Firestone, Inc. — have extended 
military leave for workers. Food 
chains, including Safeway Stores Inc. 


and Giant Food Inc. , have agreed to pay 
employees who served overseas the dif- 
ference between their military and 
private-sector salaries. 

But a poll of Washington and Balti- 
more metropolitan employers found 
that nearly 20 percent cut the pay and 
health coverage for reservists called to 
active duty, and that fewer than one- 
third continued full health insurance 
coverage. 

“Mortgages and car payments don’t 
stop for our reservists when they’re sent 
overseas to fight for their country,’’ 
said Food and Commercial Workers 
Local 400 President Tom McNutt. 
Labor is pressing Congress to supple- 
ment the pay of all returning 
reservists — private sector workers as 
well as government employees. 

Unions are continuing their cam- 
paigns on the home front, helping the 


families of service personnel, expand- 
ing their volunteer efforts, or ferrying 
troops home. 

Fire Fighters Local 624 and the San 
Antonio Police Officers Association 
established a support group for families 
of reservists, so that families could be 
kept informed of developments. Union 
members also provided volunteer car 
maintenance, home repairs and other 
services to families of military person- 
nel and made emergency payments 
available — for utilities and other 
needs — from the IAFF local’s benev- 
olent fund. 

Letter Carriers Local 74 in Saginaw, 
Mich., raised money for the family of 
a union member whose Marines unit 
was deployed overseas. 

As a United Airlines flight attendant 
for 22 years, Association of Flight At- 
tendants member Karen Mazuer has 


served on many runs. But she considers 
her service with the civil reserve air 
fleet — bringing military men and 
women home — “some of the best fly- 
ing a flight attendant can do.’’ 

Many AFA members — who were 
required to be certified for over-water 
flying — signed up to help transport the 
troops, she said. 

From Brussels, United flight atten- 
dants prepared for a 20-hour day — a 
15 hours-in-the-air roundtrip — be- 
cause Defense Department regulations 
did not allow civilians to stay overnight 
in Saudi Arabia, she said. 

“We would go to pick them up and 
return to Brussels, then another crew 
would take over for the flight to Ban- 
gor, Maine, and then on to wherever the 
soldiers were stationed,’’ Mazuer said. 

The crew of 12 attendants served the 
passengers twice during the seven-and- 
one-half hour flight, with every seat in 
the 747 filled. “It’s hard work, but very 
rewarding,” Mazuer said. With more 
military flights scheduled, Mazuer ex- 
pected to be heading back to Europe. 

Some military personnel did not make 
the return trip. Among them was Joseph 
Murphy, a reservist and longtime mem- 
ber of the Transport Workers. 

Murphy, 57, was a veteran of the 
Korean conflict. But when his unit, the 
102nd maintenance company, Army 
Reserve, was ordered to the Persian 
Gulf, Murphy volunteered, insisting 
that his company needed its first 
sergeant. 

Arriving Jan. 11, just before the 
fighting began, Murphy was killed in 
a jeep accident in Saudi Arabia on 
March 10, just after the fighting ended. 

In addition to his union service, Mur- 
phy and his wife, Dorothy, had opened 
their Roosevelt, N.Y. home to their 
community. As emergency foster care 
parents, the Murphys raised 100 foster 
children, some to adulthood, along with 
their own four children. Their daughter, 
Janice Gowie, an army staff sergeant, 
also was deployed in Desert Storm. 


U.S.-Mexico trade proposal 
faces congressional challenge 



Bill Burke/Page One Photography 


More U.S. jobs will be wiped out under President Bush's proposed free trade 
agreement with Mexico, Electronic Workers President William Bywater tells 
reporters as IUE members picket the Commerce Department. 


Continued from Page 1 

It’s obvious, Hollings said, that the 
“emerging GATT deal and Mexican 
free trade agreement are so damaging 
to key sectors of our economy and the 
work force that they simply will not 
stand up under unfettered congressional 
debate.” 

Hollings warned that “these treaties 
promise more of the same ‘free trade’ 
magic that has created $100 billion-plus 
trade deficits for the last decade while 
gutting America’s manufacturing base. 
Congress is fed up with playing Uncle 
Sucker.” 

He said Japan and Europe have 
reaped enough benefits from “one- 
sided, give-away trade agreements.” 

In a letter to President Bush, House 
Majority Leader Richard A. Gephardt 
(D-Mo.) cautioned that any North 
American trade accord must carry 
assurances of preserving American 
jobs. 

“Relying on low wages and unsafe 
working conditions as comparative ad- 
vantages to lure away high-paying 
American jobs will not save the Mex- 
ican economy, but it will further 
weaken the American economy,” he 
said. “In order for Mexico to prosper, 
America must prosper.” 

For a trade agreement to benefit both 
nations, he stressed, “it must contain 
guarantees that it will not result in a 


hemorrhage of American jobs across 
the border.” 

Sen. Jesse Helms (R-N.C.) accused 
the U.S. Trade Representative’s nego- 
tiators of devising a scheme to sacrifice 
the U.S. textile, auto and steel in- 
dustries in multilateral trade negotia- 
tions for an agreement with Mexico. 

Helms said promises of prosperity are 
emerging again. “The same argument 
was made after the Tokyo Round of 
GATT in 1979, and instead of prosperi- 
ty, the United States developed a larger 
and larger trade deficit,” he noted. 

House Ways and Means Committee 
Chairman Dan Rostenkowski (D-Ill.) 
and Senate Finance Committee Chair- 
man Lloyd Bentsen (D-Texas) also 
spelled out their concerns to Bush about 
the need of the U.S. trade negotiators 
on the Mexican FT A proposal to ad- 
dress specific issues such as worker 
rights, job safety and environmental 
damage. 

Rostenkowski told U.S. Trade Repre- 
sentative Carla Hills that she will have 
to convince Congress that the adminis- 
tration’s push for fast track renewal is 
in the best interest of the nation. 

Testifying before a subcommittee of 
the Senate Foreign Relations Commit- 
tee, AFL-CIO Secretary-Treasurer 
Thomas R. Donahue noted that U.S. In- 
ternational Trade Commission has con- 
ceded that “unskilled workers” would 


lose earnings as a result of the Mexican 
trade accord. 

But the commission “mysteriously 
refused to say who is counted as ‘un- 
skilled workers,’ ” Donahue said. 
While the federation is waiting for 
release of the data after filing a 
Freedom of Information Act request, 
Donahue surmised that the group in- 
cludes workers with four years of high 
school education or less. 

“This would mean that a majority of 
the U.S. working population — 52.5 
percent — would be hurt by the free 
trade agreement,” he pointed out. 

“Further up the economic ladder, the 
affluent minority would certainly bene- 


fit,” Donahue said. “Multinational cor- 
porations would hit the jackpot, just as 
they have with the maquiladoras.” 
Donahue reiterated the federation’s 
concerns that Mexican workers would 
not benefit with pay from the multina- 
tionals at 60 to 80 cents an hour while 
hundreds of thousands of U.S. jobs 
would be exported to Mexico. 

In earlier testimony, Jeff Faux of the 
Economic Policy Institute said Mex- 
ico’s low wages “will clearly create a 
strong incentive for American firms to 
shift production south of the border.” 
Faux warned that the result would be 
lower living standards for American 
families. 




The 

Japan 



Former U.S. officials become 
power brokers for Japan trade 


By James B. Parks 

I n 1988, the U.S. Customs Service took on one of the 
strongest political machines in Washington — the 
Japanese trade lobby — and lost big. 

By the time the dust had cleared, the lobby had bested 
Customs, the UAW, the Big Three automakers and the 
U.S. Treasury Department. In the process, it deprived 
the deficit-ridden government coffers of more than $500 
million a year in duties. 

Since 1981 , the Japanese government had agreed to vol- 
untary limits on the number of passenger cars it would 
export to the United States. But it had no such limit on 
light trucks. There was a huge difference in the tariffs 
on the two types of vehicles: 25 percent for light trucks 
and 2.5 percent for passenger cars. 

By 1987, transplanted Japanese automobile factories in 
the United States were producing so many cars that there 
was little need for the Japanese to export more cars, leav- 
ing the export quota unfilled. Meanwhile, there was a 
growing demand for the light trucks, which faced the 
higher import duty. 

A truck is a truck? 

The solution was obvious to the Japanese. They filled 
the auto quota, at the reduced duty rate, by reclassifying 
the trucks as passenger cars. When that action prompted 
a review by customs officials in 1988, the lobbying 
machine sprang into action. 

Suzuki hired Robert Thompson, a well-connected 
Republican lobbyist who had worked for George Bush 
in the 1980s. The Japan lobby also convinced 31 represen- 
tatives and 11 senators to urge Customs to drop the 
review. 

One congressman even summoned then-Customs Com- 
missioner William von Raab to his office, where von Raab 
was confronted by a former U.S. trade official, John 
Rehm, who represented Japanese companies. 

Von Raab stood firm and, on Jan. 4, 1989, he ruled 
that light trucks were not passenger cars for tariffs. “Even 
my grandmother can go into a parking lot and tell the dif- 


ference between a passenger car and a truck. These are 
trucks,” he said. 

Japanese officials convinced the German and British 
governments to ask the United States to reconsider, which 
it did, suspending the rule just nine days after it was 
announced. 

Then the lobby launched a massive public relations cam- 
paign, claiming that the ruling would raise the price of 
trucks. Auto importers swamped Congress with letters and 
Japanese government officials implied the ruling could 
hurt relations between the two countries. 

Within 45 days, Treasury Secretary Nicholas Brady 
overturned Customs’ decision: it was official U.S. policy 
that trucks are cars, with a notable exception. The 
Japanese lobby convinced the Bush administration that the 
trucks that came into the United States as cars should be 
classified as trucks for sale. That way they didn’t have 
to meet the tough fuel efficiency, safety and emissions 
standards of automobiles. 

Clout in insider game 

This story illustrates the clout that the Japanese have 
developed in the insider game of Washington politics and 
raises serious questions about our political system, said 
Pat Choate. Choate, a former TRW executive, is the 
author of “Agents of Influence,” a book that describes 
the extent and impact of the Japan lobby. 

Hiring former officials to lobby, seeking political in- 
fluence through campaign contributions and using infor- 
mation to push your economic interests is not illegal; in- 
deed, it’s the heart of the American political system. But, 
Choate says, the way the Japan lobby does it gives them 
an unfair advantage and is “corroding our democratic 
principles.” 

Japan’s government and leading companies spend $400 
million a year on a concerted political and public rela- 
tions campaign to influence U.S. trade policy and open 
up new markets in this country. That’s about equal to the 
amount Democrats and Republicans combined spent in 
the 1988 races for the House and Senate. 


They employ 92 law, publi< 
firms on their behalf, compared i 
for Britain, the next two larges 
in the United States. 

They have used that clout to £ 
footholds in the U.S. television, 
automobile, financial services 
industries. 

Because there is little or no r< 
ucts in Japan, the U.S. trade d< 
$41 billion last year, putting ab 
out of work, according to Rud) 
AFL-CIO’s Economic Researc 

Money is dominant issu< 

About $100 million of the Jap 
former government officials, es 
experience, as lobbyists. One-1 
ficials in the U.S. Trade Repr 
1973 have left to become foreign 
“Money has become the dc 
political system, in the p olitic al 
post-employment practices of 
Charles Lewis, director of the C 
For many officials, Choate 
levels of government is “merel) 
permanent career as a registei 
foreign country.” 

Generally, Choate said, the J 
sider either as a lobbyist or as a ‘ 
of an advisory board” of an ag< 
also have added another lure as 
grown: equity in a business d< 
The influence of the Japanes 
it has a name, Choate said — th< 
The huge sums of money made z 
once they leave office “demonst 
ly policies toward Japan to of 
The most obvious example of 
paid to former President Reag< 
relations work for Japan’s Fu 
Group. For the money, Reag; 
position on U.S. -Japan trade th; 
by American “protectionists.’ 

Through revolving door 

A random sampling of the hu 
ment officials who have 
reads like a “who’s who” of W 
National Security Adviser 
Democratic National Chairma 
Carter advisers Stuart Eizenste 
Powell; former chairman of the 
mission William R. Albergei 
Barnes, Thomas Evans and Jan 
was named chairman of the A 
former Sens. Howard Baker, 
and Frank Church; and for: 
counsel J. Michael Farrell. 

The current Trade Represe 
several of her top deputies havi 
revolving door between gove 
former secretary of Housing 
Hills represented Japanese die 



Resume 


Robert s 


Howetowr 

Graduated; 


Stamford 


Sit y of Te; 
La * School 


1946-77 
and Feld 
c °mpa nie 
1973-76 - 


Strauss 

foreign' 
90 Purchase 


ublic relations and lobbying 
red with 55 for Canada and 42 
rgest foreign lobby investors 

to gain superiority or strong 
ion, computer, machine tool, 
/ices and dozens of other 

no reciprocity for U.S. prod- 
le deficit with Japan reached 
g about 1 million Americans 
ludy Oswald, director of the 
earch Department. 

ssue 

s Japanese money goes to hire 
s, especially those with trade 
)ne-third of the principal of- 
lepresentative’s Office since 
•eign .agents, mainly for Japan, 
e dominant influence in our 
ticalcampaigns . . . and in the 

> of public officials,” said 
be Center for Public Integrity. 
iate said, working in the top 
srely a sabbatical from a more 
;istered agent lobbying for a 

Jie Japanese hire a former in- 
is a “consultant” or “member 
n agency or a company. They 
e as the economic stakes have 
ss deal. 

anese money is so broad that 
- the “demonstration effect.” 
ade available to Japan’s friends 
lonstrates” the value of friend- 
o officials still in office, 
e of this effect is the $2 million 
.eagan for one week of public 

> Fujisankei Communications 
teagan repeated the Japanese 
le that the problem was caused 


loor 

ie hundreds of former govern- 
■f^ented Japanese companies 
rf Washington: former Reagan 
ser Richard Allen; former 
irman Robert Strauss; former 
mstat, Anne Wexler and Jody 
f the International Trade Com- 
jrger; former Reps. Michael 
1 James R. Jones, who recently 
ie American Stock Exchange; 
ter, Birch Bayh, John Culver 
former Energy Department 
il. 

>resentative, Carla Hills, and 
have traveled full circle in the 
government and lobbying. A 
ing and Urban Development, 
: clients after she left office, as 


The revolving door between government service and the Japan lobby can be seen 
dramatically in the career of former U.S. Trade Representative Robert Strauss, who has 
come full circle from lobbying to government and back to lobbying, where he now 
represents several foreign firms. 


did many of her current deputies. Now they represent the 
United States in negotiations with the Japanese govern- 
ment. 

These ongoing relationships raise an issue of trust, 
Choate said. “What the American people have to ask is: 
can we trust officials who know when they go into office 
they will represent the other side when they leave? Can 
we trust them not to give away information or not to pull 
their punches? Too often the answer is ‘no.’ “It sends 
a message that the government is for sale,” he said. 

Political contributions 

The Japanese also spend money to get politicians 
elected. Although direct campaign contributions from 
foreign nationals are illegal, foreign-owned companies can 
operate political action committees (PACs). One of the 
largest PACs is the Auto Dealers and Drivers for Free 
Trade PAC (AUTOPAC), which raised $4.5 million in 
1988, dumping $1.4 million into just seven congressional 
campaigns for candidates. 

Democrat Buddy McKay lost the Florida U.S. Senate 
seat by 31,000 votes to Connie Mack after a $326,000 
negative ad campaign by AUTOPAC. “In the final 
analysis. . .1 was beaten by Toyota,” McKay said. 

The Japanese also have infiltrated or taken over ad hoc 
groups such as the Consumers for World Trade, over half 
of whose members work for Subaru. 


The Japan lobby also spends large amounts on public 
relations campaigns designed to blunt or prevent public 
criticism of the Japanese. It also finances university 
centers for Japanese studies, raising the question of 
whether those programs are academically independent, 
Choate said. 

Changing the law 

How can America combat the Japan lobby’s blatant at- 
tempt to further its economic interests? Choate says the 
solutions are simple: 

First, have a full “sunshine law” that makes all foreign 
agents register as agents and not hide behind phony titles 
such as “consultants,” “advisers,” etc. 

Second, close the revolving door. Make it illegal for 
trade officials or any government official to go to work 
for a foreign company or government for five years after 
they leave office. Former Cabinet-level officials should 
not be allowed to work for foreign interests ever, he said. 

Third, make foreign PAC money illegal. 

But the most important reform, he said, is an intangi- 
ble one: restore the concept of public service and 
strengthen the Civil Service. 

“There are too many hustlers” in government service, 
he said. Until the American people wake up and decide 
to do something about them, the Japan lobby will con- 
tinue to thrive, he said. 


UNION NEWS 


IUD delegates blanket Hill with labor’s concerns 



AFL-CIO President Lane Kirkland addresses the 1,300 delegates to the IUD legislative conference. 


By John R. Oravec 

I t was a virtual Labor Week on the Hill 
as 1,300 delegates to the Industrial 
Union Department legislative con- 
ference fanned out around the U.S. 
Capitol for sit-down sessions with their 
senators and representatives. 

Their immediate focus was on con- 
vincing members of the House and 
Senate to pass a ban on the permanent 
replacement of striking workers and to 
vote down the Bush administration’s at- 
tempt to ram through a U.S. -Mexico 
free trade proposal under a “fast-track” 
rule. 

Delegates from just about every state 
in the nation to the two-day IUD meet- 
ing also underlined labor’s priorities for 
gaining passage of national health care 
reform, family and medical leave, the 
Civil Rights Act of 1991 and stronger 
job safety measures. 

The IUD sessions, which brought an 
attendance double that of any previous 
departmental conference, were held in 
conjunction with legislative rallies of 
several unions who are IUD affiliates. 

Gut issues before Congress that di- 
rectly affect the collective bargaining 
rights and well-being of workers 
throughout the country generated the 
largest-ever turnout of delegates, IUD 
President Howard D. Samuel said in 
opening the sessions. 

Members of Congress who reiterate 
management’s opposing arguments 
must hear the workers’ side in the ef- 
fort to restore balance in labor- 
employer relations, Samuel stressed. 

Management’s rights are clearly 
documented, he pointed out. It can 
“hire and fire, or contract out, or shift 
production to Mexico or the Far East, 
or to close a plant.” Management also 
can “advertise for replacement 
workers, deliberately bargain to im- 
passe, forcing workers to strike, and 
then permanently replace them.” 
AFL-CIO President Lane Kirkland 
commended the IUD’s role in the 
legislative campaign to outlaw perma- 
nent replacement of strikers, noting that 


By Arlee C. Green 

S ome 400 union activists from five 
AFL-CIO affiliates carried a strong 
message from labor on health care, per- 
manent replacement of strikers and the 
U.S. -Mexico free trade pact to Capitol 
Hill, as part of the fifth annual 
ABCG&R legislative conference. 

The four unions that have traditional- 
ly held the conference — the Alum- 
inum, Brick and Glass Workers, Flint 
Glass Workers, Chemical Workers and 
Rubber Workers — were joined this 
time by the Oil, Chemical and Atomic 
Workers. 

AFL-CIO Secretary-Treasurer Thomas 
R. Donahue stressed the need for “jobs 
and health and our ability to protect 
both’’ — a message that union 
members later took to their congres- 
sional delegations in face-to-face 
meetings. 

Donahue criticized suggestions that 
the proposed U.S. -Mexico free trade 
pact could be phased in over five years 
and that workers who lose their jobs 
could be provided trade adjustment 
assistance (TAA). 


nearly half of the House and almost 
one-third of the Senate have signed on 
as co-sponsors of H.R. 5 and S. 55. 

“When an employer can legally and 
permanently supplant his striking work 
force with lower-paid scabs, culled 
from the ranks of the jobless and 
desperate, there is no balance,” 
Kirkland pointed out. “When the law 
is actually an incentive for a company 
to provoke a strike, rid itself of the 
union and re-establish dictatorial con- 
trol over the workplace, there is no 
balance.” 

Kirkland said the labor movement’s 
struggle to build a better future for 
working people takes on greater urg- 
ency during the current recession. Con- 
gress and the nation must respond to the 


“The answer to both is no,” Dona- 
hue declared. “We will end up just as 
unemployed in five years as we would 
be now,” noting also that TAA can 
easily be eliminated, as it is in Bush’s 
current budget request. 

Sen. Edward Kennedy (D-Mass.), 
who is pushing for health care reform 
in this Congress, urged the participants 
to make Congress hear labor’s health 
care message. 

Sen. Howard Metzenbaum (D-Ohio), 
sponsor of the bill to ban the permanent 
replacement of strikers (S. 55 in the 
Senate), noted that the United States 
should be ashamed of sharing “this per- 
manent scab policy with the country of 
South Africa.” 

Permanent replacements are banned 
elsewhere in industrialized countries. 

AFGW President Lawrence Bankow- 
ski pointed out that, since the last round 
of trade talks in Toyko, 15,000 mem- 
bers lost their jobs. 

“Other nations are copying items 
produced by our members and they only 
pay their workers one-tenth the wages 
of U.S. workers,” he said. “If tariffs 


domestic agenda just as was done in ad- 
dressing the crisis in the Persian Gulf, 
he said. 

“There is no excuse for rising 
unemployment in an era of crumbling 
public infrastructure and so many 
critical needs in the area of housing, 
education and transportation.” 
Delegates stood and cheered when he 
called for a massive turnout for 
Solidarity Day 1991 “to show the na- 
tion that this labor movement is as 
strong as ever in its fight for justice.” 
In keynoting the conference, Presi- 
dent Jay Mazur of the Ladies’ Garment 
Workers underscored the need to quick- 
ly address the economic crisis. 

“If we could liberate Kuwait from 
Saddam Hussein, we should be able to 


are reduced, our union is in serious 
trouble.” 

The New York state legislature has 
asked its congressional delegation to 
support the striker replacement legisla- 
tion, said ABGW President Ernest J. 
LaBaff. ‘ ‘We need to start on this level, 
at the grass roots, to win this legisla- 
tion,” he stressed. 

OCAW President Joseph Misbrener 
and URW President Kenneth Coss both 
gave examples of why the striker 
replacement legislation is so important 
to union workers. 

Chemical Workers President Frank 
Martino, chairman of the conference, 
served as moderator for the two-day 
event. 

Other guest speakers included Sen. 
Paul Wellstone (D-Minn.), Reps. David 
Bonior (D-Mich.), Vic Fazio (D- 
Calif.), Marcy Kaptur (D-Ohio) and 
Thomas Sawyer (D-Ohio), AFL-CIO 
Legislative Director Robert McGlotten, 
COPE Director John Perkins, author 
Pat Choate, and Dr. David Himmels- 
tein of Physicians for National Health 
Care. 


liberate America from a recession that 
threatens to become a depression,” 
Mazur told the delegates. 

Members of Congress addressing the 
conference were House Majority 
Leader Richard Gephardt (D-Mo.), 
Reps. William D. Ford (D-Mich.), 
chairman of the Education and Labor 
Committee; Rosa DeLauro (D-Conn.), 
Thomas Andrews (D-Maine), Maxine 
Waters (D-Calif.) and Nita Lowey (D- 
N.Y.), as well as Sen. Paul Wellstone 
(D-Minn.). 

The IUD and the department’s affili- 
ates were the prime sponsors of a rally 
that brought hundreds of union mem- 
bers in a coalition with religious leaders 
to the Capitol grounds calling for pass- 
age of a ban on striker replacements. 

Boilermakers 
lobby Congress 

C oncerns about health care, striker re- 
placements and the proposed U.S.- 
Mexico free trade agreement were high 
on the agenda of the Boilermakers’ 23rd 
annual legislative conference. 

“We are not here for any far-out 
goals,” said Boilermakers President 
Charles Jones. “What we want is 
decent jobs and a decent standard of liv- 
ing for Boilermakers and for all Amer- 
ican workers.” 

“We are always glad when the peo- 
ple from reality come in to talk to politi- 
cians,” said AFL-CIO Secretary-Treas- 
urer Thomas R. Donahue. 

“You can’t sit through another 
negotiation and get another piece of 
your wages sliced off,” Donahue said. 
“Congress has to be urged to do 
something.” 

Other speakers at the conference 
were Rep. Neal Abercrombie (D-Ha- 
waii) and Dick Marler, senior vice pres- 
ident of Ingalls Shipbuilding. The union 
presented its Legislator of the Year 
Award to Rep. Jack Murtha (D-Pa.). 


Five unions coordinate legislative campaign 





CWA Photo/Day Walters 

Congressional action on measures for health care reform Communications Workers, CWA President Morton Bahr 
and banning striker replacements are top priorities for tells legislative conference delegates. 

CWA: Outlaw striker replacements 


Los Angeles 
unions press 
Gates ouster 

Los Angeles 

L abor added its voice to the rapidly 
growing public outcry for the resig- 
nation of the chief of police of the 
United States’ second-largest city. 

Los Angeles County AFL-CIO Ex- 
ecutive Secretary William Robertson, 
appearing at a jammed news conference 
March 19, announced the unanimous 
adoption of a resolution by the central 
body’s council of delegates, demanding 
that Daryl Gates step down as head of 
the 8, 500-member police force (LAPD). 

In calling for Gates’ resignation, the 
county labor federation joined civil 
rights and ethnic groups outraged by the 
March 3 beating of an unarmed black 
motorist by three officers while 11 
others, including a sergeant, stood by 
and watched. 

The county federation resolution said 
the “brutal assault. . .is only the latest 
in a pattern of unrestrained police con- 
duct directed at citizens, particularly 
members of minority groups.” 

Last June, members of Service Em- 
ployees Local 399, marching in support 
of their Justice for Janitors campaign, 
were charged and attacked by armed 
and helmeted police outside high-rise 
office buildings in Century City, part 
of Los Angeles. 

Nearly 40 persons were hospitalized, 
including a pregnant woman. Jim Zel- 
lers, president of Local 399 and an 
SEIU vice president, was among those 
beaten up. 

At a special hearing called by the 
L.A. police commission, Robertson 
confronted Gates, saying: 

“Chief Gates, as a public official, 
you owe a special responsibility to the 
people you are sworn to protect and 
serve. When the public loses confidence 
in you and in the department you have 
only one real choice. You must step 
aside . . . now is the time for you to do 
the right thing.” 

LAPD has maintained a working 
relationship with trade unions through 
the department’s labor liaison squad. 
However, the Century City incident and 
other developments, including the ar- 
rest of Robertson and other union lead- 
ers in a demonstration at the Hyatt 
Regency Hotel last year, have strained 
that relationship. 

New Jersey law 
enacted to ban 
homework abuse 

A New Jersey state law has reinforced 
a federal ban on industrial home- 
work in women’s apparel by expanding 
the ban to the manufacture of men’s 
garments. 

The measure, signed March 4 by 
Gov. James Florio, bans all homework 
in the production of men’s and women’s 
clothing. The law provides “an extra 
layer of protection” in the event that the 
Labor Department lifts the federal ban 
on homework, as it has already done in 
production of women’s outerwear, the 
Ladies’ Garment Workers said. 

The law’s sponsors noted that New 
Jersey has as many as 300 sweatshop 
operations, run by unlicensed manufac- 
turers, who ignore state wage, hour and 
child labor laws. The complete ban on 
homework will make it easier to pros- 
ecute violators of the law, the union 
said. 


By Candice Johnson 

D elegates to the Communications 
Workers’ political and legislative 
conference set plans for “Health Care 
Action Week” and raised the stakes in 
labor’s campaign to win a ban on the 
permanent replacement of strikers. 

With health care reform and the 
striker replacement ban designated as 
the union’s top legislative priorities, 
CWA members discussed activities and 
informational picketing on health care 
planned for the week of June 3-9, then 
rallied with hundreds of other unionists 
at the Capitol in pressing Congress to 
enact the striker replacement bills. 

During the four-day session, the 650 
delegates heard from key union and 
legislative representatives in morning 
sessions. Afternoons were spent in 
workshops and on Capitol Hill, meeting 


U nion officers and stewards from 
Clothing and Textile Workers locals 
in 14 states came to Washington for a 
week’s work on lobbying, political ac- 
tion and legislative activities. 

For many of the 35 ACTWU 
delegates, the institute marked their first 
experience meeting with legislators, 
tracking bills and planning political 
activities. 

The unionists met with ACTWU 
President Jack Sheinkman and 
Secretary-Treasurer Arthur Loevy, as 


T he Union Privilege Health Needs 
Service, a discount mail-order 
medication service for union members, 
is focusing its efforts on prescription 
medicine. 

Sales of non-prescription health 
items — vitamins, diet aids and over- 
the-counter medicines, among 
others — have been discontinued, said 
David Silberman, Union Privilege 
president. 

The Health Needs Service said con- 
centrating on prescriptions would 
simplify adminstration of the program, 
which now helps union members save 
as much as 30 percent off prices at 
neighborhood drugstores, Silberman 
said. 

The program is especially helpful to 
those whose prescription medications 
are not covered by insurance, or those 


with members of Congress on CWA’s 
legislative goals, which also include 
curbing electronic monitoring in the 
workplace, defeating the U.S. -Mexico 
free trade proposal, and enacting fam- 
ily leave and anti-discrimination 
measures. 

CWA President Morton Bahr said the 
union would take up at its June conven- 
tion the question of whether to give 
political support to legislators who do 
not back striker replacement measures. 
Several other unions have announced 
they will not support members of Con- 
gress who oppose the bills. 

On health care, Bahr said that the 
United States seemed to be “the only 
country in the world that can spend 
$650 billion a year on health care and 
keep just about everybody unhappy with 
the results. We cannot continue to in- 


well as with political and legislative 
representatives from both ACTWU and 
the AFL-CIO. 

Following sessions on legislative 
issues, including striker replacement 
and the proposed free trade agreement 
with Mexico, and workshops on lobby- 
ing and PACs, delegates went to 
Capitol Hill to meet with their congres- 
sional representatives. 

The ACTWU members also joined 
unionists from the Industrial Union 
Department’s legislative conference in 


who must take daily medications on a 
long-term basis, Silberman said. 

“Every year we see pharmaceutical 
price hikes outpace inflation,” said 
Robert Tahler, Union Privilege vice 
president. “We hope to cushion the 
blow to the member by doing this.” 

The problems associated with rising 
prescription drug costs came up 
repeatedly in a series of health care 
hearings held by the AFL-CIO across 
the country in the fall of 1990. 

In a hearing in Chicago in September, 
transplant patient Marie Shook spoke of 
having to bargain with another trans- 
plant patient for a $600 bottle of lifesav- 
ing medication. In Detroit in October, 
nursing home worker Attevlie Bridges 
told the panel, “I don’t take all of the 
medication I am supposed to, because 
I can’t afford to buy it.” 


vest in a system delivering such a pitiful 
return on our investment.” 

Rep. William Ford (D-Mich.) 
warned that the proposed free trade 
agreement would create a massive 
migration of U.S. jobs to Mexico, and 
would enable employers to threaten 
American workers with exporting their 
jobs. 

“We cannot maintain a middle class 
work force and continue to export 
American jobs,” he said. 

Other speakers included Sen. Paul 
Wellstone (D-Minn.); Reps. Pete Stark 
(D-Calif.), Pat Williams (D-Mont.), 
Ben Jones, (D-Ga.), Maxine Waters 
(D-Calif.), John Bryant (D-Texas), and 
Larry Smith (D-Fla.); Eleanor Holmes 
Norton, delegate from the District of 
Columbia and Patricia Worthy of the 
D.C. Public Utilities Commission. 


a rally at the Capitol to support the bill 
to ban the permanent replacement of 
strikers. 

Among the members of Congress 
who met with the ACTWU unionists 
were Sen. Edward Kennedy (D-Mass.) 
and Reps. Marcy Kaptur (D-Ohio), 
Lane Evans (D-Ill.), Joan Kelly Horn 
(D-Mo.) and Craig Washington 
(D-Texas). 

The 1991 session marked the 42nd 
consecutive year that ACTWU has held 
its COPE-legislative institute. 


The Union Privilege program pro- 
vides discount mail-order service for 
participating unions. There is no enroll- 
ment charge or annual fee; home 
delivery usually takes 10 to 14 days, 
with no charge for postage and handl- 
ing. Every family member is eligible 
for the program. 

In addition, the plan offers an “open 
credit” that allows participants to defer 
payments during a union-sanctioned 
strike of 30 days or more. 

Members of the participating unions 
may join by sending their name, ad- 
dress, phone number, Social Security 
number, name of their international 
union and local, lodge or district 
number to Union Privilege Health 
Needs Service, c/o National Pharmacies 
Inc., P.O. Box 1000, Elmwood Park, 
N.J. 07407. 


ACTWU conferees pick up legislative skills 


Union Privilege shifts focus to prescriptions 





Food, energy 
prices ease 
inflation woe 



1978 ’79 ’80 ’81 ’82 ’83 ’84 ’85 ’86 ’87 ’88 ’89 ’90 ’91 


Source: AFL-CIO Department of Economic Research 


Minimum wage rise is small benefit 


S tatistically, workers got a break from 
the inflationary rat race in February 
as lower fuel and food costs held the 
rise in the consumer price index for ur- 
ban wage earners (CPI-W) to 0.1 per- 
cent, although core inflation remained 
high. 

Excluding the volatile energy and 
food components, the index jumped 0.7 
percent and was 5.4 percent ahead of 
February 1990. The overall CPI-W was 
up 5.1 over the past 12 months, the 
Bureau of Labor Statistics reported. 

The bureau said prices at gas pumps 
declined 7.4 percent from January, but 
were up 10.1 percent over the year. 
Heating oil prices dropped 5.5 percent 
over the month and were down 5 per- 
cent from the year-ago month. 

The increase in public transportation 
fares slowed to 0.5 percent and were 
12.3 percent above February 1990. 
New car prices increased 0.8 percent 
for a 3.1 -percent rise over the year. 

February food prices slipped 0. 1 per- 
cent, led by a 2-percent decline in fruits 
and vegetables, but were up 3. 1 percent 
over the year. 

Clothing prices surged 1 .3 percent in 
February after climbing 0.9 percent in 
January, and were up 4.6 percent over 
the last 12 months. Medical care costs 
increased 0.6 percent over the month, 
soaring 9.2 percent over the year — by 
far the fastest-rising component in the 
consumer index. 

Stamps and booze 

Higher postal rates, including the 
4-cent jump in a first-class stamp to 29 
cents, reflected a 4.1 -percent surge in 
the “housekeeping services” index. 
Excise tax increases, which went into 
effect at the start of the year, pushed up 
the costs of alcoholic beverages 3.2 per- 
cent in February. This component rose 
11.5 percent over the year, BLS said. 

Real weekly earnings of non-super- 
visory workers rose 0.5 percent over 
the month due to a 0.6 percent pickup 
of average weekly hours. Average 
hourly wages were unchanged at $10.24 
in current dollars. 

Because of the 5. 1 -percent rise in the 
price index, real weekly earnings were 
down 2.5 percent from February 1990, 
BLS said. With prices climbing faster 
than wages over the past 10 years, real 
earnings were down 6.4 percent from 
February 1981, according to AFL-CIO 
economist Anne Draper. 

In other economic reports: 

• Industrial production dropped 0.8 
percent in February, the fifth con- 
secutive monthly decline that includes 
downturns of 0.5 percent in January and 
1.1 percent in December, the Federal 
Reserve Board said. 

The February drop left the nation’s 
factories, mines and utilities operating 
at 79. 1 percent of capacity, down from 
79.9 percent in January and the lowest 
level since late 1986. 

• Housing starts in February rose to 
an annual rate of 989,000 units — a rise 
of 16.4 percent from January, but 32.2 
percent below February 1990, when 
home construction was running at an 
annual rate of 1.46 million units. 


By John R. Oravec 

T he federal minimum wage rose to 
$4.25 an hour April 1 for the nation’s 
lowest paid workers. 

But even with the 45-cent increase 
over the $3.80 rate set a year earlier, 
millions of workers still will be trapped 
in poverty with a pay floor that is much 
less than half of the average hourly 
wage. The minimum slipped below the 
40-percent level during the Reagan and 
Bush administrations. 

The new rate brings the minimum to 
just over 41 percent of the $10.34 ex- 
pected average in April, AFL-CIO chief 
economist Rudy Oswald pointed out. In 
February, hourly wages for non-super- 
visory workers averaged $10.24. 

At $4.25 an hour, a minimum wage 
worker would draw $170 for 40 hours 
on the job. That works out to a pay raise 
of $18 over the week from the old rate 
of $3.80 an hour. 

The new minimum will provide a 
full-time worker with an annual income 
of $8,500. 

But if that worker must support two 
dependents, the family income will be 
$2,146 below the federally established 


I mports of manufactured goods ac- 
counted for most of January’s $7 
billion foreign trade deficit, which 
widened by 1 1 percent over the month, 
the Commerce Department reported. 

Incoming shipments of industrial sup- 
plies, clothing, autos and parts pushed 
up the overall U.S. import bill by $1 .9 
billion to $41.5 billion. Exports in- 
creased by $1 .2 billion to $34.5 billion. 

The deficit in manufactured goods 
alone amounted to $5.8 billion, with 
imports rising by $500 million from 
December to $3 1 billion while exports 
rose just $20 million to $25.2 billion. 

Imports of crude oil and petroleum 
products in January amounted to $5.2 
billion — about one sixth of the nation’s 
invoice for worker-intensive factory 
products. 

While the United States made some 


poverty level as calculated to February 
1991 adjustments, federation economist 
Anne Draper noted. A base wage of 
$5.17, or just slightly over 50 percent 
of the average hourly wage, would be 
needed for a family of three to get above 
the $10,746 poverty line. 

Draper said a minimum wage income 
for a family of four would be $5,279 
below a poverty level estimate of 
$13,779. Just to get even with the 
poverty threshold, that family would 
need an income of $6.62 an hour. 

32 million in poverty 

Census Bureau data showed that 32 
million Americans — including adults 
and children — were trapped in poverty. 

Throughout much of the 1950s and 
’60s, the federal minimum was above 
50 percent of the average hourly wage 
as Congress periodically amended the 
1938 Fair Labor Standards Act to 
relieve the pressure on the working 
poor. 

In 1950, for example, the federal 
minimum of 75 cents an hour was 56 
percent of the average hourly wage. In 
February 1968, when the minimum was 


gains in exports of manufactured goods, 
aircraft exports slipped by $400 million 
to $1.5 billion. 

The Commerce Department data 
showed the trade deficit in autos, 
trucks, components and parts amounted 
$3.2 billion as imports outran exports 
in January $5.4 billion to $2.2 billion. 

Any hopes for relief from excessive 
auto imports during the nation’s deep- 
ening recession dimmed in mid-March 
as President Bush turned a cold shoulder 
on the chairmen of the Big Three U.S. 
automakers. White House spokesmen 
said there is virtually no chance the ad- 
ministration would support any import 
restrictions even as Japanese auto- 
makers claimed a wider share of the 
U.S. market. 

Meanwhile, clothing imports shot up 
by $600 million to $2.2 billion, while 


raised 20 cents, the $1.60 an hour rate 
was 57.6 percent of the average wage. 

The rate was at 48.3 percent of the 
average wage in January 1980 before 
falling sharply during the Reagan and 
Bush years. With the rising cost of liv- 
ing and no upgrade in the minimum, the 
pay floor slipped to 39.5 percent in 
1985 and continued falling to 33.4 per- 
cent in 1990. The minimum remained 
stuck at $3.35 an hour for nine years. 

In April 1989, Congress adopted 
labor-backed legislation that would 
raise the minimum in three steps to 
$4.55 an hour. Bush refused to go 
along, insisting that the top step be 
limited to $4.25 an hour, which would 
not kick in until 1992, and vetoed the 
higher pay floor. 

Congress settled on a compromise 
measure, and in late 1989 approved the 
bill that brought the $4.25 wage into ef- 
fect a year earlier than Bush had pro- 
posed. 

The pay floor applies to all firms with 
an annual business volume of more than 
$500,000, as well as to public agencies, 
schools, hospitals and non-profit organ- 
izations. 


exports slipped $185 million for a 
deficit of just under $2 billion for the 
month. Footwear imports rose to $834 
million and exports fell to $37 million. 
Last year, Bush vetoed labor-backed 
legislation that would have curbed im- 
ports to save jobs of American apparel 
and shoe workers. 

The deficit with Japan widened by 
$100 million to $3.5 billion, while the 
January trade loss with the Asian Rim 
countries of Singapore, South Korea, 
Hong Kong and Taiwan narrowed by 
$200 million to $1 billion. The deficit 
with Canada eased to $436 million. But 
the trade gap with China grew by $160 
million to $914 million. 

The United States posted a $1.1 -bil- 
lion trade surplus with Western Europe, 
although the edge narrowed by $500 
million from December. 


Manufactured goods imports boost deficit 






Ray Crowell/Page One Photography 


Polish President Lech Walesa (right) meets at Blair House 
in Washington with AFL-CIO President Lane Kirkland, 
Service Employees President John Sweeney and Elec- 
trical Workers President John Barry. Walesa toured the 


United States in search of investment in Poland, and 
convinced President Bush to forgive much of Poland's 
debt. Walesa thanked Kirkland and the U.S. labor 
movement for their continuing support. 



The Chrysler Corp. eliminated five 
directors from its board, including 
UAW President Owen Bieber. “It is 
a mistake to deny labor a voice on the 
board,” Bieber told a press conference. 
“But it’s one that the union won’t suf- 
fer from.” 

In 1979, in an agreement that helped 
pull Chrysler from the brink of 
bankruptcy, the UAW was given one 
position on the board. Former UAW 
President Douglas A. Fraser held the 
spot until 1983, when he retired. Bieber 
joined the board the following year. 
Both excused themselves during any 
board discussion of collective bargain- 
ing. Bieber has been donating his an- 
nual board pay, which reached $33,000 
last year, to the Grand Valley State 
University in Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Service Employees Vice President 
Rosemary Trump, president of SEIU 
Local 585 in Pittsburgh, and Secretary 
of Labor Lynn Martin on March 21 
presented Danuta Walesa with five 
portable mammogram machines for use 
in Poland. The machines were donated 
by General Electric at the request of 
SEIU, which provides health care 
assistance to Poland under a union-to- 
union agreement worked out with 
Solidarnosc in 1989. Last year, SEIU 
President John J. Sweeney, after learn- 
ing first hand of Polish health care 
needs, arranged for the shipment of 1 1 
tons of free infant formula, vitamins 
and antibiotics to Poland. 

Two labor representatives have been 
named to the 45-member Environmen- 
tal Protection Agency Clean Air Act ad- 
visory committee. Leo C. Zeferetti, 
legislative and political director of the 
AFL-CIO Building and Construction 
Trades Department, and Mary 
Masulla, legal counsel of the Sheet 
Metal Occupational Health Institute, 
will join business executives, educators, 
physicians and environmental experts in 
the committee’s first meeting in 
Washington on April 1 1 . 

Julius Uehlein, former president of 
the Pennsylvania AFL-CIO, has been 
nominated to a seat on the state Public 
Utility Commission. The appointment 
by Gov. Robert P. Casey (D) is subject 
to state Senate confirmation and would 
run through May 1996. 

Ron Silver has been nominated for 
a three-year term as president of Ac- 


tors’ Equity, to succeed outgoing presi- 
dent Colleen Dewhurst, who did not 
seek re-election. The deadline for mail- 
ing ballots is April 25. The union’s 
nominating committee also nominated 
as officers: Patrick Quinn, first vice 
president; Richard W. Pugh, second 
vice president; Arne Gundersen, third 
vice president; Werner Klemperer, 
fourth vice president; Lynn Archer, 
recording secretary and Conrad 
Fowkes, treasurer. 

AWARDS 

Lynn R. Williams, president of the 
Steelworkers, will receive the inaugural 
Arthur J. Goldberg Award at a national 
Israel tribute dinner May 7 in Washing- 
ton. AFL-CIO President Lane 
Kirkland is honorary chairman for the 
tribute dinner, which is being held in 
association with the State of Israel Bond 
Organization and is named in memory 
of the CIO attorney who became sec- 
retary of labor, a Supreme Court justice 
and ambassador to the United Nations. 

Dinner co-chairmen are: Communi- 
cations Workers President Morton 
Bahr, Service Employees President 
John J. Sweeney, Food and Commer- 
cial Workers President William H. 
Wynn, and labor lawyers Elliot 
Bredhoff and Larry Cohen. 

DEATHS 

Joseph P. Selly, who led the 1935 
strike that led to the 1938 Supreme 
Court decision on the permanent 
replacement of strikers, died of cancer 
March 13 in Fort Lauderdale, Fla. He 
was 85. 

Selly was president of the American 
Radio Association and its predecessor 
union for nearly 30 years, and later was 
an organizer for the Teamsters. 


In 1935, he led the American Radio 
and Telegraphists Association strike in 
New York and San Francisco that re- 
sulted in the Supreme Court’s Mackay 
decision in 1938. While the court 
agreed that the company would be in 
violation of the then-new National 
Labor Relations Act to fire strike 
leaders, it created the anomaly in the 
law that allowed employers to “per- 
manently replace” strikers. 

Lewis W. Johnson, a longtime 
representative with the AFL-CIO 
Department of International Affairs, 
died of pneumonia Feb. 26 in Rock- 
ledge, Fla. He was 87. 

He joined the AFL’s international af- 
fairs staff in 1949 and continued to 
serve as a representative of the depart- 
ment after the 1955 merger with the 
CIO. He retired from the federation 
staff in 1980. In a letter to his son, 
AFL-CIO President Lane Kirkland 
said, “All of us who had the privilege 
to know and work with him will miss 
the example of dedication that he 
brought to the goals of the labor move- 
ment.” 

Johnson had been a member of the 
old International Typographical Union 
since 1926 when he went to work for 
the Columbus Dispatch and served as 
the ITU chapel chairman at the Ohio 
daily. For a number of years, Johnson 
had been the joint legislative represen- 
tative of the Ohio AFL and the Ohio 
CIO. 

Johnson also had been a member of 
the Newspaper Guild and served as 
public relations director of the AFL 
Labor League for Human Rights. Later, 
Johnson was the AFL-CIO represen- 
tative on the executive board of CARE, 
the international relief organization. 



Steve Yarmola/AFL-CIO News 


Heinz-Werner Meyer, president of Deutscher Gerwerkschaftsbund, the Ger- 
man trade union federation, met with AFL-CIO President Lane Kirkland 
at the federation's headquarters. The two discussed possible mutual pro- 
grams between the two labor organizations. 



PUBLICATIONS 

Child Care, Almost Ours: An AFL- 
CIO Guide to Implementing Child 
Care Laws is designed to make union 
members aware of the new benefits 
under the child care law passed in Con- 
gress last year. The booldet is available 
from the AFL-CIO Pamphlet Division, 
Room 209, 815 16th St. N.W., Wash- 
ington, D.C. 20006. First copy is free. 
Fifty cents per copy from 2 to 100. 

Exploiting Both Sides: U.S.-Mexico 
Free Trade explains the social and 
economic effects of an agreement pro- 
posed by President Bush. Pamphlet No. 
220. To obtain copies contact the AFL- 
CIO Pamphlet Division, Room 209, 
815 16th St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 
20006. 

CONFERENCES 

The 1991 Education Conference 
will be held at the Bal Harbour Sheraton 
in Miami from Tuesday, April 9 
through Saturday, April 13. The pro- 
gram will feature sessions on multi- 
cultural diversity, union administration 
and international labor affairs, as well 
as updates on current legislative topics. 
For more information, contact Ed Czar- 
necki at the AFL-CIO Education 
Department, 202/637-5146. 

A Conference for PACs, sponsored 
by the Federal Election Commission, 
will be held May 2-3 at the Sheraton- 
Carlton Hotel in Washington. The con- 
ference will cover campaign finance 
laws, how organizations can enhance 
participation in the political process, 
and how to set up a separate segregated 
fund. For more information, contact the 
FEC’s Information Services Division at 
800/424-9530 or 202/376-3120. 

TESTIMONY 

AFL-CIO Secretary-Treasurer 
Thomas Donahue testified before the 
U.S. Senate Committee on Finance on 
current U.S.-Mexico Free Trade 
Negotiations. Copies available from the 
AFL-CIO Pamphlet Division, Room 
209, 815 16th St., N.W., Washington, 
D.C. 20006. 

Bridgeknight slacks 
added to boycott list 

T he Bridgeknight brandname of 
Master Apparel of Somerville, 
Tenn., has been placed on the AFL- 
CIO boycott list at the request of the 
Electronic Workers. 

The company, which manufactures 
men’s and boys’ trousers and slacks, 
has refused to bargain in good faith 
since the workers voted two years ago 
to be represented by IUE. A majority 
of the 200 workers chose the union to 
address problems such as low wages, 
no sick days, no retirement plan and in- 
adequate health insurance. 

The National Labor Relations Board 
also issued a complaint last year that 
Master Apparel violated the law by 
threatening to discharge workers for 
distributing union literature, inter- 
rogating a worker about union activity 
and promising increased benefits if the 
workers withdrew their support of the 
union. 

The settlement agreement included an 
arrangement to post a notice to the 
employees that they will bargain in 
good faith. However, the company has 
not complied. 






Momentum builds for permanent replacement ban 


Continued from Page 1 

conferences joined in a show of concern 
over the permanent replacement of 
strikers during a Capitol Hill rally 
organized by the AFL-CIO Industrial 
Union Department. 

Sen. Howard Metzenbaum (D-Ohio), 
who introduced the Senate bill, ad- 
dressed the Capitol Hill rally, question- 
ing the morals of employers who use 
permanent replacement workers. 

“Employers used to go the extra mile 
to prevent a strike,” Metzenbaum said. 
“Now they are hell-bent to provoke a 
strike. These employers have no sense 
of loyalty to their workers. They have 
no interest in fairness, or in collective 
bargaining. Their goal is to escalate 
strikes into bitter confrontations which 
destroy lives and cripple unions.” 

Unionists also are working at the state 
level, and have been rewarded most 
recently with the introduction of pro- 
posals in Pennsylvania, Delaware, New 
York and Minnesota. 

With the shouts of “no scabs” from 
union supporters echoing in the 
background, Pennsylvania state Rep. 
Mike Veon sponsored an eight-bill 
reform package that would ban the per- 
manent replacement of strikers. 

In Delaware, a proposal would, 
among other provisions: ban the hiring 
of professional strikebreakers; limit 
advertisements for replacement 
workers, including requiring the ad to 
state that a strike is in progress, and 
mandate continued health and insurance 
benefits for replaced workers. 

A measure introduced Feb. 5 in the 
New York legislature would allow the 
state attorney to seek a state court in- 
junction prohibiting the hiring of 
replacement workers by an employer 
involved in a labor dispute. 

The Minnesota House approved a bill 


Daily News strikers received loud' applause as they march in New York's St. Patrick's Day parade. 


Tom Matthews 


that would prohibit employers from hir- 
ing permanent replacement workers 
during a bona fide strike or lockout. 

Meanwhile, AFL-CIO Legislative 
Director Robert McGlotten is encourag- 
ing all union members to contact their 
representatives with postcards, urging 
them to restore the balance in labor- 
management relations by co-sponsoring 
the bills. McGlotten described the 
postcards as the first step in the 
legislative campaign. 


Oscar hears about strikebreaking 


T he pain of workers who are “per- 
manently replaced” visited the 
glitz and glamor of the 63rd annual 
Academy Awards. 

Barbara Kopple, accepting the 
documentary award for her “Amer- 
ican Dream,” dedicated the award 
to the Austin, Minn., meatpacking 


workers who were forced to go on 
strike, “and then were permanently 
replaced.” 

Kopple, who said she “likes to 
make movies about workers,” prev- 
iously won an Oscar for “Harlan 
County USA.” “American Dream” 
was co-produced by Arthur Cohn. 


INSIDE 

Daily News crews 
back on the job 

Following a nearly five-month-long 
strike, the first edition of the New York 
Daily News is off the presses and on the 
newsstands, marking a big victory for 
union workers. 




Court ruling backs 
women , job safety 

The Supreme Court’s decision on 
Johnson Controls Inc.’s “fetal protec- 
tion” policy means employers must 
eliminate workplace hazards, not job 
opportunities for working women. 


0 


Returning troops 
get expanded benefits 

Congress acts to provide some im- 
proved health, education and job bene- 
fits for returning military personnel; 
unions continue their campaigns to aid 
families of reservists. 



Congress preserves 
Davis-Bacon benefits 

The House and Senate reject a cam- 
paign by non-union construction firms 
to demolish apprenticeship and abolish 
protections of the Davis-Bacon Act. 



Cuba frees unionist 
political prisoner 

The AFL-CIO Committee for a Free 
Cuba reaches a major goal: the release 
of Ernesto Diaz Rodriquez, a unionist 
held prisoner in Cuba since the 1960s. 



Minimum wage rise 
keeps many in poverty 

Despite a 45-cent increase in the 
minimum wage April 1 , millions of the 
nation’s lowest paid workers remain 
trapped below the federal poverty level. 



The AFL-CIO NEWS (ISSN 001-1185) is published every two weeks. 
Second Class postage paid at Washington, D.C. Subscriptions $ 1 0 per 
year. POSTMASTER: Address changes to Room 209, 815 16th Street, 
N.W., Washington, D.C. 20006. 


4 / 1/91 


The AFL-CIO does not accept paid advertising in any of its official publications. No one is authorized 
to solicit advertising for any publications in the name of the AFL-CIO. 








VOLUME 36, NUMBER 8 APRIL 15, 1991 


Workers Memorial Day message: ‘Better law’ 


By Arlee C. Green 
and Sharolyn Rosier 

W orkers will be joined by public of- 
ficials, clergy and other supporters 
as they call for reform of the federal job 
safety law on April 28, the third annual 
Workers Memorial Day and the 20th 
anniversary of the Occupational Safety 
and Health Act. 

Lives have been saved by the passage 
of OSH A two decades ago, AFL-CIO 
Safety and Health Director Peg 
Seminario said. But many more have 
died or been injured and grown sick 
because of workplace hazards during 
those years, and the passage of time has 
shown that further legislative action is 
needed to repair major shortcomings in 
the law. 


Across the country on April 28, 
workers will be dramatizing the need 
for reform through marches, rallies, 
candlelight vigils, memorial services 
and workplace demonstrations. In ad- 
dition, they have enlisted the support of 
officials who will issue proclamations 
and participate in memorial dedications. 

The AFL-CIO is seeking legislation 
to expand the scope and coverage of the 
law, stiffen enforcement and heighten 
workers’ participation in the prevention 
of injuries and illnesses on the job. 
Specifically, the federation seeks to: 

• Give workers the right to refuse 
to do work that threatens their lives, 
without fear of employer retaliation for 
exercising those rights. 

• Give workers the right to par- 



ticipate in worksite safety and health 
committees. The committees would 
have the right to meet, conduct inspec- 
tions, investigate accidents and gain ac- 
cess to safety and health information. 

• Give workers the right to contest 
OSHA citations and penalties when 
those enforcement actions aren’t strong 
enough. 

• Direct OSHA to act quickly on 
serious job hazards and limit political 
interference in the standard-setting 
process by the White House Office of 
Management and Budget. 

• Improve the collection of data on 
occupational injuries, illnesses and 
deaths by requiring employers to report 
these incidents immediately. 

Continued on Page 5 



Anne Martens/Page One Photography 

AFL-CIO President Lane Kirkland, accompanied by Employee tor Robert McGlotten, tells Senate panel that consen- 
Benefits Director Karen Ignagni and Legislative Direc- sus is building for health care reform. See Page 3. 


Harsh strikebreaker toll spread during ’80s 


By Muriel H. Cooper 

A mid such high-profile “permanent 
replacement’’ cases as Eastern 
Airlines, Greyhound and the New York 
Daily News are hundreds of other 
stories of smaller employers who use 
the permanent replacement tactics in 
strike situations. 

According to statistics compiled by 
the Machinists, the practice of “perma- 
nent replacements” has taken a heavy 
and increasing toll on its units of less 
than 1,000 workers. 

Of the 40 cases of “permanent 
replacements” the I AM found among 
its smaller units, only three occurred 
between 1975 and 1979. The incidents 
occurred more frequently as the 1980s 
progressed, with four cases each in 
1983, 1984 and 1985, and eight cases 
in 1987. 

In 1980, two plants — Kiene Diesel 
Accessories of Chicago and Reliable 
Tool and Machine of Kendal ville, 
Ind. — “permanently replaced” a 


Transportation unions testify 

See Page 4 


combined 65 union members, the I AM 
reported. 

But in 1990, seven employers — Re- 
liance Medical Products, Cincinnati; 
Professional Maintenance, Charleston, 
W. Va.; Scheu-Kniss Machine Co. and 
Stauble Tool and Machine, both of 
Louisville, Ky.; Sterling Factories, 
Erie, Pa.; Standard Golf Manufactur- 
ing, Cedar Falls, Iowa; and Aircraft 
Gear Corp. of Chicago — brought in a 
total of 247 permanent replacements. 

That 350 percent increase from the 
beginning to the end of the decade ex- 
plains why organized labor has mounted 
a major campaign for passage of H.R. 
5 and S. 55, legislation that would ban 
the use of permanent replacement work- 
ers. 

But statistics don’t fully tell the story, 


said Sen. Howard M. Metzenbaum (D- 
Ohio), author of the Senate legislation, 
in criticizing a General Accounting Of- 
fice study that reported “permanent 
replacements” being threatened in one- 
third of the strikes in small and large 
units during 1985 and 1989, and being 
hired in 17 percent of all strikes in each 
year. 

“We are talking about 14,000 work- 
ers covered by the National Labor Rela- 
tions Act who are permanently replaced 
each year, plus thousands more under 
the Railway Labor Act.” 

“When the right to strike is turned 
into giving up your job to a permanent 
replacement worker, democracy is 
damaged, families are threatened and 
communities are destroyed,” said LAM 
President George J. Kourpias. “Every- 
one must be involved in this fight for 
workplace justice.” 

The story is told most vividly in the 
words of workers who have endured the 
Continue on Page 4 


Congress urged 
to push trade 
off ‘fast track’ 

Donahue: Bush trying 
to pull a fast one 

By Mike Hall 

I f fast-track authority for a U.S.- 
Mexico free trade agreement is ex- 
tended, “Congress would be powerless 
to steer the FT A in a more humane and 
sensible direction,” AFL-CIO Secre- 
tary-Treasurer Thomas R. Donahue 
warned the House Ways and Means 
Committee. “It could not check even 
the worst excesses of this scheme.” 
The Bush administration is pushing 
the trade proposal on a “fast track,” 
which would leave Congress with only 
a yes or no vote with limited debate and 
no amendments, despite widespread 
concerns about a possible free trade 
agreement. 

Labor and environmental groups con- 
tend that such an agreement could 
wreak environmental havoc on the 
border areas, cause severe economic 
dislocation for tens of thousands of 
American workers and do virtually 
nothing for Mexican workers. 

The president, cranking up his cam- 
paign blitz for the trade deal, recently 
hosted Mexican President Carlos 
Salinas de Gortari in Texas. He criti- 
cized the labor movement for its opposi- 
tion to fast track and, according to 
White House aides, plans to stage a 
number of trade-oriented events in the 
coming weeks. 

To counter that campaign, the AFL- 
CIO sent every senator and represen- 
tative recent research material and a 
video outlining the problems of fast- 
track authority on such a vital issue, and 
Continued on Page 13 





Rail talks in uphill chug as deadline nears 


By Arlee C. Green 

W hile the Transportation Communi- 
cations Union and Railroad 
Signalmen have reached tentative ac- 
cords with the nation’s rail freight car- 
riers, members of eight other unions are 
poised to strike at 12:01 a.m. April 17, 
when the “cooling off’ period expires. 

Most of the unions involved will be 
bargaining up to the deadline. Train 
Dispatchers President Robert J. Irvin 
said the union is close to a tentative set- 
tlement, but is still ironing out “a 
troubling detail involving Consolidated 
Rail,” which sought a separate deal on 
employee protection language. 

Maintenance of Way Employees 
President Mac A. Fleming said his 
union is continuing to bargain, but is 
frustrated by the carriers’ refusal to 
bargain in good faith. Fleming is urging 
Congress not to intervene if negotia- 
tions end in a walkout. 

The main issue for BMWE is the pro- 
posed elimination of geographic senior- 
ity districts. The carriers want to elimi- 
nate the districts, which currently ex- 
tend 500-600 miles, and thereby require 
workers to travel and work thousands 
of miles from home. 

The UTU’s 80,000 conductors, 
brakemen, switchmen and firemen have 
authorized a strike. The union said it 

Solidarity Day 
to spotlight 
key labor goals 

T he AFL-CIO is organizing and 
mobilizing a show of solidarity and 
conviction in the nation’s capital on the 
Saturday of Labor Day weekend — 
Solidarity Day 1991. 

On the morning of Aug. 31, union 
members and allies — from civil rights, 
health care, education, environmental 
and other groups — will meet at the 
Washington Monument, then gear up 
for the march down Constitution 
Avenue to the U.S. Capitol for speeches 
and entertainment. 

Solidarity Day 1991 will demonstrate 
support for three key goals: legislation 
prohibiting the permanent replacement 
of strikers, national health care reform 
and full freedom of association at home 
and abroad. At home, that includes full 
collective bargaining rights for public 
employees. 

In a letter to international unions, 
AFL-CIO President Lane Kirkland 
called on union members to join the 
demonstration, which also marks the 
10th anniversary of the successful first 
Solidarity Day, when hundreds of 
thousands of working men and women 


hasn’t met with management for three 
weeks and no further meetings are 
scheduled. 

UTU President Fred Hardin said the 
carriers want to eliminate the brakeman 
positions, which potentially could cut 
18,000 jobs. He reportedly is lobbying 
Congress to disregard the findings of 
the Presidential Emergency Board No. 
219 (PEB) and to appoint a new 
commission to review the issues. 

The Locomotive Engineers haven’t 
met with management since March 22 
and, at presstime, no further meetings 
were scheduled. BLE spokesman Steve 
FitzGerald said the union is preparing 
for a selective strike, and has delivered 
picket signs and instructions to its local 
unions. 

The prospect of a rail strike — be it 
nationwide, limited to an individual car- 
rier or rotating — comes after three 
years of near-fruitless bargaining, 
months spent awaiting the recommen- 
dations of the PEB and a 90-day 
cooling-off period. 

The unions have made clear that if a 
strike occurs, any disruption of 
passenger service will be caused by the 
railroads, not the unions. Richard I. 
Kilroy, president of the Railway Labor 
Executives’ Association, said strike ac- 
tivities would not be directed at com- 


from across the country flocked to the 
nation’s capital on Sept. 19, 1981. 

“We shall strive to match that great 
day of a decade ago,” Kirkland wrote, 
adding, “we hope that chartered planes, 
trains and buses will bring trade 
unionists together from all parts of our 
country.” That’s a switch from 1981, 


muter railroads or any other passenger 
lines. 

“Our complaint is with the railroads, 
not the traveling public,” Kilroy said. 
“The railroads are making passengers 
the human shields in their strategy. 
While unions are pledging to keep the 
passenger trains rolling, the companies 
are looking for every excuse to shut 
them down. 

“For three-and-a-half years, the car- 
riers have refused to bargain with us in 
good faith, even though they’re making 
record profits. Now they want to push 
us into a strike, hoping a strike will 
prompt Congress to impose on us a con- 
tract patterned after the report of the 
PEB.” 

The board’s report recommends 
wages that would cut real earning 
power by 16 percent over the life of the 
contract, the RLE A said. It also calls 
for health insurance costs to be forced 
on the workers, a move that would 
undercut earning power even more. 

TCU’s tentative accord, reached 
April 5, covers more than 50,000 
white-collar, computer and clerical 
workers. The unit is preparing to vote 
on the proposal covering wages and 
work rules, which was approved by the 
union’s general chairmen on April 10. 
Ballots are expected to be counted by 


when planes were verboten to all trade 
unionists in solidarity with the air traf- 
fic controllers. 

The AFL-CIO is urging unions and 
state and local labor federations “to 
cancel plans for city and county 1991 
Labor Day parades and picnics” and 
focus those efforts on “leading your 


mid-May, the union said. The 21,000 
members of TCU’s Carmen division 
were without a contract at presstime. 

The Railroad Signalmen’s accord, 
covering 7,000 members, will be 
presented to the union’s general 
chairmen April 23. If they approve it, 
the proposal will be voted on by the 
members during May. 

The negotiations, which began in 
early 1988, have revolved mainly 
around wages, work rules, health and 
welfare co-payments and the contrac- 
tual protection of workers’ rights on 
sold-off short lines. 

Shortly after the required 30-day 
cooling-off period started on Jan. 15, 
Operation Desert Storm began. 

In February, the rail unions persuad- 
ed management to extend the cooling- 
off period by 60 days to assure full rail 
service throughout the Persian Gulf 
war. That period expires April 17, 
when the carriers can unilaterally im- 
pose wage and work rules not agreed 
to and workers will be free to strike. 

The rail unions involved are the 
UTU, BMWE, TCU and its Carmen 
division, Train Dispatchers, Loco- 
motive Engineers, Railroad Signalmen, 
Boilermakers, Electrical Workers, 
Firemen and Oilers and Sheet Metal 
Workers. 


union members to the nation’s capital 
on Aug. 31,” Kirkland wrote. 

Coordinators named by their interna- 
tional unions will work with AFL-CIO 
staff on recruiting, transportation and 
other logistical needs. Promotional 
materials, including fact sheets and 
mailings, also will be available. 



Steve Yarmola/AFL-CIO News 


With the U.S. Capitol in the background, AFL-CIO Presi- unionists asking their participation in Solidarity Day ac- 
dent Lane Kirkland tapes a television message to trade tivities in Washington on Aug. 31 . 



Director of Information: Rex Hardesty 

Editor: Michael Byrne 

News Editor: John R. Oravec 

Assistant Editors: Arlee C. Green, 

Candice Johnson, James B. Parks 

Staff Writers: Muriel H. Cooper, Mike Hall, 
Colleen M. O’Neill, Sharolyn A. Rosier 

Graphics /layout: Stan Hitt 


AFL-CIO Headquarters: 815 Sixteenth St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20006 
Telephone: (202) 637-5010 


Vol. 36, No. 8 


MONDAY, APRIL 15, 1991 


.H0» COMMON, 

fB 


The AFL-CIO News (ISSN-001-1 185) is issued every two weeks at 815 Sixteenth St.. N.W., Washington, D.C. 
The AFL-CIO does not accept paid advertising in any of its official publications. No one is authorized to solicit 
advertising for any publications in the name of the AFL-CIO. 


Official Publication 
of the 

American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations 

Lane Kirkland, president 
Thomas R. Donahue, secretary-treasurer 

EXECUTIVE COUNCIL 


Albert Shanker 
William H. Wynn 
Joyce D. Miller 
Richard I. Kilroy 
William H. By water 
John T. Joyce 
Robert A. Georgine 
Jay Mazur 
John J. Barry 
Susan Bianchi-Sand 
John N. Sturdivant 


Edward T. Hanley 
John DeConcini 
John J. Sweeney 
Vincent R. Sombrotto 
Marvin J. Boede 
Lynn R. Williams 
Milan Stone 
Lenore Miller 
Sigurd Lucassen 
Moe Biller 
Richard L. Trumka 


Angelo Fosco 
Wayne E. Glenn 
James E. Hatfield 
Gerald W. McEntee 
Owen Bieber 
Morton Bahr 
Gene Upshaw 
Jack Sheinkman 
William J. McCarthy 
George J. Kourpias 
Frank Hanley 





im™iN 


Kirkland: U.S. ripe for health care reform 


Consensus building 
for major changes 

By Colleen M. O’Neill 

T here is a new sense of cooperation 
among groups affected by the decline 
of the American health care system, 
AFL-CIO President Lane Kirkland told 
a Senate committee, urging Congress to 
translate that consensus into national 
health care reform. 

Testifying before the Finance Com- 
mittee April 9, Kirkland said “organ- 
ized labor, organized medicine and 
many in the business community are at 
long last forming a consensus around 
the notion that the current health care 
system just doesn’t work for the aver- 
age American. 

“We find ourselves in virtual agree- 
ment over the three basic goals of 
lowering the cost, expanding access and 
improving the quality of our health care 
system,’’ he said. 

Congressional support 

Influential senators added their voices 
to the call for national health care 
reform. Congress “must pass a health 
care bill,” said Majority Leader George 
Mitchell (D-Maine), who is a member 
of the committee. 

Committee Chairman Lloyd Bentsen 
(D-Texas) set the stage for the discus- 
sion in his opening remarks, when he 
pointed out that respondents in a 1990 
survey showed greater concern about 
their health care situation than about 
taxes, rising interest rates and possible 
loss of their job. 

The United States has “the best 
health care in the world for those who 
can afford it,” said Bentsen, who noted 
that middle-class Americans were fac- 
ing a real squeeze when it came to ade- 
quate health care. 

Mitchell said that access to affordable 
health care is necessary for all, and that 
it was essential that the 37 million 
Americans lacking health insurance 
receive coverage. 

Kirkland urged Congress “to take ad- 
vantage of this growing consensus and 
to take the lead in fashioning a program 
of national health care reform . . . and 
stem this crisis before it impoverishes 
the bulk of the American middle class. 
“Clearly, we are heading down that 


T he Roper Organization has found 
'new evidence that the nation’s health 
care system is failing to serve the needs 
of Americans. 

“Never before in the 17 years that 
Roper has been tracking Americans’ at- 
titudes toward health care have sen- 
timents been so universally negative as 
they are today,” Roper said of its latest 
polling data. 

In response to a survey of approx- 
imately 2,000 adults 18 and older con- 
ducted in September 1990, less than 
half — or 30 percent — describe the 
cost of medical care as “very 
reasonable” or “fairly reasonable.” 
That compares with 43 percent in 1988 
who said the cost of health care was 
reasonable. 

Likewise, in 1990 only 35 percent 
said they were very satisfied with the 



Kirkland urged Con- 
gress “ to take advantage 
of this growing consensus 
and to take the lead in 
fashioning a program of 
national health care 
reform . . . and stem this 
crisis before it im- 
poverishes the bulk of the 
American middle class. ” 


road. The health care tragedy is no 
longer confining itself to the fringes of 
our society,” he said. “It’s now strik- 
ing at millions of solid, working, tax- 
paying families.” 

Kirkland told the committee of the 
findings from eight regional hearings 
sponsored by the AFL-CIO last fall, 
and oudined the federation’s basic goals 
for national reform along with several 
specific proposals. 

Responding to a question from Bent- 
sen, Kirkland urged the creation of a 
national commission composed of con- 
sumers, purchasers, government and 
providers to help contain the growth in 
health care costs. This commission, he 
said, would oversee negotiations to set 
reimbursement levels and would utilize 
the cost-containment methodology of 
Medicare to all payors. 


quality of their own care, down from 
44 percent in 1988. A mere 25 per- 
cent — down six percentage points 
from 1988 — said they were satisfied 
with their arrangements for paying for 
medical care. 

The Roper Organization’s surveys 
also confirm the growing ranks of the 
uninsured and underinsured. Only 41 
percent of the adults responding to the 
survey said their families had 
hospitalization insurance; 30 percent 
said their families had medical-surgical 
coverage; and only 28 percent said they 
had major medical coverage. 

Finally, only 48 percent of respond- 
ents in a March 1990 survey 
characterized their opinion of the 
medical care system as “highly 
favorable” or “moderately favorable,” 
down sharply from 65 percent in 1988. 


Sen. Robert Packwood (R-Ore.) 
asked Kirkland about the federation’s 
support for mandated care. “I believe 
that would have to be a part of a health 
care reform package,” Kirkland said. 
“However, if we are to mandate 
coverage on employers, I think it is a 
collateral responsibility to create a 
package of benefits that is cost efficient 
(for small employers).” 

Kirkland opposed a suggestion by 
Sen. John D. Rockefeller IV (D- 
W.Va.) that a cost-containment ap- 
proach could be developed on the state 
level instead of the federal level. 

“I believe there is an urgent need for 
uniformity of regulation in the re- 
quirements that may be imposed upon 
providers,” Kirkland said. “There is 
also a need for simplification and 
streamlining. I do not think a state-by- 
state cost-containment regulatory 
system would achieve those goals or be 
the most desirable way of approaching 
it.” 

Medicare eligibility 

Questioned by Sen. John Breaux (D- 
La.) on the AFL-CIO ’s proposal to 
lower Medicare eligibility to age 60, 
Kirkland noted that the evolution of 
pension plans has made it possible for 
more people to retire with a tolerable 
income — and that the spouses of these 
retirees likely are not eligible for full 
benefits yet, either. 

“Therefore, I think there is a very 
strong case for reducing the age of 
eligibility for Medicare to more closely 
reflect the actual practice and the 
average age of retirement,” he said. 

Kirkland noted also that the issue of 
retiree health care has become an in- 
creasingly difficult one for employers 
and for unions negotiating with 
employers. 

“Lowering the age for eligibility for 
Medicare would, I believe, construc- 
tively address many of those problems 
and relieve many of those problems, 
and it simply makes sense.” 

Others testifying at the hearing were 
Robert D. Reischauer, the director of 
the Congressional Budget Office, and 
Professor Robert J. Blendon Ph.D., the 
chairman of the Department of Health 
Policy and Management at the Harvard 
University School of Public Health, and 
a panel of business executives. 


The 1990 respondents ranked the 
medical system last of 12 major institu- 
tions — behind labor unions, business, 
the press, the court system, public 
schools and the Congress, among 
others. 

Roper’s polls show a growing trend 
toward support for reform of the 
system. Approximately 80 percent of 
respondents in a 1990 study said the na- 
tion should be working toward contain- 
ing spiraling costs. 

Only the need for a cure for AIDS 
and fighting crime and drugs ranked 
higher on the national agenda for these 
respondents. 

Finally, when asked how to reform 
the system, a new national plan was 
favored by 52 percent of respondents, 
while 36 percent said they favored their 
current private plan. 


i 


Capitol Digest 


I f the administration has its way, the 
ability of unions and of charitable, 
religious and educational groups to 
communicate would be severely 
slashed. 

The problem centers on the part of 
the budget for the U.S. Postal Service 
called revenue foregone, which allows 
the USPS to deliver mail from these 
groups at reduced rates. 

The administration’s proposed FY 
1992 appropriation cuts $290 million 
from revenue foregone. “If the postal 
service is compelled to pick up the cost 
for revenue foregone, these expenses 
will result in either higher postage rates 
or a reduction in service for these 
groups,” said AFL-CIO Legislative 
Director Robert McGlotten. 

The AFL-CIO has urged Congress to 
restore full funding for revenue 
foregone. 

If the money isn’t restored and the 
Postal Service is forced to raise rates, 
unions and the other groups will have 
to foot the extra cost for almost all their 
mailings, from publications to election 
notices to simple communications. 
Many will be forced to reduce the 
number or frequency of their com- 
munications with their members. 
Elsewhere on Capitol Hill: 

INDOOR AIR - The AFL-CIO is 
backing a bill that would begin a 
cleanup of the nation’s indoor air — ad- 
dressing the “sick-building” syndrome, 
documenting the health hazards work- 
ers face from indoor air pollution and 
setting federal regulations to protect 
workers’ health. Diane Factor, an in- 
dustrial hygienist with the AFL-CIO, 
told the House health and environment 
subcommittee that “indoor air pollution 
presents a similar, if not more complex 
and subtie version” of such toxic agents 
as asbestos, coal and cotton dust, which 
employers for years denied were the 
causes of workers’ ill health. 

CIVIL RIGHTS — Union members 
can help spur action on the AFL-CIO- 
backed Civil Rights Act of 1991. The 
Leadership Conference on Civil Rights, 
of which the AFL-CIO is a member, 
has established a 900 telephone number 
to generate postcards of support for the 
bill. Simply dial 1 -900-370-FAIR and 
postcards expressing your support for 
the bill will be sent to your represen- 
tative and senators. There is a $3 charge 
for the call. 

FAMILY LEAVE -The Small 
Business Administration has stopped 
distribution of one its own reports that 
shows granting family or medical leave 
for workers is in fact cheaper for 
employers than replacing the worker. 
While the opponents of H.R. 2 and 
S. 5 have claimed a national leave 
policy would be a huge cost burden, 
most studies, including the SBA’s, have 
disputed that claim. The AFL-CIO has 
said a national leave policy would cost 
employers little. The SB A is an in- 
dependent executive branch agency. 
The administration is opposed to the 
bills. 


Health care disenchantment growing, poll shows 






Unions: Transportation undercut by strikebreakers 



Steve Yarmola/AFL-CIO News 


Union witnesses tell the House aviation subcommittee of Juliette Lenoir, AFA; George Kourpias, 1AM; George 
problems caused by use of permanent striker Leitz; TWU; Vicki Frankovich, unaffiliated flight atten- 
replacements in the transportation industry. From left: dants union, and J. Randolph Babbitt, ALPA. 


Campaign picks up 
as postcards roll in 

By Mike Hall 

T he use of “permanent replacement” 
workers undermines the nation’s 
transportation system by subverting the 
collective bargaining process that keeps 
companies healthy and workers produc- 
tive, union leaders told two House 
subcommittees. 

At the same time, the AFL-CIO’s 
grassroots campaign to build support 
for bills to ban the use of “permanent 
replacement” workers began in earnest. 
Thousands of postcards from union 
members arrived on Capitol Hill call- 
ing on targeted lawmakers to vote for 
H.R. 5 and S. 55. 

Eastern Airlines could still be flying 
if the company had not been allowed to 
use permanent replacements, Machin- 
ists President George Kourpias told the 
Public Works and Transportation’s sub- 
committee on aviation. 

Shortly after Martin Shugrue’s ap- 
pointment as Eastern’s trustee during 
bankruptcy proceedings, the two sides 
met to try to end the long, bitter strike, 
Kourpias said. 

“We thought that the unions and Mr. 
Shugrue could negotiate a settlement, 
to try and save Eastern Air- 
lines. . .However, he told me that he 
would not resolve the issue of ‘perma- 
nent replacements.’ Without settling 
that issue, there could be no settle- 
ment,” Kourpias said. 

“If that issue could have been re- 
solved, the other issues would have 
fallen into place and the provisions of 
the Railway Labor Act (RLA) would 
have worked as they historically have.” 
The RLA, which governs the air and 
rail industries, requires a series of 
mediations and cooling off periods 
before workers can strike. 

Randy Babbitt, president of the 
Air Line Pilots, noted that more than 
200 Eastern pilots who had been 
permanently replaced during the strike 
served in the air war in the Persian 
Gulf. 


“They have been rightly hailed as 
heroes. .. .When they come home 
however, they’ll be unemployed. Even 
had Eastern survived, they would still 
be unemployed because they had been 
permanently replaced,” he said. 

Juliette Lenoir, vice president of the 
Flight Attendants, said striking Alaska 
Airlines attendants in 1976 felt com- 
pelled to settle a strike and accept less 
than what they wanted when the com- 
pany threatened to replace them. 

“We are faced with a new breed of 
management, which is much more will- 
ing to risk destroying their company by 
replacing dedicated and trained workers 
than to work through the negotiation 
process. . Lenoir said. 

These managers are obsessed with 
corporate debt and money, she said. 
“Workers are just replaceable com- 
modities to them.” 

Many flight attendants, after the ex- 
perience at Alaska Airlines and other 
carriers fear being “permanently 
replaced” if they strike, Lenoir said. 


“This perception has made the strike 
a much less effective tool for labor and 
has eroded the bargaining power of 
unions,” she said. 

Union leaders said using the replace- 
ments violates the goals of the RLA. 
“The key principle of the RLA. . .is 
that both management and labor are 
obliged to make and maintain agree- 
ments,” Transport Workers President 
George Leitz said. 

Does the use of “permanent replace- 
ment” workers “facilitate or under- 
mine the making of and maintaining 
agreements between parties in a labor 
dispute?” he asked rhetorically. 

The arguments that a ban would lead 
to an increase in precipitous striking are 
“spurious, even ludicrous,” said 
William G. Mahoney, general counsel 
of the Railway Labor Executives 
Association, a coalition of 18 unions 
whose members work on the nation’s 
railroads. 

“Striker replacement, used or 
threatened, significantly menaces what 


remains to employees of their very 
limited right to strike in the railroad in- 
dustry,” Mahoney told the Energy and 
Commerce’s subcommittee on trans- 
portation. 

The House Education and Labor 
Committee is expected to mark up the 
bill shortly. 

This is the last major hurdle before 
the legislation goes to the floor, pro- 
bably in late spring. 

Some two dozen AFL-CIO affiliated 
Legislative Action Committees met dur- 
ing the Easter congressional break, or 
scheduled meetings with targeted 
lawmakers to discuss the bills. Early 
reports from these meetings indicate 
that several of the representatives said 
they would support the bill if it gets to 
the House floor. 

Union members in selected districts 
also have been asked to use a special 
toll-free number later this spring to send 
mailgrams to their representatives and 
senators urging them to vote for the 
bills. 


hit by ‘replacement’ tactic 


Small jobsites 

Continued from Page 1 

frustration of seeing their hard-earned 
jobs going to workers from outside the 
union, and sometimes from outside the 
community. 

Ken King, who was replaced during 
a three-month strike with Pybus Steel 
Co. in Wenatchee, Wash., in 1983, was 
startled by a letter from the new owners 
of the plant threatening to permanently 
replace the workers. 

“In the decades of cooperation be- 
tween the I AM and Pybus, there had 
never been a strike,” King said. “We 
couldn’t believe that a dozen or so 
misfits to a decent society could replace 
us at the jobs we had done so well for 
for so many years.” 

Tim Bailey, a Machinist who worked 
for a Montana auto dealer until he was 
“permanently replaced” in 1985, was 
struck by the injustice of a company that 
would terminate its striking union 
members and advertise for 26 perma- 
nent replacements. 

“It seemed very unfair to those of us 
picketing that any company should be 
able to implement their own contract 
and then fire you for going on strike, 
then hire incompetent replacements 
while they continue to negotiate.” 

“I feel (the strike) would not have 
lasted five months if these businesses 
were forced to bargain with us instead 
of having the power to just replace us, ’ ’ 


Bailey said. “That seems too one-sided 
to me. Workers don’t seem to have 
many rights these days.” 

For Angelo Costa, president of IAM 
Local 1825 in Cleveland, “permanent 
replacements” is a personal issue. 

Costa worked in the coal mines in 
Pennsylvania for 15 years and in his day 
pitied the man who would cross a picket 
line. While he encouraged his sons to 
find union jobs, he now asks “what do 


“I feel (the strike) would 
not have lasted five 
months if these businesses 
were forced to bargain 
with us instead of having 
the power to just replace 
us.” 

—Tim Bailey 


you tell three sons who belong to a 
union, were fired from these jobs and 
been replaced by scabs?” 

Two of Costa’s sons were Air Traf- 
fic Controllers fired during the PATCO 
strike in 1980. One son is currently 
working in the computer field while the 
other “is doing nothing and can’t find 
a job.” 


A third son had what his father 
described as a good job with a steel 
plant in Cleveland, but was replaced by 
scabs in 1989. “That’s not the best 
part,” he said. 

“They signed up for the unemploy- 
ment and got it,” Costa continued. 
“The company took them to court and 
the company won. Now the unemploy- 
ment compensation people want them 
to pay back all the money they got. 
Now tell me, how does my son pay that 
money back. He has three children and 
makes $5.50 an hour.” 

And while workers are frustrated 
with the strange fruit borne by the 1938 
Supreme Court Mackay decision that 
says it is illegal to fire striking workers 
but okay to “permanently replace” 
them, most are steadfast in support of 
their unions. 

Dennis Power says “permanent 
replacements” cost him his marriage 
and his job at General Dynamic’s Con- 
vair aerospace plant in San Diego where 
the IAM struck in 1987. Rehired a year 
later in a lesser-paying job, Power is 
struggling to support his three young 
children and to keep his home and 
truck. ‘ ‘I tell my kids to look for a union 
job, because that makes for a strong 
country,” Power said. 

The IAM is among the international 
unions active in the fight to pass legisla- 
tion to ban “permanent replacements.” 


ACTWU accord 
wins protection 
for job trauma 

W orkers at three Interconti- 
nental Branded Apparel 
plants have gained some added 
protection from cumulative 
trauma disorders under a unique 
ergonomics agreement negotiated 
between the Occupational Safety 
and Health Administration and an 
apparel industry employer. 

The 1,500 workers are 
members of the Clothing and 
Textile Workers Union, which 
has been working with the com- 
pany to modify work stations and 
reduce ergonomic hazards, 
ACTWU safety and health direc- 
tor Eric Frumin said. 

The agreement calls for Inter- 
continental to reduce cumulative 
trauma disorder hazards —which 
can cause such illnesses as ten- 
donitis, low back strain and car- 
pal tunnel syndrome —at its three 
plants. 

The apparel manufacturer also 
will hire an ergonomist at each 
site and institute employee and 
supervisor training in cumulative 
trauma disorders, which can 
cause permanent disability. 





Carpenters photo 


Bath Iron Workers at Workers Memorial Day rally in Portland, Maine. 


Vigils, rallies 
to dramatize 
OSHA failings 

Continued from Page 1 

• Increase OSHA enforcement and 
toughen the criminal penalties that can 
be imposed for employer violations. 

• Expand the act to cover all 
workers. Millions of workers, including 
many state and local public employees 
and workers in transportation, agri- 
culture and federal nuclear facilities 
have little or no protections. 

• Improve funding for the National 
Institute of Occupational Safety and 
Health (NIOSH) and establish a national 
surveillance program to determine the 
extent of occupational diseases. 

Workers Memorial Day this year 
falls on a Sunday, but union activities 
will occur throughout the week begin- 
ning April 23. 

Among the events will be a rally and 
memorial service April 28 in Ripley, 
W.Va., near Charleston, where four 
Ravenswood Aluminum Co. employees 
died in workplace accidents last year. 
USWA members at Ravenswood were 
also locked out in November 1990. 

The following is a partial listing of 
events that have been reported: 

ALASKA 

Anchorage — Anchorage Central 
Labor Council: a rally on the Park Strip 
in downtown Anchorage at 12:30 p.m. 
Contact: Aleene M. Brown, 

907/522-1496. 

CALIFORNIA 

Fresno — Fresno and Madera Coun- 
ties AFL-CIO: a two-mile march and 
memorial service at the Federal Cour- 
thouse on April 28 at noon. Contact 
Marcello Salido, 209/268-4389. 

Los Angeles — Los Angeles Coun- 
ty AFL-CIO: breakfast and press con- 
ference from 8-10 a.m. on April 26 and 
the presentation of a permanent 
memorial with deceased workers’ 
names inscribed. Contact: David 
Sickler, 213/387-1974. 

CONNECTICUT 

Hartford — Connecticut AFL-CIO: 
rally and memorial ceremony on April 
28 at 1 p.m. on the state Capitol 
grounds. Contact: Janeen Nolan, 
203/953-8717. 

ILLINOIS 

Chicago — Chicago AFL-CIO: a 
weeklong lecture series with slide 
presentations, videos, open discussion 
and a tree planting to commemorate 
workers who were killed on the job, 
April 15-19. Contact: Cathy Bernstein, 
312/906-2432. 

Peru — Putnam County AFL-CIO: 
memorial service at 2:30 p.m. on April 
28 at Centennial Park and a scholarship 
fund established for victims’ 
dependents. Contact: Kelly Reffett, 
815/224-4331. 

Rockford — Rockford AFL-CIO: a 
permanent memorial to be placed at a 
service at the Illinois State Building at 
2 p.m. on April 28. Contact: Tom 
Eschen, 815/398-6282. 

INDIANA 

Fort Wayne — Northeast Three 
Rivers Central Labor Council: a rally 
and memorial and tree planting in 
Auburn at 2 p.m. Contact: Tom Lewan- 
dowski, 219/482-5588. 

KENTUCKY 

Frankfort — Kentucky AFL-CIO: a 
memorial service on April 28 from 3-4 
p.m. at the state headquarters building 


in Frankfort, where an artist’s concept 
for Kentucky Workers Memorial 
Monument will be unveiled. Contact: 
Dewey Parker, Jr., 502/695-6172. 

MICHIGAN 

Lansing — Michigan AFL-CIO: a 
rally on the steps of the State Capitol 
will be held on April 23 at noon. Con- 
tact: Dick Whitwam, 517/372-0784. 

Muskegon — West Michigan AFL- 
CIO and the United Way of Muskegon: 
a memorial service on April 28 at 
Hackley Park from 12:30 to 2 p.m. 
Contact: Brent Gillette, 616/722-3134. 

MINNESOTA 

Minneapolis — Minneapolis 
Building and Construction Trades: a 
memorial service will be held at noon 
on April 26 at the Mall of America. 
Contact: John Williams, 612/379-4234. 

St. Paul — St. Paul Labor Assembly: 
a breakfast with Senator Paul Wellstone 
(D-Minn.) at 8 p.m. on April 27 at the 
St. Paul Labor Center. Contact: Steve 
Dress, 612/222-3787. 

NEBRASKA 

Grand Island — Central Nebraska 
AFL-CIO: a rally beginning at 2 p.m. 
on April 28 in Grace Abbott Park. Con- 
tact: Harvey Larsen, 308/382-1103. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 

Concord — New Hampshire AFL- 
CIO, State Employees Association, 
New Hampshire COSH: a program on 
Public Employee Safety and Health on 
April 26 from 9-11 a.m. at the Health 
and Human Services Building in 
Concord. Contact: Dan Toomey, 
603/224-4789. 

Pembroke — Nashua AFL-CIO, 
New Hampshire AFL-CIO, New 
Hampshire COSH: a breakfast will be 
held at City Streets Restaurant in Con- 
cord on April 28 at 10 a.m. Contact: 
Dan Toomey, 603/224-4789. 

NEW JERSEY 

Passaic — Passaic County AFL- 
CIO; a service at 1 p.m. on April 28 
will be held at the Botto House Labor 
Museum. Contact: Michael Parsons, 
201/773-1616. 

NEW YORK 

Albany — Albany, Troy, Saratoga, 
Glen Falls, Schenectady Central Labor 
Councils: a rally will be held on April 
28 at 1 p.m. at West Capitol Park. Con- 
tact: Ed Ruff, 518/436-8516. 

Homer — Thompkins -Cortland La- 
bor Coalition: candlelight vigil and rally 
at 1 p.m. on April 28. Contact: Sherry 
Slade, 215/471-6187. 


New York City — New York City 
CLC: a rally at on April 29 at Union 
Square. Contact: Ted Jacobsen, 
212/685-9552. 

Rochester — Rochester AFL-CIO: a 
ceremony will be held at 1 p.m. on 
April 28 at the Hyde Park Workers 
Memorial, dedicated two years ago. 
Contact: Chris Garlock, 716/272-9780. 

Syracuse — Greater Syracuse Labor 
Council and Central New York COSH: 
a dinner ceremony at 4 p.m. on April 
28 at the American Legion. Contact: 
Sherry Slade, 315/471-6187. 

NORTH CAROLINA 

Fayetteville — North Carolina AFL- 
CIO and Greater Cape Fear AFL-CIO: 
a rally at the Downtown Commons on 
April 28 at 2 p.m. Contact: Kathleen 
Rich, 919/371-9549. 

OHIO 

Cincinnati — Cincinnati AFL-CIO: a 
memorial service followed by a march 
at 2:30 p.m. on April 28 in the Kelley 
Auditorium at Xavier. Contact: Dan 
Radford, 513/421-1846. 

Toledo — UAW Region IIB: a rally 
at the Local 12 union hall at noon on 
April 27; Rep. Marcy Kaptur (D-Ohio) 
is expected to attend. Contact: Pat 
Wallace, 419/243-4611. 

PENNSYLVANIA 

Harrisburg — Harrisburg AFL-CIO: 
a service at Labor’s Grove in Riverfront 
Park on April 28 at 2 p.m. Contact: 
Robert Settle, 717/231-7830. 

Lehigh Valley — Northhampton and 
Lehigh AFL-CIOs, and Lehigh Valley 
Building Trades: a permanent workers 
memorial will be dedicated at 2 p.m. 
on April 28 at the Bethlehem Rose 
Garden; a workers memorial exhibit 
will be featured at Lehigh University’s 
campus through July. Contact: Gail 
Meyer, 215/258-7218. 

Philadelphia — Philadelphia AFL- 
CIO and Philadelphia POSH: a break- 
fast and service April 27 at 10 a.m. at 
the Sheet Metal Workers Local 19 hall. 
Contact: Mark Forrest, 215/665-1730. 

WASHINGTON 

Spokane — Spokane AFL-CIO: 
dedication of a permanent memorial at 
Riverfront Park on April 28 at 2 p.m. 
Contact: John Leinen, 509/327-7637. 

WEST VIRGINIA 

Ripley — West Virginia AFL-CIO 
and Steelworkers: a rally will be held 
at the Jackson County Junior Farm 
Fairgrounds at 1 p.m. on April 28. 
Contact: Joseph Powell, 304/344-3557. 


MSHA uncaps 
mine owners’ 
dirty deeds 

By Arlee C. Green 

F ederal charges that the operators of 
nearly half the nation’s underground 
coal mines have tampered with dust 
samples proves that the mining industry 
should not be allowed to police itself, 
the Mine Workers said. 

A 20-month investigation by the 
Mine Safety and Health Administration, 
which included checking 120,000 dust 
samples submitted by some 2,000 
mines, found widespread tampering 
with dust samples. 

MSHA issued 4,710 citations to 847 
mines in 16 states. Among the nearly 
500 companies implicated thus far are 
such mames as DuPont Co., USX 
Corp., Bethlehem Steel Corp. and Gen- 
eral Dynamics. The agency proposed a 
civil penalty of $1,000 per citation. 

UMWA President Richard Trumka 
expressed the union’s appreciation to 
Secretary of Labor Lynn Martin and the 
Mine Safety and Health Administration 
for uncovering and prosecuting 847 
mines implicated in massive tampering 
with coal dust samples, which are in- 
tended to protect miners from black 
lung disease and silicosis. 

Trumka decried the current dust 
monitoring and control rules, saying the 
program is “so structurally flawed, no 
amount of enforcement can correct it. 
Coal miners will continue to slowly 
strangle to death so long as coal com- 
panies are trusted to monitor their own 
compliance with a law they bitterly op- 
pose at every turn.” 

At a press conference on April 4, 
Martin chastised the coal industry. “I 
am appalled at the flagrant disregard for 
the law designed to protect coal miners 
against disabling lung disease. This 
disregard for workers’ health protection 
is not what American industry is sup- 
posed to be about.” 

While stopping short of charging a 
conspiracy among coal operators, Mar- 
tin said, “It’s amazing how the in- 
cidents (of tampering) dropped once 
word of the investigation got out.” 
Trumka said the most disturbing 
aspect is “that the operators must have 
been fairly sure they could get away 
with this massive fraud. . . .With this 
many companies involved and the 
rapidity with which they stopped send- 
ing fraudulent samples once MSHA 
started voiding them raises the possibili- 
ty of a broader conspiracy.” 
AFL-CIO President Lane Kirkland 
said the federation believes the U.S. At- 
torney’s Office should now determine 
if criminal prosecution is warranted. 

Martin noted that prosecutors in 
Charleston, W.Va., and Pittsburgh are 
pursuing criminal investigations. The 
UMWA is urging prosecutors in Vir- 
ginia, Alabama, Kentucky and other 
states also to actively pursue criminal 
investigations, Trumka said. 

Mine operators allegedly tampered 
with samples by vacuuming or blowing 
out the dust, methods that leave a tell- 
tale white center in the cassette. Other 
methods reportedly used included 
covering the sampling cassette with a 
rag, or simply placing it outside the 
mine, MSHA said. 

Trumka said MSHA must take re- 
sponsibility for obtaining the dust 
samples. “Coal miners themselves 
should have the right to monitor the 
sampling at every step. And sampling 
technology should be modernized to 
prevent tampering,” he said. “Unless 
this is done, coal operators will continue 
to find ways to break the law.” 




Court rulings back unions on contracts, agency fees 


Supreme Court vindicates Air Line Pilots over 
challenge on agreement with employer; UAW upheld 
on costs of servicing non-members. 


By James B. Parks 

T he rights of workers and their unions 
were at issue in a flurry of recent 
court decisions. Organized labor 
prevailed in two significant cases — a 
Supreme Court ruling limiting suits 
against unions and an appeals court ver- 
dict upholding a union’s procedure for 
handling objections to the payment of 
agency fees. 

In Air Line Pilots Association vs. 
O’Neill, the Supreme Court ruled that 
a union cannot normally be sued by its 
members over terms of an agreement 
with managment. 

The case stemmed from the two-year 
strike by ALPA against Continental 
Airlines. The Supreme Court reversed 
a 7th Circuit Court of Appeals ruling 
that the 1985 agreement that ended the 
strike was “a breach of the union’s du- 
ty of fair representation.” 

A group of ALPA members sued the 
union, claiming that the agreement was 
worse than if the pilots had surrendered 
and called the strike off. 

Justice John Paul Stevens wrote for 
the court that the standard of fair 
representation is breached if a union’s 
conduct is “arbitrary, discriminatory, 
or in bad faith,” but the ALPA agree- 
ment did not fit those criteria. 

The “final product of the bargaining 
process may constitute evidence of 
breach of duty only if it can be fairly 
characterized as . . . wholly irrational or 
arbitrary,” Stevens said. 

ALPA argued that a union cannot be 
held liable for failing to undo all the 


harmful but lawful actions of an em- 
ployer during a strike, including the hir- 
ing of permanent replacement workers. 
Judicial second-guessing of the wisdom 
of a union’s decision would undermine 
the union’s ability to settle strikes, it 
argued. 

In Price vs. United Auto Workers, 
the 2nd Circuit Court of Appeals denied 
a challenge to the UAW’s procedures 
for collecting agency fees. 

Addressing an issue left open in the 
Supreme Court’s 1988 Beck vs. CWA 
decision, the appeals court rejected the 
arguments that the UAW procedures 
violated the non-members’ First and 
Fifth Amendment rights. 

Judge John E. Sprizzo said the Beck 
decision only prohibited the union from 
collecting and spending agency fees for 
purposes unrelated to collective bar- 
gaining and contract administration. 
The UAW’s procedures are adequate to 
satisfy the Beck requirements, Sprizzo 
said. 

No constitutional issues are involved 
when a union collects agency fees under 
a contract with a private employer, the 
court said. Rather, the applicable 
statutory requirement is that the pro- 
cedures not be arbitrary, discriminatory 


or implemented in bad faith. 

In this regard, the law requires only 
that the usual function of an auditor —to 
make sure the expenses claimed were, 
in fact, made — is performed. 

“That function does not require that 
the auditor make a legal decision as to 
the appropriateness of the allocation of 
expenses. . Sprizzo said. 

In a case on a related issue, the 4th 
Circuit Court of Appeals ruled in 
Dashiell vs. Montgomery County and 
United Food and Commercial Workers 
Local 400 that unions do not have to use 
certified public accountants to deter- 
mine what union expenditures are 
chargeable to non-member agency fee 
payers. 

“This is a victory for all public 
employee unions in Maryland, Virginia 
and the Carolinas,” said Tom McNutt, 
president of Local 400. 

“This will stop Right to Work 
lawyers from forcing us to provide un- 
necessary and confusing information 
regarding union fees to our non-union 
bargaining unit members,” he said. 

The circuit court affirmed a lower 
court finding that union allocations are 
based on complex legal judgments for 
which CPAs are not suited. 


In another labor case, the Supreme 
Court ruled that unions must comply 
with all reasonable requests from can- 
didates for union office to distribute 
campaign literature even if the group’s 
rules restrict such use. 

Timothy Brown, an unsuccessful can- 
didate in 1988 for president of the 
Masters, Mates and Pilots, sued the 
union after he was denied a mailing list 
before the union’s nominating conven- 
tion. IOMMP bylaws bar distribution 
of any campaign literature before the 
nominating convention. 

Justice Stevens said a pre-convention 
mailing would not burden the union 
because the candidate would have to 
pay for the mailing. 

In other cases of interest to labor: 

• The Circuit Court of Appeals for 
the District of Columbia decided that 
unions must pay taxes on fees or dues 
collected from non-members whose tie 
to the union is participation in union- 
sponsored health plans. The court 
agreed with an Internal Revenue Serv- 
ice ruling that the dues for such 
associate members were unrelated 
business taxable income under the IRS 
code. 

• The Supreme Court ruled that 
winning parties in civil rights lawsuits 
may not recover the costs of experts us- 
ed to prepare for trial. 

The court held that recovery is 
limited to $30 per day for expert 
witnesses who actually testily at the 
trial. 



Texas court 
vacates stilted 
picketing law 

T he Texas legislature exceeded its 
constitutional bounds by using an 
overly broad definition of what con- 
stitutes mass picketing, the state appeals 
court ruled. 

“A society dedicated to the preser- 
vation of freedom of expression cannot 
countenance the broad suppression of 
speech,” the court said. 

The statute, enacted in 1971, defines 
mass picketing as any form of picketing 
in which there are two pickets at any 
time within 50 feet of any entrance to 
the premises being picketed, or within 
50 feet of any other picket or pickets. 
The court concluded that this definition 
infringes on conduct protected by the 
First Amendment. 

Judge Charles Baird observed that the 
statute automatically made it unlawful 
to picket without regard to the peace- 
fulness of the group, the lack of 
obstruction to the flow of traffic or the 
noise generated by the picketers. 

The court added that picketing is a 
time-honored form of expression on a 
broad range of issues, such as labor 
disputes, the struggle for civil rights and 
voting rights and abortion issues. 

“The decision vindicates the defen- 
dants, union members, who were crimi- 
nally charged for using their civil rights 
to picket unfair working conditions,” 
said Texas AFL-CIO President Joe D. 
Gunn. 

“More broadly, the court has 
recognized the historic role picketing 
claims in American labor-management 
relations,” he said. 

The ruling stems from a lawsuit fil- 
ed by four employees of Auto Motor 
Convoy who picketed the company. 
They were given sentences of three days 
in jail and $100 fines. 


NFL owners draw $2 2 -million penalty 


N ational Football League owners 
broke many federal labor laws dur- 
ing the 1987 players strike and are liable 
for about $22 million in back pay to 
athletes who walked out, an ad- 
ministrative law judge has ruled. 

Judge Benjamin Schlesinger ruled the 
owners shorted the players one week’s 
salary after the strike ended and must 
pay about $20,000 each to the some 
1,100 striking players. 

The owners can appeal the decision 
to the full NLRB or try to work out a 
settlement with the players. 

The players went out on strike Sept. 


21, 1987, and the clubs began playing 
games Oct. 4 with replacement players. 

The players ended their strike on Oct. 
15, one day after the owners’ deadline 
for returning to work. The owners bar- 
red the returning players from the 
following Sunday and Monday games, 
which meant the players would not get 
paid for that week. The owners then 
added 15 non-strikers to their rosters for 
that weekend’s game. 

“The deadline rule excluding only 
the striking players from return- 
ing. . . discriminates against them only 
because they struck,” Schlesinger said. 


“It treats them differently from the en- 
tire universe of non-striking players.” 

Interest payments in NLRB cases 
usually are 10 percent a year. That 
would result in a payoff of about $22 
million to the 1,093 players in the 
strike, based on an average weekly 
salary of $15,625 for each regular 
season game. The payout would equal 
more than $20,000 per player. 

Schlesinger also ruled that the owners 
should make pro-rated payments to 
players who failed to qualify for 
bonuses because they were locked out 
of the Oct. 18-19 games. 


West Virginia Steelworkers, locked out by Ravenswood 
Aluminum Co., pass out handbills to pedestrians in New 
York City to underscore the connection with Clarendon 
Ltd., a Manhattan holding company that owns nearly 
half of the Ravenswood plant. Approximately 1,700 
members of USWA Local 5668 were locked out by the 


Tom Matthews/Steelworkers 

aluminium producer last November and subsequently 
replaced by scabs after management refused to con- 
tinue negotiations on a new contract. The USWA 
members also handbilled the public in Stamford, Conn., 
where the multinational investment firm Stanwich Part- 
ners controls 20 percent of Ravenswood. 




BARGAINING 


1990 contract innovations address family, security 


By Polly Callaghan 

U nions in 1990 negotiated innovative 
contracts that address such worker 
needs as family leave and job security, 
as labor continued its rebound from a 
decade of adjustment to the increasingly 
globalized economy, drastic industrial 
shifts and changing corporate struc- 
tures. 

The contract resurgence could be 
seen, for example, in negotiations by 
the Steelworkers at LTV, Wheeling- 
Pittsburgh and other companies, as the 
USWA negotiated a full restoration of 
wage sacrifices made in earlier con- 
tracts. 

The biggest private-sector contract 
negotiations in 1990 included the UAW 
settlements with Chrysler, General 
Motors and Ford covering more than 

500,000 workers; the Teamsters multi- 
state contract with UPS that covered 

140,000 workers; the Steelworkers con- 
tract with LTV Steel that covered 

23,000 workers, as well as many other 
similar contracts in steel. 

Major public-sector contracts were 
negotiated by AFSCME, the Service 
Employees, Teamsters and Teachers 
with New York City, which covered 

286,000 workers. Job and income 
security, wage gains, and employer- 
paid health care were common themes 
addressed in these large contracts as 
well as in numerous smaller contracts. 
However, postal bargaining failed to 
reach an agreement and remained in ar- 
bitration in early 1991. 

Economic constraints 

Collective bargaining in the last half 
of 1990 was made more difficult 
because of a sluggish economy further 
hampered by energy constraints. The 
Department of Commerce reported an 
index of leading economic indicators 
that fell consistently in 1990 after July. 

By December 1990, unemployment 
had reached 6.1 percent, the highest 
level since July 1987 and, with the 
resulting slack demand for goods and 
services, created a difficult collective 
bargaining atmosphere for workers. 

From May 1990 to December 1990, 
civilian employment fell by 700,000. 
Manufacturing was hardest hit, losing 

450,000 jobs since January 1990 and 
nearly 1 million jobs since January 
1989. The labor force has not grown 
since the spring of 1990, although the 
working-age population continues to 
grow. In addition, the number of 
discouraged workers also has increased, 
as has the number of workers forced to 
work part time because full-time jobs 
are not available. 

Inflation (CPI-W) rose substantially 
throughout 1990. The average for 1990 
(December to December) was 6. 1 per- 
cent, the highest inflation rate since 
1981. For most Americans, there was 
a decline in real earnings — the 
measure of wage gains for non- 
supervisory personnel in the non- 
agricultural private sector, adjusted for 
inflation. Real average weekly earnings 
in December 1990 were down 2 percent 
from December 1989, as wages failed 
to keep up with increases in prices. 
The trade deficit has been more than 


Polly Callaghan is the 1990-91 intern 
in the AFL-CIO Department of 
Economic Research. 


$100 billion each year since 1983. The 
1990 trade deficit of $101 billion in- 
cluded a deficit of $90 billion in 
manufactured products. Increased oil 
prices, caused by the Persian Gulf War, 
contributed to the increased trade 
deficit. These higher energy prices have 
had a particularly strong impact on 
transportation industries, such as 
airlines and trucking. 

The large trade imbalances have 
taken their toll through factory shut- 
downs and lost U.S. jobs. For each $1 
billion in deficit trade, an estimated 

25,000 U.S. jobs are lost or not created, 
which means that more than 2.5 million 
jobs were lost to the trade deficit in 
1990. The 1990 surge in unemploy- 
ment —exacerbated by layoffs in the 
manufacturing sector — underlines this 
effect. 

In spite of this unfavorable economic 
atmosphere, gains were made for 
workers through collective bargaining. 
Many contracts were negotiated before 
late summer, when signs of the reces- 
sion were apparent. Recovery of cost- 
of-living adjustments (COLAs) and job 
security will be more difficult to bargain 
in the aftermath of the recession. Bar- 


Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 

gaining has focused on job security, 
COLAs and health insurance costs, as 
well as wage gains. 

Improved wage gains 

The U.S. Department of Labor’s 
Bureau of Labor Statistics reports that, 
over the life of the contract, wage in- 
creases will be achieved by 98 percent 
of all major private-sector settlements 
concluded in 1990. 

The BLS reports on wage ad- 
justments for contracts covering 1,000 
or more workers, but these figures do 
not include COLAs, lump-sum 
payments, stock-option plans and 
profit-sharing plans that, in recent 
years, have been significant factors of 
negotiated contracts. Because of this, 
the BLS figures tend to understate 
bargaining gains. 

Contracts primarily were front- 


loaded, averaging a 4.0 percent increase 
in the first contract year and 3.2 per- 
cent annually over the life of the con- 
tract. During the mid-1980s, when 
concession bargaining was at a peak, 
contracts were primarily back-loaded. 

The last time parties to these same 
settlements negotiated, the average 
wage rate adjustments were smaller — 
a 2.3 percent increase in the first con- 
tract year and 2.0 percent annually over 
the contract term. This is the second 
year since 1981 that new contracts call- 
ed for higher wages than the agreements 
they replaced. 

Public-sector contracts, covering 

920,000 state and local government 
workers, provided wage rate adjust- 
ments that were about the same as the 
contracts they replaced. Wage rate ad- 
justments averaged 4.9 percent higher 
in the first year and 5 percent over the 
life of the contract. The last time these 
same parties negotiated, wage ad- 
justments were 5 percent in the first 
year and 5.1 percent over the life of the 
contract. 

BLS also computes effective wage 
adjustments for new and existing con- 
tracts combined. These gains in wages 


include COLA adjustments, deferred 
payment adjustments, or new settlement 
gains. It was 3.5 percent in 1990, com- 
pared with 3.2 percent in 1989. 

Of the 5.9 million workers under all 
major agreements, 38 percent have 
COLAs in their contracts, according to 
BLS data. Wage adjustments from 
COLA reviews in 1990 averaged 48 
percent of the price change during the 
COLA review period, a level that has 
continued for several years after being 
near 60 percent between 1976 and 
1984. Of the 3.5 percent total average 
effective wage adjustment, 0.6 percent 
is attributable to COLA adjustments. 

The union advantage 

According to the Labor Department’s 
Employment Cost Index (ECI), 
unionized workers receive 32 percent 
higher compensation than non-union 


workers. The figures for March 1990 
show that union workers earn an 
average of $18.78 per hour in total 
compensation, wages and fringe 
benefits combined. Non-union workers 
earn $14.22 per hour in total 
compensation. 

The economic advantage of union 
membership is also shown by the BLS 
household survey data on median week- 
ly earnings of full-time union and non- 
union workers by occupation and in- 
dustry. All of these measures show that 
workers get a better deal when they 
bargain collectively. 

According to a report by the Institute 
for Women’s Policy Research, a Wash- 
ington-based think tank, secretaries and 
clerical workers who belong to unions 
earn an average of $56 more per week 
than their non-union counterparts. That 
amounts to $2,900 more per year. 

Forms of variable compensation, 
such as profit-sharing, gain-sharing, 
and ESOPs, have become an increasing 
part of negotiated settlements. Unions 
have found these plans useful in some 
circumstances when basic fair wages 
and good benefits were paid. 

Too often, however, variable com- 
pensation plans are used when a firm 
is in serious trouble and a decent wage 
is not available. Yet, if set up properly, 
these schemes can pay off for 
employees in the long run. 

For example, National Steel and 
Shipbuilding Co. distributed $4 million 
in profit-sharing 
bonuses to 3,200 
union members, who 
agreed to concessions 
in return for the 
profit-sharing plan . 
The average jour- 
neyman payout was 
$1,300 for the 
seven participating craft unions — Iron 
Workers, Carpenters, Painters, 
Machinists, Operating Engineers, Elec- 
trical Workers and Teamsters. While 
the unions are happy with the payout, 
they still are concerned about the health 
of the industry in the long term. 

Pension changes 

In pensions, the trend for the work 
force at large over the past several years 
has been the success of employers in. 
moving away from defined benefit plans 
and toward defined contribution plans. 
But that is not the trend in the union 
sector. 

Under a defined benefit plan, the 
level of retirement income is assured by 
the employer, regardless of the success 
or failure of the pension fund. A defined 
contribution plan specifies the 
employer’s contribution, but cannot 
predetermine the actual benefit upon 
retirement, which depends on the in- 
vestment performance of the pension 
fund. 

Most unions have maintained their 
defined benefit plans. Unions generally 
prefer defined benefit plans because 
they provide the most security to 
employees, who know, without a doubt, 
what their entitlements are. On the other 
hand, many unions representing 
workers at smaller employers have 
negotiated defined contribution plans 
and pooled the funds in multiemployer 
funds. 

Continued on Page 8 








Non mfg. Construction Wholesale Service 

& retail 

These figures include COLA adjustments, deferred increases and first year trarip 
gains in new contracts. irdue 

Percent average effective wage rate adjustment when computed only for those workers receiving wage changes. 


Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 

Continued from Page 7 

Employers who do not already have 
defined benefit plans are reluctant to 
agree to them. The increased cost, due 
to the aging of some work forces, to- 
gether with the uncertainty of the suc- 
cess or failure of the pension fund, has 
increased the employer preference for 
defined contribution plans. 

During the 1980s, pension invest- 
ments did better than expected, and 
many companies terminated their plans 
to get the so-called “excess” cash — 
a process that has drawn sustained op- 
position from the AFL-CIO and its 
unions. Employers who follow this 
process then replace the defined benefit 
plans with defined contribution plans, 
which are cheaper, less risky for the 
employer and easier to administer. 

Despite the overall growth of defined 
contribution plans, many unions have 
been able to keep and improve their 
defined benefit pension plans: 

• The UAW agreement with the Big 
Three automakers made gains for future 
and current retirees with a defined 
benefit plan in which retirees or surviv- 
ing spouses receive a combination of 
monthly payments and lump-sum pay- 
ments. 

A minimum rate of $20 a month per 
year of service was established under 
the contracts — a special “catch-up” 
feature that will bring the basic pensions 
for those who have been retired the 
longest to amounts closer to those of 
more recent retirees. 

Workers who retired prior to 1974 
will get a 26-percent increase in their 
income. Retirees on 30-and-out will get 
$1,800 a month, up from $1 ,500. Over 
the next three years of the contract, in- 
come will rise as much as $5,688 for 
the oldest retirees. New retirees will get 
increases of $4.45 a month per year of 
service. 

• Steelworkers at the Cleveland 
Cliffs iron ore mines in Michigan rati- 
fied a new agreement that guarantees 
$1,100 a month for 30-year retirees at 
any age, and $1 ,250 a month for mem- 
bers who retire at age 60. 

• Approximately 10,000 Bakery, 
Confectionery and Tobacco Workers at 
Nabisco and other major baking com- 
panies in the Northeast won increases 
in monthly benefit levels of future 
retirees from $100 to $150, making 
pension payments $850 to $900 a 
month. 

• Mine Workers at Pittston 
negotiated for the same pension im- 
provements that were in the 1988 Na- 


tional Bituminous Operators Agree- 
ment. Pension payments for active 
employees are $32 a month per year of 
service, up dramatically from the $20 
a month per year prior to 1988. In- 
creases also were won for all classes of 
current retirees. 

• The IBEW negotiated pension in- 
creases for 2,800 workers at Duquesne 
Light Co., increasing the monthly 
benefit for future retirees. The actual 
benefit varies by pay rate and years of 
service. For the average worker, the in- 
crease will amount to about $100 in 
benefits per month in each year of the 
contract. For example, if a worker has 
30 years of service and is earning an 
average of $30,000, monthly pension 
benefits will be $1,050 a month. 

Advances in pay equity 

Public-sector collective bargaining 
has seen distinctive gains in pay equity 
during the past decade. 

AFSCME won several pay-equity 
settlements in contracts for Minnesota 
workers. A contract covering 3,000 
AFSCME members in Hennepin 
County provides for a 4 percent across- 
the-board raise in each contract year, 
as well as pay equity increases from .05 
percent to 4 percent. Roughly one-third 
of the 1,200 Minneapolis city employ- 
ees negotiated for pay equity ad- 
justments from $20 to $206 bi-weekly 
in a contract that calls for across-the- 
board increases of 3.75 percent in each 
contract year. And 400 of Ramsey 
County’s 1,400 employees won pay 
equity adjustments ranging from 1 per- 
cent to 2 percent each year of the con- 
tract, beyond a 4 percent wage increase. 

To convince employers, and the gen- 
eral public, of the pay disparity between 
men and women, some locals are for- 
ming pay equity committees that pro- 
duce their own pay equity studies, 
rather than paying consultants to do it. 

Service Employee members who 
work for the city of Santa Barbara, 
Calif. , after documenting the problem, 
won pay equity adjustments of between 
3 percent and 18 percent over the three- 
year contract, and across-the-board pay 
raises of 5 percent each year. They also 
got an agreement for a reclassification 
study of the entire unit. 

Health care gains 

Because of escalating health care 
costs, unions have been engaged in a 
constant battle at the bargaining table 
against increased employee deductibles 
and co-payments or decreased benefits. 


An SEIU study reported that, in the 
period from 1986-1989, the number of 
strikes caused by health care disputes 
rose by more than 300 percent. In 1989, 
work stoppages rooted in fights over 
health insurance “cost the U.S. 
economy more than $1.1 billion in lost 
wages and productivity,” the SEIU 
said. 

In spite of the difficult circumstances, 
many settlements this year maintained 
or increased health benefits: 

• Steelworkers at LTV were able to 
eliminate the monthly premium of 
$26.82 that employees had been re- 
quired to pay for basic health care 
coverage. 

• UAW successfully resisted all 
health-care takeaway demands in its 
negotiations with the automakers last 
year, winning a contract provision that 
calls for the company and union to work 
jointly for national health care reform. 

The contract also arranged for a pilot 
project, at two locations in Texas, that 
combines mental-health and substance- 
abuse benefits, establishes a panel of 
medical providers and coordinates care 
through a local diagnostic referral 
agency. Early results of the project 
show that costs have been reduced 
through this coordination of specialized 
services. 

• The Clothing and Textile Work- 
ers, in a nationwide agreement in the 
men’s clothing industry, negotiated 
prenatal and neonatal care. The contract 
stipulates that both the union and the 
company will work for health care cost 
containment and national health care. 

• AFSCME was able to hold on to 
its health care packages in several con- 
tracts negotiated this year. In West- 
chester County, N.Y., 6,500 workers 
won agreement by the employer to pay 
the premium for all employees. The 
plan also offers new dental and optical 
benefits. 

• A three-year agreement between 
the Grain Millers and Utah-based 
Amalgamated Sugar Co., covering 
1,300 workers, links second- and third- 
year wage increases to health care costs. 
The contract calls for wage increases of 
4 percent in the first year, 4 percent in 
the second year, and 5 percent in the 
third year. But the second and third year 
wage increases may fluctuate one-half 
a percentage point up or down, depend- 
ing on health care claims. 

A joint union-management committee 
will work on health care cost-contain- 
ment measures, including sponsoring 
programs to show how workers can 


minimize medical expenses. The com- 
pany will pursue provider discounts as 
a result of faster payments. 

• The UMWA and Pittston Coal 
Co., which broke from the 1988 Na- 
tional Bituminous Coal Operators 
Agreement, negotiated an innovative 
and experimental agreement in health 
care. Active employees and younger 
retirees retain 100 percent health care 
coverage except for two $500 deduc- 
tibles, which are paid by the company. 
Every six months, workers are given 
$500 in cash, which they can use either 
to pay for the $500 deductible in their 
insurance plan, or pocket. 

Pittston views this as a health care 
cost containment measure, contending 
that workers were “over-using” their 
health insurance benefits because of the 
full coverage. 

• Some 3,000 Communications 
Workers struck Cincinnati Bell when it 
proposed moving to a flexible benefits 
plan with co-payments that would have 
cost each worker roughly $400 per 
year. The 10-day strike ended when the 
company agreed to maintain the current 
level of health care benefits. 

Aside from the increasing costs of 
health care, a change in accounting 
standards established by the Financial 
Accounting Standards Board (FASB), 
is causing companies to seek ways to 
reduce the cost of health care benefits 
for retirees. FASB is a private organiza- 
tion that establishes accounting prac- 
tices for companies and its rulings have 
the force of law. 

Beginning in 1993, employers will be 
required to report the projected cost of 
retiree health benefits on their annual 
income statements, replacing the prac- 
tice of pay-as-you-go reporting. 
Employers see this rule change as a ra- 
tionale to argue for cost shifting of 
health benefit premiums to workers, or 
to reduce benefits. 

Protecting families 

Since President Bush vetoed paren- 
tal leave legislation, contract negotia- 
tions provide the only avenue to pursue 
much-needed family leave benefits. 
Unions have targeted this as a key 
bargaining issue and have pressed for 
extended leaves, seniority protection, 
continued health insurance coverage, 
and other protections for working 
families: 

• In an agreement negotiated this 
year between 2,600 IBEW members 
and Wisconsin Power and Light Co. in 
Madison, Wis., workers are guaranteed 
one year of unpaid leave, with job pro- 
tection, for mothers and fathers of 
newborn or adopted children. The 
previous maternity leave policy, which 
gave new mothers six weeks of mater- 
nity leave with pay, was folded into the 
new family leave plan. 

• The Machinists and Hughes Air- 
craft in Tucson, Ariz., established a 
new program this year for employees 
who are forced to stay home when their 
children are sick. Under the program, 
employees pay $1 an hour toward the 
cost of bringing a care provider to their 
home, and the company will pay the 
balance of the $9.10 hourly fee. 

The benefit is offered through a care 
provider contracting service approved 
by both the company and the union. 
Employees will pay the transportation 
cost of the caregiver to come to their 
home, but the company will pick up 
transportation costs exceeding $3 a day. 
The service can be used a maximum of 
10 days a year. The program will be 
evaluated after one year, when the par- 
ties can negotiate changes. 

• In Denver and Colorado Springs, 
Colo., 1,500 UFCW members at 
Albertson’s food chain ratified a new 
three-year contract in May 1990, in 
which the company agreed to six 
months unpaid leave within a two-year 






period for employees caring for serious- 
ly ill family members. The leave can be 
extended to 12 months, on a conditional 
basis. 

• AT&T’s $5 million Family Care 
Development Fund, established by the 
1989 negotiations, supports the 
development of child care facilities and 
programs for the elderly. So far, seven 
grants for child care facilities have been 
awarded. In 1991, AT&T will begin 
coordinating grants for elder care 
facilities. 

Job and income security 

The UAW, which made job and in- 
come security its top negotiating priori- 
ty, achieved improvements that carry 
forward the UAW’s building-block 
tradition of negotiating important pro- 
grams, and then improving and 
strengthening them in subsequent 
negotiations. 

For the first time, workers in the 
three major auto companies are pro- 
tected from market volume-related lay- 
offs. Layoffs are limited to 36 weeks 
during the entire three-year contract. 
Once the 36-week layoff limit has been 
reached, the worker must be recalled. 

If no regular job is available, the 
worker is recalled to a “job bank” posi- 
tion that provides full pay and benefits. 
While in the job bank, the worker may 
participate in training programs, fill in 
for other workers who are being trained 
or carry out a special work assignment 
that is mutually agreed upon by the 
union and company. 

An active worker with one year of 
seniority who is laid off during the 
course of the new agreement will be 
guaranteed full Supplemental Unem- 
ployment Benefits (SUB) for any period 
of layoff, regardless of the worker’s 


Compensation breakdown: wacjes 
and benefits, union vs. non-union 

Union total compensation 

$18.78 

Wages and salary (66.4%) $12.47 

Paid Leave (7.2%) 1.35 

Insurance (8.3%) 1.56 

Retirement and Savings (4.5%) .84 

Legally Required (9.8%) 1.84 

Other (3.8%) .71 

Non-union total compensation 
$14.22 

Wages and salary (74%) $10.52 

Paid Leave (6.8%) .96 

Insurance (5.6%) .79 

Retirement and Savings (2.6%) .37 

Legally Required (8.8%) 1.25 

Other (2.2%) .31 


Source: Employment Cost Index, Bureau of Labor Stastics 





credit-unit standing or the status of the 
SUB fund. There will be no waiting 
time before SUB benefits are received 
for volume-related layoffs. 

Workers laid off, as of the effective 
date of the new agreement, also are pro- 
vided an array of new income protec- 
tions and offers. These include full SUB 
benefits for 26 additional weeks for a 
worker with at least one but less than 
10 years of seniority. Laid-off workers 
with 10 or more years of seniority 
receive 52 additional weeks of SUB. 

In their master agreement, the Long- 
shoremen were able to secure a 
guaranteed annual wage for workers 
who were in the industry before Dec. 
1, 1968. The agreement promises 1,900 
hours of work per year, which trans- 
lates into roughly $40,000 a year. 

Several AFSCME contracts had pro- 
visions to limit compulsory overtime. 
Contracts call for the creation of pools 
of employees who are willing to work 
overtime. Overtime hours will be 
drawn from these pools only, not from 
all personnel. 

In its hard- won Pittston contract, 
ratified in February 1990, the UMWA 
made several job security gains, in- 
cluding the stipulation that subcontrac- 
tors hired by the company must agree 
to operate with union members. 

The contract also requires that laid- 
off UMWA members have first rights 
to some jobs in the company’s non- 
union operations, when they become 
available. 

Outsourcing 

The reality of the global economy has 
provoked unions to broaden the 
bargaining process to include issues 
such as outsourcing and ownership. 

The new UAW auto contracts estab- 


lished joint union-company sourcing 
committees with full-time staff. The 
companies now are required to disclose 
to the union those procedures used to 
make sourcing decisions, to take the 


issue of job security into account and 
to give the union the right to grieve 
sourcing issues to an umpire em- 
powered to reinstate and award back 

Continued on Page 10 


1991 Bargaining Calendar 


Construction 

The Carpenters and Laborers will be negotiating 
with the Associated General Contractors, the 
General Building Contractors Association and 
several other contractors’ groups. These negotiations 
are predominantly in the Midwest and New 
England. 

Electrical equipment 

General Electric (69,000 workers) and 
Westinghouse (14,000 workers) have coordinated, 
multistate contracts with 13 unions that expire in 
June and August, respectively. The Electrical 
Workers have a contract at GTE (1,600 workers) ex- 
piring in September. IBEW and the Electronic 
Workers both have national contracts expiring at 
RCA (4,500 and 1,150 workers, respectively) in 1991. 

Finance, insurance and real estate 

In October, the Food and Commercial Workers 
will negotiate a national contract with Prudential In- 
surance covering 15,000 workers. The Service 
Employees will negotiate in April with the Realty 
Advisory Board in New York for 30,000 workers. 

Food products 

The Teamsters’ contract for 20,000 workers at 
California Processors, Inc. , is up for negotiation in 
June. The Teamsters also negotiated a new national 
contract with Anheuser-Busch that covers 9,000 
workers in February. UFCW and IBT will bargain 
with Campbell Soup Co. in Ohio, Texas and Calif- 
ornia this year. The Longshoremen and Warehouse- 
men negotiated a contract covering 6,600 workers 
with the Sugar Plantation companies in Hawaii in 
January. 

Entertainment 

The Television and Radio Artists will negotiate 
a multistate contract with the Network Television 
Broadcasting Association. In Florida, Walt Disney 
World will negotiate a multiunion contract covering 

14,000 workers. 


Rubber 

The Rubber Workers have several contracts ex- 
piring in 1991: with Armstrong Rubber Co. (2,000 
workers), Firestone (4,900), Goodyear (14,000) and 
Uniroyal Goodrich (6,400). The Ladies’ Garment 
Workers will negotiate in New York with the Plastics 
and Metal Products Manufacturers Association for 

4,000 workers. 

Services 

The Hotel Employees and Restaurant Employees 
have contracts expiring with hotel employer associa- 
tions in Boston and Milwaukee. SEIU has several 
health care contracts expiring this year, including 
Minneapolis-St. Paul Health Employers, covering 
4,500 workers, and Greater New York Health Care 
Facilities Association, covering 3,700. 

State and local government 

States with the largest numbers of workers covered 
in 1991 negotiations are California (272,600), Florida 
(91,450), New York (264,500) and Pennsylvania 
(77,000). AFSCME and several other AFL-CIO 
affiliates are involved in those negotiations. 

Steel 

Some 22,000 Steelworkers in the production and 
maintenance unit with USX Corp., USS Division 
will bargain for a national contract. USWA also will 
be negotiating contracts with Harsco Corp. and 
Bethlehem Steel Corp. in Pennsylvania and Flexsteel 
Industries in Iowa. 

Textiles and apparel 

The Clothing and Textile Workers will negotiate 
their national agreement, covering 42,000 workers, 
with the Cotton Garment Negotiating Group. 
ACTWU also will be negotiating with multistate 
manufacturers associations for contracts covering 
more than 18,000. Other contracts expiring this year 
are Bibb Co. in North Carolina, Rayon Corp. in Ten- 
nessee and Koret Industries of San Francisco. The 
ILGWU has a May expiration date on a contract with 


the Blouse, Skirt, and Undergarment Association 
covering 19,000. 

Transportation equipment 

Farm equipment manufacturers Caterpillar and 
Deere will negotiate with the UAW for contracts 
covering more than 22,000 workers. The Machinists 
will negotiate with United Technologies Corp. for 

14.000 workers in Connecticut. 

Trucking 

Earlier in 1991, the Teamsters tentatively approved 
National Master Freight Agreements for over-the- 
road and local cartage, which expired in March. It 
covers nearly 200,000 workers. They will also be 
negotiating a joint agreement with Illinois employers 
that covers 10,000 workers. 

Utilities 

IBEW, SEIU and the Utility Workers have many 
contracts expiring in 1991. Some of the largest are 
in Illinois, Florida, Pennsylvania, California and the 
District of Columbia. 

Wholesale and retail trade 

UFCW has multiple negotiations with food stores. 
These contracts include 17,000 Stop & Shop 
employees in Connecticut and Massachusetts, 7,000 
Foodtown employees in New York and New Jersey, 

4.000 employees in Illinois and many others. The 
Industrial Employers and Distributors Association 
of California will negotiate with the IBT and ILWU 
in May. Those contracts cover 25,000 workers. 

Beyond 1991 

In April 1992, the LAM will negotiate with North- 
west Airlines on behalf of 20,000 unit members. 
Several Bell agreements covering 40-45,000 
members of the IBEW and the Communications 
Workers expire between June and August 1992. In 
June 1992, contracts expire for 20,000 Los Angeles 
school district employees and other public employees 
represented by SEIU. The LAM is scheduled to 
bargain with Boeing and McDonnell Douglas in Oc- 
tober 1992 over contracts covering 64,000 workers. 


IEWSGRAFIC 






Technical, 

sales, 

clerical 


Services 


Production 
and craft 


Operators 
and laborers 


Farming 





| $373 

$251 



Nondurable 

mfg. 

Wholesale 
and retail 
trade 


Services 


Government 


Non-union 


Union 


Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 

Continued from Page 9 

wages to workers. The UAW will get 
advance information on future product 
plans, and will jointly develop with 
management the criteria to be followed 
on making sourcing decisions. 

The Steelworkers have established a 
union-management committee, known 
as the National Policy for Steel Com- 
mittee, to seek changes in national 
policies and laws to allow the domestic 
steel industry to sustain profitability. 

Other unions also are involved in 
such issues. Members of ACTWU in 
West Virginia negotiated early with 
their new employer, Russ Berrie Co., 
after the firm had agreed to restore 
1,000 jobs that had been lost to 
outsourcing. 

PAC checkoffs 

Union members increasingly are 
volunteering contributions to a union 
political action committee (PAC) 
through payroll deduction agreed to in 
bargaining. The Teamsters estimate that 
fully 19 percent of their members are 
signed up for PAC checkoffs. 

Safety and health 

The UAW won broad and significant 
safety and health gains in its auto nego- 
tiations. Gains included an expanded 
nationwide union-company ergonomics 
program, a top-level safety and health 
review board to be convened when 
needed, video equipment to document 
and report on safety and health issues, 
expanded safety and health training, 
as well as expanded union participation 


in eliminating workplace hazards. 

The expanded ergonomics program 
calls for the establishment of local 
ergonomics committees at each 
assembly and manufacturing facility. 
Committee members will be provided 
with training in order to conduct job 
analysis and make recommendations, 
while existing ergonomics policies are 
continued as this improvement process 
is under way. 

In order to refine and enlarge health 
and safety training programs that 
already exist, the National Joint Com- 
mittee on Health and Safety has been 
asked to give recommendations on the 
development of new health and safety 
training programs and job-specific 
training for employees during work 
hours, and evaluation of the need for 
new occupational safety and health 
research. 

Workers have also won increased 
participation in the safe design of new 
equipment. Local safety and health 
committees will be involved as early as 
possible in planning and reviewing new 
plant layouts and new manufacturing 
equipment, as well as other major 
changes occurring in the plant. 

In several contracts, Steelworkers 
were assured that safety programs 
already in the contract are carried out. 
The new program institutes a paid union 
safety representative who is picked by 
the union and paid for by the company. 

Bethlehem was the first of the steel 
companies to agree to the program, 
which calls for one union safety repre- 
sentative per operation per 8 million 


man-hours. The representative chosen 
by the union is generally a pre-existing 
worker who has an understanding of 
operations, existing safety programs 
and enforcement problems. 

Several other companies — LTV, In- 
land, Wheeling-Pittsburgh and Alle- 
gheny-Ludlum — have followed suit 
with programs that vary somewhat in 
specifics. 

A precedent-setting ergonomics set- 
tlement was negotiated by BCT with 
Keebler in Denver. In the contract, 
Keebler agreed to settle an OSHA cita- 
tion regarding repetitive motion pro- 
blems, marking the first time in the bak- 
ing industry that an employer has 
negotiated over the resolution of an 
OSHA citation. Because the contract 
stipulates that the union be involved in 
the resolution process, it will be a more 
lasting solution and go beyond the stan- 
dards set by OSHA. 

Keebler will pay to hire an ergono- 
mist, in consultation with the union and 
OSHA, to conduct a study of the cited 
jobs. Some changes recommended by 
the ergonomist will go into effect im- 
mediately, and a timetable for the 
implementation of the remaining 
changes will be agreed on by the com- 
pany, union and OSHA. Keebler also 
agreed to provide an ergonomics train- 
ing program to workers. 

Drug testing 

The Teamsters’ contract with UPS in- 
cludes language to protect worker rights 
in drug testing and assures that the 
testing will be done properly and the 


results double-checked for accuracy. 

The Boilermakers developed contract 
language stating that current employees 
will be subject to drug and alcohol 
screening only when it is a customer’s 
contractual requirement, or when there 
is reasonable suspicion that workplace 
safety is being jeopardized. 

Education and training 

The USWA established a 
Career Development Program with 
four steel companies — Bethlehem, 
National, Inland and Armco — to pro- 
vide support services for education, 
training and personal 
development for those 
Steelworkers covered by the 
agreement. 

The program will enable Steel- 
workers to improve their skills and their 
ability to handle new work systems on 
the job. It also will help members in 
their home and family lives, offering 
education and counseling to develop 
alternative careers in the event of 
dislocation. 

The fund is financed through con- 
tributions from each company and 
through receipts from a new program 
to control excessive overtime —the ex- 
cess overtime penalty account. For 
every hour worked by an employee 
over 56 hours a week, the company will 
pay $5 to the penalty account. 

The UAW auto agreements provide 
a wide array of educational oppor- 
tunities to workers, including upgraded 
tuition assistance programs for both 
laid-off and active employees. Active 
employees will be eligible for an addi- 
tional $550 a year in tuition assistance 
for approved job-related college and 
university courses, making the total 
$2,800 a year at GM and Chrysler. 
Laid-off employees are eligible for an 
extra $500 in tuition assistance, making 
the total $6,000 for a laid-off employee 
with four or more years of seniority. 

Workers’ spouses and dependents 
also have increased opportunities to par- 
ticipate in training programs. For the 
first time, the spouse or dependent 
children of a deceased active employee 
will be entitled to use the member’s re- 
maining balance for college or educa- 
tional pursuits for one year following 
the employee’s death. 

Several specific educational pro- 
grams will either be expanded or in- 
itiated with this contract. For exam- 
ple, there will be joint orientation for 
new hires that will provide information 
on benefits, educational programs, 
work responsibilities, and the history of 
the union and the company. 

International solidarity 

The International Confederation of 
Free Trade Unions held an international 
conference on multinational corpora- 
tions in Denmark in March 1990 to in- 
tegrate the activities of unions dealing 
with multinationals. 

The Food and Commercial Workers 
and the Federation of Commercial, 
Clerical, Professional and Technical 
Employees (known by its French 
acronym FIET) hosted an international 
labor summit in Washington that 
brought together leaders of commercial 
workers unions from 22 countries. 

FIET is one of 15 International Trade 
Secretariats — international groups 
which bring together unions of the same 
craft or industry. The U.S. unions that 
belong to FIET are UFCW, SEIU, the 
Retail, Wholesale and Department 
Store Union and the Office and Profes- 
sional Employees. Like some other 
ITSs, FIET sought in the conference to 
form strategies to combat transnational 
union-busting companies and to 
enhance influence with those corpora- 
tions through international coordina- 
tion. 











NLRB scores 
Lichtenberg 
union purge 

ACTWU hails order 
for rehires, back pay 

By Sharolyn Rosier 

S Lichtenberg Co., a Georgia 
• drapery manufacturer that has 
battled the Clothing and Textile 
Workers since its workers voted 3 to 1 
to join the union in April 1988, has been 
ordered to rehire more than 120 work- 
ers it fired or laid off for union activity 
and to pay them $1 million in back pay. 

The ruling by the National Labor 
Relations Board’s Atlanta Division vin- 
dicates ACTWU ’s three-year campaign 
against the company, which has sought 
to intimidate workers into withdrawing 
support for the union while steadfastly 
refusing to sign a contract. 

“This is proof, once again, that the 
Lichtenberg workers deserve dignity on 
the job and the protection of a union 
contract,” said Bruce Raynor, 
ACTWU vice president and southern 
regional director. 

The 158-page decision by Phillip P. 
McLeod, an NLRB administrative law 
judge, said “the unilateral layoffs of 
employees beginning in April im- 
mediately after the Board-conducted 
election, followed thereafter by the June 
and July terminations of the shipping 
department employees, appears to have 
been the beginning of a general house- 
cleaning ... for no other logical reason 
than trying to disinfect itself of the per- 
vasive support given to the union by the 
employee complement.” 

In addition to layoffs and firings, the 
company also questioned employees 


Workers at S. Lichtenberg pack a room during ACTWU organizing drive in 1988. 


Vicky Willians/ACTWU 


about union activities, threatened them 
with plant closure and job loss, changed 
duties and reduced wages. McLeod 
ordered the company to cease such ac- 
tivity as well as to provide the union 
with job descriptions, pay rates, senior- 
ity lists and information on layoffs so 
it may properly represent workers. 

Barbara Lewis, one of the 120 
discharged workers, said she was 
“elated” by the judge’s decision. 

“The most wonderful feeling will be 
walking back inside that plant,” she 
said. “We didn’t do anything wrong 
and this proves it. This shows that it’s 
right to form a union and that you are 
protected. We waited a long time for 
this to happen and now it’s here and 
we’re happy.” 

Bob Giolito, an attorney representing 
the union, said McLeod’s ruling hark- 
ened back to the days when employers 
would close a plant to avoid union- 
ization. 


Although this ruling is a major vic- 
tory for the union, the struggle to get 
the company to obey the law has just 
begun. The union has also charged the 
company with race and sex 
discrimination. 

That case is pending in U.S. District 
Court in Augusta, along with a lawsuit 
alleging the company failed to meet the 
requirements of the federal COBRA 
law regarding continuation of health 
and life insurance for discharged 
workers. 

Raynor said McLeod’s order could 
have a “dramatic effect” on the litiga- 
tion between the union and the 
company. 

Additional unfair labor practice 
charges, also concerning retaliation for 
union activity, are pending, as well as 
an investigation into charges of equal 
employment opportunity violations by 
the Office of Federal Contract Com- 
pliance. The company supplies curtains 


to Army PXs around the country. 

“More than 100 of the Lichtenberg 
workers had and still have children and 
immediate family members serving in 
the Persion Gulf,” Raynor said. “It’s 
ironic that while these Americans fight 
for the freedom and rights of people in 
Kuwait, they have to endure oppression 
and denial of their rights here in 
Georgia. It’s got to be stopped, and it 
will be stopped.” 

Raynor added he hoped that 
McLeod’s decision would prompt the 
company to negotiate a contract with the 
union. 

About a dozen negotiating sessions 
have been held, he said, but no agree- 
ment has been reached. 

“We call upon the company to fin- 
ally cease its relentless campaign 
against workers and the union, abide by 
the judge’s decision and reinstate the 
workers, and conclude a contract at the 
bargaining table,” Raynor charged. 


30-month effort gets French retailer to table with UFCW 


By Sharolyn Rosier 

T he Food and Commercial Workers, 
supported by fellow trade unionists 
in France, have won recognition and 
gotten to the bargaining table on behalf 
of 400 Philadelphia employees of 
French retailer Carrefour. 

It took 30 months of intense effort, 
but “Carrefour learned how committed 
UFCW is to protecting our 50,000 
members in this area from non-union 
competition,” said UFCW Regional 
Vice President Gary Duckett. 

' The UFCW effort began in 1988 
when Carrefour opened its first U.S. 
operation in northeast Philadelphia. 
Union officials filed numerous unfair 
labor practice charges against the com- 


pany and launched an effective coporate 
campaign. Carrefour responded with a 
$100 million racketeering suit against 
the union. 

UFCW agreed to remove the picket 
lines at the request of the Federation of 
Food and Agricultural Workers 
(FGTA-Force Ouvriere), which began 
lobbying the home office in France. 
Two Geneva-based International Trade 
Union Secretariats — the International 
Federation of Commercial, Clerical, 
Professional and Technical Employees 
(FIET) and the International Union of 
Food and Allied Workers Association 
(IUF) — as well as the AFL-CIO Euro- 
pean office, located in Paris, assisted in 
gaining French support for the UFCW. 


As the UFCW and Carrefour tried to 
work out their differences in the ensu- 
ing months, a new “climate of coop- 
eration and understanding” was estab- 
lished, Duckett said, which led to Car- 
refour’s recognition of the UFCW. 

A majority of the employees signed 
cards asking for the union in December 
1990 and UFCW officials said they ex- 
pect the new spirit of cooperation ex- 
hibited in the cardcheck recognition to 
carry over to contract negotiations. 

Bargaining is expected to start within 
a few weeks. 

UFCW spokesman Allen Zack said 
the union will take into account “that 
this hypermarket is a different type of 
operation” than the retail food markets 


UFCW represents in Philadelphia. 

Carrefour’s “hypermarkets” sell a 
variety of goods, ranging from clothing 
to appliances and groceries. 

“The UFCW intends to show other 
European retailers planning expansion 
here that it is better to work with the 
UFCW than to declare war on the stan- 
dards and jobs of our members em- 
ployed by their competitors,” Duckett 
said. 

Carrefour is a $10 billion-per-year 
retailing giant. The union will seek to 
make Carrefour employees “partners in 
the firm’s success, in a manner that 
won’t undermine the standards of retail 
food workers in competing stores,” 
Duckett added. 


Arkansas workers vote for ACTWU after years of impediments 


Earle, Ark. 

A fter a 14-year struggle to gain a 
union, workers at Earle Industry 
voted 172-101 for the Clothing and 
Textile Workers. 

“This has been a long time coming, 
and it’s been worth the effort,” said 
veteran employee Earley Wallace of the 
vote at the closet accessory plant. 

“It wasn’t about money,” Wallace 
said. “It was about dignity. We are all 


grown and should be treated fairly.” 
She complained that the company had 
threatened to fire workers for calling in 
sick and had timed workers during bath- 
room breaks. 

Apprentices in the AFL-CIO ’s 
Organizing Institute helped in the cam- 
paign, working with ACTWU organ- 
izers. They began the drive in early 
January after being contacted by an 
Earle worker and, organizer Cassandra 


Davis noted, found that “everyone was 
pretty enthused.” 

This was the third attempt by plant 
employees to gain a union. In 1985, a 
union election fell short by five votes. 

But that was only after plant manage- 
ment refused to acknowledge the 
original union in the late 1970s. After 
years of refusing to negotiate manage- 
ment imposed wage and benefit freezes 
and a decertification vote followed. 


National statistics show that only 65 
percent of new units get a first contract, 
since federal labor law enforcement 
often is too weak for a new unit to have 
recourse against surface bargaining. 

So the history of no first contract is 
of concern to the unit. “Together we 
stand, divided we fall,” said Wallace. 
“We’ve waited too long and come too 
far. We will get a contract and we will 
stand together.” 



Union-busting binges prove costly for employers 


By Muriel H. Cooper 

E mployers who choose to “per- 
manently replace” their union work- 
forces can deal a harsh blow to the 
workers, their family and the commun- 
ity in which they all live. 

But sometimes the employers who 
answer that siren call to be rid of their 
unions by “permanently replacing” 
strikers also deal a harsh blow to 
themselves. 

That’s the lesson the Tribune Co. 
must have learned from its recent 
strategy against the workers at the New 
York Daily News. The Tribune, with 
union-busting specialists King and 
Ballow of Nashville advising it, spent 
$24 million setting up alternative shops 
and recruiting security forces and “per- 
manent replacements.” 

As a result, the Tribune lost $191 
million in the fourth quarter of last year, 
most of it directly attributable to losses 
incurred during the five-month strike at 
the Daily News. 

“It sends a signal to management to 
back off the aggressive anti-union posi- 
tion that has been creeping into the 
newspaper industry over the past 10 
years,” said Stephen Sleigh, a professor 
from the City University of New York. 

And that lesson cannot be lost on the 
managements at Greyhound Lines Inc., 
now in bankruptcy court, and Eastern 
Airlines, which went belly up when it 
chose to fight its unions while using 
‘ ‘permanent replacements. ’ ’ 

Late last year, when it was clear that 
the Tribune Co. gambit to replace its 

TWA suitor 
outlines plan 
for renewal 

By Candice Johnson 

C alifornia financier Kirk Kerkorian, 
whose purchase bid for Trans World 
Airlines is backed by TWA unions, said 
he will invest $250 million in the car- 
rier and will make a good-faith offer for 
the airline if the proposed sale of inter- 
national routes is canceled. 

In a filing with the Department of 
Transportation, Kerkorian outlined 
plans for buying and restructuring the 
carrier and urged the department to 
block the sale of key international routes 
to American Airlines. 

The Transportation Department ten- 
tatively had approved the sale of three 
U.S. -London routes, but the agreement 
reached between the unions and 
Kerkorian ’s Tracinda Corp. could stop 
that purchase. 

Transportation Secretary Samuel 
Skinner has asked Kerkorian to submit 
more detailed information, including 
whether his proposal would ensure the 
“continued viability” of TWA. Skinner 
gave Kerkorian a deadline of April 12 
to file the information. 

Several members of Congress repre- 
senting Missouri, TWA’s major hub is 
St. Louis, were joined by other political 
leaders in a call to Skinner to reject the 
TWA-American arrangement. 

American was denied the right to pur- 
chase additional routes from London to 
three U.S. cities — Philadelphia, Balti- 
more and St. Louis. American original- 
ly agreed to pay $445 million for all six 
routes and is balking at TWA owner 
Carl Icahn’s position that the price 
should remain at $445 million for the 
three routes. 

The Air Line Pilots, Machinists and 
an unaffiliated flight attendants’ union 
agreed to a $ 137-million package of 


News Analysis 


union workers had failed, Theodore W. 
Kheel, adviser for the Allied Printing 
Trades Council, noted that it had 
become increasingly likely that the 
company would shut down the news- 
paper. 

“If so,” Kheel said, “an appropriate 
inscription on a tombstone might read: 
Here Lies The Daily News. It Died in 
1990 of Permanent Strike Replacement 
Syndrome.” 

Instead, the Daily News ended its 
precipitous fall from grace when the 
Tribune Co. agreed to sell the 
newspaper to British media mogul 
Robert Maxwell. The company basic- 
ally gave the Daily News away, along 
with $60 million, when Maxwell agreed 
to assume most of its long term 
liabilities. 

The nine striking unions bargained 
the contract Maxwell said he needed in 
order to save the newspaper and when 
it was over the workers were going 
back to work; the Tribune Co. was go- 
ing back to Chicago and its “permanent 
replacements” were terminated, going 
elsewhere. 

Those same nine unions, in bargain- 
ing at another struggling New York 
City tabloid, the New York Post, also 
reached an agreement in September 
1990 — without a strike and without 
further losses to employer and 
employee alike. The difference? The 


Post, like Maxwell much much later, 
agreed to join the union members in an 
effort to save the paper. 

In contrast, confrontation and “per- 
manent replacements” were the cor- 
nerstone of the Tribune Co. strategy, 
hatched months in advance of the ex- 
piration of contracts, to force a strike. 
In addition, editors and managers were 
trained to use printing presses and a 
phantom newsroom was set up with 
personal computers, photo equipment 
and a computerized page layout equip- 
ment. 

The New Jersey plant was surround- 
ed by a chain-link fence and patrolled 
by security guards with German 
Shepherds. 

The 79-year-old daily lost $69.3 
million in the last quarter of 1990, con- 
tributing to a 99 percent drop in the 
Tribune’s operating profit. Overall, the 
News lost $1 14.5 million in 1990, com- 
pared with a loss of $2.2 million in 
1989. 

The tabloid, once the nation’s third 
largest metropolitan daily behind the 
Los Angeles Times and The New York 
Times, dropped in circulation from its 
pre-strike 1.1 million readership to 
300,000 readers. 

The nation’s unions, coordinated by 
the AFL-CIO Strategic Approaches 
Committee, rallied behind the Daily 
News workers before their contract ex- 
pired in March 1990 and long before 
they were finally forced to strike by 
management actions in October 1990. 

Particularly, New York unions rallied 


behind the effort. A newspaper and 
advertising boycott convinced more 
than 75 percent of New York distrib- 
utors to refuse to carry the paper and 
730 display advertisers to drop their 
ads. 

The newspaper derived more than 70 
percent of its gross revenues from 
advertising last year. 

“If the Tribune Co. (the Daily 
News’s former owners) was trying to 
break the unions, it didn’t do it,” said 
Richard Blood, a professor at the Co- 
lumbia School of Journalism and a 
former News editor. 

The Tribune Co. joins several other 
companies that recently have failed by 
adopting ‘ ‘ permanent replacement ’ ’ 
strategies. Three months after bringing 
in permanent replacement workers in 
March 1990, Greyhound Lines was 
forced to file for bankruptcy. The com- 
pany also faces charges of unfair labor 
practices. If the National Labor Rela- 
tions Board complaint is upheld, the bus 
line could be liable for up to $10 million 
in back pay. 

And when Frank Lorenzo steered 
Eastern Airlines into an anti-union cam- 
paign, the proud air carrier went down 
in flames after 62 years in the sky. 

For workers intent on keeping their 
jobs, with fair contracts, the failures of 
their employers is no consolation at all. 
From their point of view, legislation to 
ban the use of “permanent replace- 
ments” would protect their employers 
from themselves as much as it would 
protect their jobs. 





Bill Burke/Page One Photography 


Flight Attendants picket United Airlines terminals where 
the carrier has begun U.S. -London service, to protest 
United's lackluster bargaining with the union since 
1986. The Air Line Pilots reached a tentative agreement 


covering 7,600 pilots this month, following a stop- 
gap settlement in November 1989. Negotiations be- 
tween United and the Machinists and AFA are 
continuing. 


cost reductions to help facilitate 
Kerkorian’s buyout — one that would 
keep the airline intact. The reductions 
would be offset by employee ownership 
of up to one-third of the newly capital- 
ized TWA stock and seats for represen- 
tatives of each union on a 16-member 
board. 

The unions reached the package of 
cost-savings — to come from reduc- 
tions in pay rates and benefits, work 
rule changes, early retirements and 
other means — following lengthy nego- 
tiations at AFL-CIO headquarters. 
Their efforts follow a pattern of 
workers and their unions making a 
good-faith effort to bail out an 
employer, the federation said. 

Airline unions especially have been 


active in buyout efforts, including bids 
for healthy airlines. The unions at 
United, for example, have been work- 
ing for three years to structure an ac- 
ceptable buyout bid for that carrier, 
which is one of the healthiest airlines. 
Their latest bid was rejected by the 
UAL board last year. 

While Kerkorian has been character- 
ized as a “spoiler” and his offer called 
a “charade” by Icahn, Kerkorian’s 
Tracinda Corp. filing outlined a pro- 
gram to modernize TWA’s fleet, among 
the oldest of domestic carriers, and 
other plans to reduce financing costs. 
In contrast, Icahn, who turned TWA 
private in a leveraged buyout, has refus- 
ed to invest in the carrier, instead drain- 
ing its assets, the unions charged. 


The unions strongly oppose Icahn’s 
plan to sell the carrier piecemeal and in 
a separate filing urged the Transporta- 
tion Department to keep TWA intact. 
ALPA said the American Airlines take- 
over of the routes would not be in the 
public interest, because it would lead to 
the demise of TWA. 

Kerkorian, who has said he is in- 
terested only in purchasing a carrier 
with international routes, now owns a 
small luxury carrier, MGM Grand Air. 

TWA’s supply of cash and securities 
has shrunk to less than $290 million, 
down from the nearly $1 billion Icahn 
said was on hand a year ago. TWA 
defaulted on $99 billion in debt 
repayments and posted a net loss of 
$400-$500 billion for 1990. 





Battle escalates as Bush ignites Mexico trade blitz 


Continued from Page 1 

a similar package is on the way to each 
of the nation’s governors. 

While the AFL-CIO is concerned 
about the potential loss of U.S. jobs 
under a free trade agreement, Donahue 
said, the federation’s most immediate 
concern is the fast-track authority. 

He noted that implementing legisla- 
tion for trade negotiations can be 
developed under normal legislative pro- 
cedure “so that Congress has a chance 
to discuss the issues surrounding a free 
trade agreement, to evaluate the text of 
an agreement and to modify it where 
that is necessary.” 

Meanwhile, AFL-CIO President 
Lane Kirkland asked the nation’s gover- 
nors to contact their congressional 
delegations and ask them to support 
House and Senate resolutions that 
would disapprove fast-track authority. 

“The lure of a low-wage work force, 
lax environmental and safety regula- 
tions has already enticed hundreds of 
American companies to move their pro- 
duction facilities from the U.S. to Mex- 
ico,” Kirkland wrote. “A free trade 
agreement would only accelerate this 
movement and increase the erosion of 
the industrial and tax base. ... At a time 
when many states are facing serious 
economic problems, the loss of in- 
dustries and jobs only exacerbates the 
problems.” 

Donahue told Ways and Means 
Chairman Dan Rostenkowski (D-Ill.) 
“your hometown of Chicago is in an 
area that has been hit especially hard,” 
by companies that already have moved 
production facilities to Mexico to take 
advantage of already relaxed tariffs, 
low wages and few regulations. He 
ticked off a dozen of the several dozen 
Chicago area firms now doing business 
in Mexico. 

One of the main reasons the U.S. 
business community is strongly back- 
ing a trade deal is so “that they can 
count on a plentiful supply of cheap 
labor close by,” Donahue said. 

Free trade supporters contend that a 
deal would not cost American jobs, but 
would benefit workers in both nations. 
However, a study by the International 


Trade Commission earlier admitted that 
“unskilled workers” would suffer 
under a deal. But Donahue told the 
committee that the ITC has refused to 
define what it means by “unskilled.” 
“It reportedly included all workers 
with four years of high schools or less,” 
Donahue said. “That would mean a ma- 
jority of the U.S. working population 
would be hurt by a trade accord. The 
ITC is now busily trying to repudiate 
its own report — but has not made 
public one bit of new data that under- 
mines its earlier conclusions.” 

In Canada, which also would be in- 


“We will not support a 
proposal that would 
result in North American 
workers being laid off, 
exploited and poisoned. 
The working men and 
women of this continent 
cannot bear such a 
burden and they should 
not be requested to take 
it on. ” 

— Thomas R. Donahue 


such a burden and they should not be 
requested to take it on.” 

He cited recent articles in the New 
York Times that examined the living 
conditions of workers in maquiladora 
plants owned by U.S. companies in 
Mexico and in the Wall Street Journal 
about a 12-year-old who works in such 
a plant. 

A free trade agreement would see a 
vast expansion of the plants and further 
exploitation, Donahue said. 

The article noted workers earn be- 
tween $27 and $47 for a 49-hour 
workweek. Many live in shacks of card- 



cluded in the deal, Prime Minister Brian 
Mulroney was asked by reporters about 
possible American and Canadian job 
losses under a three-nation free trade 
deal and said, “Only a child would 
think you could get something for 
nothing. ” Mulroney backs a free trade 
agreement. 

The AFL-CIO is willing to work with 
Congress and the administration for a 
stronger North American economy and 
better relations between the United 
States, Mexico and Canada, “But we 
will not support a proposal that would 
result in North American workers be- 
ing laid off, exploited and poisoned,” 
Donahue said. “The working men and 
women of this continent cannot bear 


board and wood scraps. 

“For some, the most common build- 
ing material is a tan cardboard that had 
contained polyvinyl chloride. On the 
walls of the card are warnings that the 
former contents could release hazardous 
fumes,” Donahue said. 

Rep. Donald J. Pease (D-Ohio) told 
a congressional news service that a re- 
cent trip to Matamoros, Mexico, showed 
that the rundown communities where 
maquiladora workers and their families 
live are “deplorable,” with serious air 
and water pollution problems. 

“There is no question that the ma- 
quiladoras have created an environmen- 
tal inferno for their workers,” Donahue 
told the committee. “As the New York 


Times said, ‘The contamination along 
the border runs the gamut from raw 
sewage to wood smoke to highly toxic 
industrial chemicals.’ In Nuevo Laredo 
alone, about 25 million gallons of raw 
sewage are dumped into the Ri